Air Barrier Paper
The housewrap in the picture is an air barrier and a weather barrier in one.
The Hardiewrap in the picture is helping control the infiltration of air into the
The soffit vent in the picture allows air to transfer into the attic to help ventilate
to help with moisture control. This type of vent is installed on all the flat parts of
the soffit. In the gabled ends the soffit is solid.
The ridge vent ventilates the hot air out of the
attic that the soffit vents let in. The vent itself
is under the shingle on top.
The gable vent lets both hot air in and out of the attic space. The
gable vent plays a vital role in the ventilation of the attic. Sometimes
they are fake vents but in this case their real.
The wind turbine also releases hot air from the attic.
If the attic reaches a certain temperature it can turn
into a fire hazard in itself.
The backhoe is one of the most used excavating machines there are
now days. It can be used to dig any kind of trenches, holes, and a
wide variety of other tasks. The bucket is
The batter boards are used to square up a
house or building to get dome idea where
the foundation will be.
Brick Arch # 1
The arches in this picture are known as true radius arches. The top of
them are a perfect circle . They are also referred to as round arches that
were brought about by the Byzantine people.
Brick Arch # 2
The brick arch in this picture is an example of a gothic arch. The arch
goes up to the top and meets at a point which makes it very distinctable.
Brick Arch # 3 with keystone
The two arches in this picture were both capped off with a keystone in
the center of them.
Centering is the temporary supports that hold an arch
together while the mortar sets up and hardens.
Brick Bond # 1
This is a common bond where the brick sit on top of the
others by about 1/3 the size of a brick.
Brick Bond # 2
In this picture, there is an example of running bond in the
brickwork on the fireplace. The running bond is easy to
notice because the brick are staggered on top of each other.
Stretcher Rowlock or Shiner
Brick Size # 1
The brick in this picture is 7 5/8” by 3 5/8”. It is most
commonly known as the modular brick.
Brick Size # 2
The brick in this picture are 8 ¼” long by 3 ½”. They are much older brick
probaly best known as the standard brick.
The bulldozer is a big machine that is used to grade off the
land so that the construction may begin. They usually have a
large straight blade on the front for pushing dirt.
Brick Clad Structure
EFIS Clad Structure
Stone Clad Structure
The pattern in this picture is random rubble.
Wood board Clad Structure
Wood Shingle Clad Structure
The gable in the picture is made up of wood shingle
Code Requirement #1
For egress, there is a door in my bedroom, so there is no
use in the window meeting code for that.
The stairs here did pass code. The tread dimension is 11
½” and the riser dimension is 7”. .
A linear discontinuity in a structure to help with cracking
from the external forces. Control joints usually run
perpendicular in the slab.
An isolation joint is a joint between two different pieces of
concrete structures to help with movement and cracking.
1 CMU = 3 Brick
A block of concrete designed to be laid in mortar like brick
to erect a building. The standard dimensions are 8 x8 x 16
inches. These block are used in every type of construction.
Two Different Size CMU
The block on the bottom are 12” wide block and the top
ones are 16 block.
Split Face Block.
Interior Right Hand Door
The interior door in this picture divides the bedroom and
the living room.
Interior Left Hand Door
The interior left hand door divides a bedroom and foyer.
Interior Right Hand Reverse Door
This door separates a bathroom and a bedroom.
Interior Left Hand Reverse Door
This door separates the basement living area from the
main foyer in the basement.
Exterior Flush door
Exterior Panel Door
This door is a four panel door with sidelights and a
A transom is a small window above a door. The transom
lets light in above the door.
A sidelight is a long window beside a door that is usually
not wide at all.
The transformer receives the current and transfers it to
The service Head is where the electrical power enters
The meter keeps up with how much power that
residence has used in a period of time.
The service panel receives the main wires from the exterior
of the house, and transfers the electricity all over the
A duplex receptacle is a standard receptacle that
navigates the electrical power to the appliances.
# 1 Anchor bolt
#2 Sill Plate
# 3 Floor Joist
#5 Sole Plate
# 7 Top Plate
# 8 Ceiling Joist
# 9 Rafter
# 10 Roof Decking
# 11 Sheathing
Front End Loader
A front end loader is used for multiple reasons in the excavating of the land. It can move dirt
from spot to spot , and can be used to level the land off. The front end loader has a much wider
bucket than the backhoe.
An interior finish panel that has Gypsum in between two pieces of paper backing.
Gypsum board takes up a large majority of the finish construction in a house.
Advantage: The heat pump can increase the heating by a factor of 3.
Disadvantage: The duct work that the pump supplies heat to can leak and lose a descent amount
of the heat.
The compressor supplies the air to the duct unit inside the house.
Air Handling Unit
The air handling unit takes in the air from the exterior of the house and transfers it to the inside.
The batt insulation is used to help control the air movement through the walls. The
batts come in 8 feet length sections and also rolls.
Loose Fill Insulation
Loose Fill Insulation is more commonly used in ceilings to help prevent the hot air in the attic
from entering the house.
Foamed Insulation can be used in any part of the house, and really helps with keeping air in or
out because of no cracks of any kind.
Rigid Board Insulation
The rigid board insulation is primarily used on the exterior of the house, and can take place of the sheathing .
In this picture I am in an addition and the insulation is on the exterior of the old house.
A lintel is a beam that carries a load across a window or a door.
Mortar Joint # 1
The mortar joint is a troweled joint and is 7/16” thick. The
mortar is m type.
Mortar Joint # 2
The mortar joint in this picture is a tooled joint. It is 3/8” thick
and the mortar is type m.
Oriented Strand Board
A wood panel that contains long strands of wood fibers glued together to be used as some type of sheathing. It
is manufactured by pressing strands of wood together along with glue. It is a nonveneered wood panel product
because it is made of strands of wood instead of multiple veneers.
A lavatory is a bathroom sink or some other type of pedestal sink that can be used for multiple ways of
washing different things. The pipe used to drain the lavatory is 1 ½”.
The piping used to drain the toilet is a 3” PVC pipe.
Plumbing Roof Vent
The VTR ventilates the plumbing so the smell of the gases are not smelled in the house.
The sink in this picture is a drop-in.
A wood panel made up of layers of wood that are held together by glue and pressure. Veneer is
a thin layer, sheet, or facing. The plywood in this picture is tounge and groove plywood menaing
the pieces lock together.
The radiant barrier in usually placed on the exterior of the house to keep infrared heat out. This
piece of radiant barrier was attached to an exterior wall to help with heat.
The steel reinforcing in the picture is #3 bar and is 3/8” thick. It was added to the slab to tie in to another
vertical piece for a column that will be later put in.
A gutter catches the rain as it comes off the roof to transport it to the ground through a downspout. Without
the gutters the soffit or facial would not last anytime because of getting wet from rain water.
The downspout transfers the water from the gutter to the ground or some kind of catch tank. Usually at the
bottom of the downspout there is some type of PVC pipe to continue with the removal of water.
A splashblock is usually located over an entrance or exit of a building to slow the drainage of water. In this case
the splashblock was applied where the water would not go right down the valley over the top of the gutter.
The underlayment protects the sheathing until the finish roof is installed. It is also a great backup in case any
water ever seeps through the shingles on top. In this picture the tar paper is protecting the sheathing until the
rest of the shingles are put on.
Clay Tile Roof
A water resistant material that overlaps itself to keep a roof watertight. This is a picture of an old
mill house and the shingle is made of some type of light metal.
Preformed Metal Roof
A preformed metal roof is sheets of metal that protect the sheathing from water. They are manufactured at a
plant and shipped to the job in various lengths.
The ridge is
the peak of a
The ridge can
also serve as a
vent for the
attic but in this
case does not.
A valley is
roofs tie into
and form a
The eave is
part of the
The rake is the
sloping edge of a
The fascia is the
edge of the eave.
In this picture
there is no
fascia at the
bottom of the
eave. The ends
of the rafters
this also helps
of the attic.
A layer of building material that prevents the passage of water into the building. It is extremely important to
keep water vapor out of the walls. It is usually put on the warm in winter side of the building.
Waterproofing is applied to the exterior of the foundation to keep moisture out. The
waterproofing in this picture is liquid applied. This example is easier applied to the foundation.
A weep hole is a small hole in a wall to allow water that reaches the inside of the wall to drain out. In this
picture the weep hole allows the water vapor a passage way to escape the wall.
Welded Wire Fabric
The grid on this welded wire fabric measured 6” by 6”.
This is a double hung window because both of the sashes slide up and down.
The window in this picture is an awning window. They were
painted shut and won’t open.
This is an arched window up in a gable. The arch adds
nice detail and design to the house.