Planet Earth


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Planet Earth

  1. 1. Planet Earth Environmental Science
  2. 2. Planet Earth Planet Earth is the _____ planet from the sun. 3rd We live on a unique planet in that it may be the only one in our solar system that has life on it. What do you think? Are we alone?
  3. 3. Living Creatures Living things are called? Organisms
  4. 4. Question Do organisms interact with non living components on the Earth? Examples: 1.Respiration 2.Water breaks down components 3.Rocks and Minerals for building/ tool making
  5. 5. Non-living components of Earth Are? <ul><li>Lithosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul>
  6. 6. The lithosphere …… Land on the Earth’s surface The hydrosphere………….. That part of the Earth made up of water The atmosphere………… Air that surrounds the Earth
  7. 7. What characteristics make it possible for life to exist on the Earth? 1. Liquid water Why is it important?? <ul><li>Organisms are mostly water. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients need to be dissolved in water to be used </li></ul><ul><li>Most chemical activities occur in water. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What else is water needed for 2. To store heat Where is this going to happen? OCEANS
  9. 9. What characteristics make it possible for life to exist on the Earth? 1. The atmosphere Why? <ul><li>Maintain a steady temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Gases are used by organisms </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>2. The sun … </li></ul><ul><li>All energy comes from the sun </li></ul>What characteristics make it possible for life to exist on the Earth?
  11. 11. Animals use _____________ to carry out the process of _______________________ to make ______________. oxygen respiration energy
  12. 12. Plants use _____________ to carry out the process of _______________________ to make ______________ from sunlight. CO 2 photosynthesis energy
  13. 13. Do plants need oxygen to make energy? <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Plants use oxygen to make energy for them to grow and develop </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The interaction between living and non-living parts of the Earth are the subject of: </li></ul><ul><li>ECOLOGY </li></ul>
  15. 15. The lithosphere <ul><li>is made of three types of rocks: </li></ul><ul><li>Igneous – liquid or molten rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary – layers of sediment accumulate and are compacted or cemented </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphic – formed under intense heat and pressure. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The atmosphere <ul><li>What gases make up the atmosphere? </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen – 78% </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen – 21% </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide - .04% </li></ul><ul><li>The rest includes: water vapor, dust, argon </li></ul>
  17. 17. Where does the CO 2 come from? <ul><li>Released from volcanoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Produced when burning fossil fuels. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Air pressure is…….. <ul><li>Greatest at sea level. </li></ul><ul><li>14.7 lbs/in 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes less as you gain altitude. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Atmospheric layers <ul><li>Thermosphere - highest </li></ul><ul><li>Mesosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Stratosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Troposphere – nearest the Earth </li></ul>
  20. 20. Troposphere <ul><li>Weather occurs here </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the Earth’s water vapor and gases are here </li></ul>
  21. 21. Stratosphere <ul><li>Ozone layer here </li></ul><ul><li>O 3 you smell this after a thunderstorm </li></ul><ul><li>Jet stream – weather controller </li></ul>
  22. 22. Mesosphere <ul><li>Meteors burn up here </li></ul><ul><li>Coolest layer </li></ul>
  23. 23. Thermosphere <ul><li>Contains the ionosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Ions become trapped and glow causing the northern lights </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature is 2,000 0 C – air molecules are very far apart. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Hydrosphere <ul><li>97 % of the water on the earth is? </li></ul>Salt water Of the remaining water 2% is locked in ice. This leaves only 1% as usable freshwater.
  25. 25. Ocean water <ul><li>Is 35 ppt of salt </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning 35 solid parts of salt for every 1000 parts of sea water. </li></ul><ul><li>The major salt is NaCl </li></ul>
  26. 26. Freshwater <ul><li>Stored in: </li></ul><ul><li>lakes, ponds, streams, rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Ground water </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ground water <ul><li>Is carried in porous rock (permeable) called an </li></ul>aquifer <ul><li>Ground water can reach the surface by way of a: </li></ul>spring
  28. 28. <ul><li>When ground water becomes “sandwiched” between two layers of impermeable rock and the rock above cracks, water can reach the surface by way of an oasis or artesian well. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Question <ul><li>Can rain re-fill the aquifers as fast as people can pump the water out? </li></ul>In most cases NO !!!!!!!!!!!! Most surface water runs off and continues to the ocean
  30. 30. Biosphere………… <ul><li>All parts of the Earth that contains and supports life….. </li></ul><ul><li>Most life prefers to live between 500 m. deep in the ocean to 6 km above sea level. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Energy Flow Sunlight Biosphere plant and animal use Lost as heat To space
  32. 32. Changes in the biosphere <ul><li>Affect organisms </li></ul><ul><li>If we raise or lower the temperature of ocean water….. </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions can………. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Organisms can change the biosphere <ul><li>What happens when a beaver dams a stream? </li></ul><ul><li>Make a list of all the things that could happen. </li></ul><ul><li>The biosphere is a very complex network </li></ul>