Energy Resources
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    Energy Resources Energy Resources Presentation Transcript

    • Energy From Organic Fuels Chapter 15
    • Opening
      • List the ways you depend upon energy in your everyday lives.
      • Identify those activities that are dependent upon fossil fuels.
        • Fossil fuels: hydrocarbon fuels formed from organic matter.
    • Energy Uses
      • Automobiles
      • Planes/Jets
      • Trains
      • Household Appliances
      • Industry
      • Agriculture
      • Heating/Cooling Systems
      • Etc.
    • The Need for Energy
      • Fuel – is any substance from which energy can be obtained.
      • To produce electricity, fuel is burned to boil water, producing steam.
      • The steam exerts pressure on giant machines called turbines, causing them to turn.
    • Non-renewable Energy Sources
      • Non-renewable Resource : A resource that is not being replenished or formed at any significant rate on a human timescale.
      • Examples:
      • Oil
      • Natural Gas
      • Coal
      • Nuclear (Uranium)
    • Hydrocarbons
      • Hydrocarbon – a compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen.
      • Ex. Methane, propane, butane, octane
      • Fossil Fuels – Fuels derived from the remains of organisms that lived long ago.
    • Formation of Oil and Natural Gas Deposits
      • Petroleum or oil is not a single chemical compound. Oil is comprised of a variety of liquid hydrocarbons.
      • Oil and natural gas were formed when life in the early seas brought organic material raining down onto the seafloor faster than it could decay as sediments buried the material.
    • Hydrocarbon Formation
      • As this material became buried deeper, the heat and pressure under the ground slowly cooked this organic material into oil by breaking down complex organic molecules into smaller, hydrocarbon molecules.
      • Then the oil and natural gas were collected in a trap of porous sandstone or limestone, contained by an impermeable cap of shale or salt (Appenzeller, 2004).
    • United States Oil Facts
      • 1 barrel of oil = 42 gallons
      • The US consumes nearly 7 billion barrels of oil per year, to supply about 40% of all energy used.
      • The US alone consumes 25% of the oil used worldwide.
      • Over ½ of the oil consumed has been imported from other countries.
    • Uses of Oil
      • 2/3 of oil goes to fuel for vehicles
      • Asphalt
      • Hydrocarbon based fertilizers and pesticides
      • Synthetic fabrics
      • Plastics (Appenzeller, 2004)
      • Fractional
      • Distillation
      • Tower
    • Coal Formation
      • Coal is formed from the remains of land plants that were rapidly deposited and buried in a swampy environment.
      • The process requires anaerobic conditions, in which oxygen is absent or nearly so, since reaction with oxygen destroys the organic matter.
      • It is found in sedimentary rocks in well defined beds.
    • Prehistoric Coal Swamp
    • Types of Coal
      • Peat  plant material with lots of water and a low level of carbon.
      • Lignite  Soft brown coal – 40% carbon
    • Types of Coal
      • Bituminous  Medium hardness ~85% C
      • Anthracite  Hardest coal ~95% C
        • As the coals become harder, the carbon content increases, and so does the amount of heat released by burning a given weight of coal.
    • Coal Facts
      • The US possess about 25% of the world’s coal reserves (270 billion tons).
      • Coal currently supplies about 20% of total US energy needs.
      • Coal-fired power plants account for more than half of US electric power generation.
      • The US coal supply could satisfy US energy needs for more than 200 years at current levels of energy use if coal could be used for all energy purposes. (Montgomery, 2006)
    • Environmental Consequences of Fossil Fuels
      • Coal is a very dirty fossil fuel and can have large environmental effects.
        • Carbon dioxide
        • Sulfur
        • Ash
        • Coal mining hazards
      • Methane is a greenhouse gas.
      • Motor vehicles emit carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and fine particulates.
    • Fossil Fuel Reserves
    • Nuclear Energy
      • Nuclear Fission is the splitting apart of atomic nuclei into smaller ones with the release of energy.
      • The fissionable nucleus used most in modern nuclear reactors is the isotope uranium-235 .
      • Worldwide, 95% of known uranium reserves are found in sedimentary rocks.
      • The rare isotope U-235 is in such short supply that the US could use up our reserves within several decades.
      • Problems: Disposal of nuclear waste, limited supply of U-235 and reactor meltdowns
    •  
    • Conservation
      • Conservation is the use of natural resources in a way that ensures their continuing availability to future generations.
      • USE ENERGY EFFICIENTLY
        • Turn off unused lights and appliances
        • Use fluorescent or halogen bulbs
        • Buy fuel efficient cars
      • REMEMEBER, THESE RESOURCES ARE FINITE ON A HUMAN TIMESCALE!
    • US Energy Production
    • US Energy Consumption
    • Key Terms
      • Fuels  Substances that provide energy as the result of a chemical change.
      • Combustion  The process of burning a fuel to change chemical energy into thermal energy .
      • Fusion  The combining of 2 atomic nuclei to produce one large nuclei and energy. It produces more energy than nuclear fission.
      • Nucleus  The central part of an atom.
    • Chapter 17 Alternative Energy Sources
    • Renewal Resources
      • Renewable resources : are those resources which are replaceable on a human life timescale.
      • Are responsible for just 8% of the total energy consumed in the US in 2002.
      • Examples:
      • -Hydropower
      • -Wind Energy
      • -Solar Energy
      • -Geothermal Energy
    • Hydropower
      • Hydropower is the energy generated due to falling or flowing water through turbines.
      • Use: Hydroelectric power is the most widely used nonrenewable resource and has consistently supplied a small percentage of US energy needs for several decades; it currently provides about 3% of US energy.
      • Limitations:
        • We have already harvested most of our feasible water energy.
        • Sediment buildup and ecosystem disruption cause problems.
    • Hydropower
    • Wind Energy
      • Wind energy is produced from turbines in windmills  Aerogenerators
      • Is actually an indirect form of solar energy.
      • Uses: Generating electricity, and pump ground water
      • Limitations: Can only be produced in windy areas, higher cost, wind can be erratic
    • Wind Energy
      • Gamesa wind turbine installed at Bald Mountain in Bear Creek Township, PA
    • Solar Energy
      • Energy captured from the sun by photovoltaic cells or solar cells.
      • Uses: generate electricity, especially in remote regions of the earth and for satellites.
      • Advantage: This source will last for at least a billion years.
      • Limitations: very expensive to produce, uses vast areas of land to harvest, not a consistent source of energy
    • Solar Energy
      • Passive solar heating – The sun’s energy is collected, stored and distributed naturally in an enclosed dwelling.
      • ex. Greenhouse, windows
      • Active solar heating – Devices are used to collect, store, and circulate heat produced from solar energy. Ex. Solar collectors, Photovoltaic cells  Use thin wafers of semiconductor material to produce electricity.
    • Solar Energy
    • Geothermal Energy
      • Heat from cooling magma heats ground water near the earth’s surface.
      • Geothermal energy is harvested by capturing the energy out of this heated water.
      • Large amounts of energy can only be generated in geologically active zones.
      • Uses: to heat/cool houses and household water supplies, very few utility plants
      • (Montgomery, 2006).
      • Limitation: Ground cools eventually
    • Geothermal Energy
    • Nuclear Fusion
      • Nuclear fusion occurs when two atomic nuclei fuse to become one larger nucleus.
      • Occurs in the sun.
      • Fuel used is usually deuterium or H-2.
        • Must be subjected to extremely high temperatures and pressures supplied by either magnetic field or lasers.
      • Advantages: Much less radioactive waste
      • Disadvantage: Very hard to do.
    • E = mc ²
      • Two protons stuck together have less mass than two single separate protons!
      • When the protons are forced together, this extra mass is released ... as energy!
      • Typically this amounts to about 7% of the total mass, converted to an amount of energy predictable using the formula.
      • C = speed of light (3 x 10 8 ) m/s
    •  
    • Alternative Energy Sources for the Future
      • Nuclear Fusion
      • Tidal Power
      • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
      • Rebirth of Wood Burners
      • Alcohol and Ethanol
      • Biogas
    • World Energy Production By Source
    • Key Terms
      • Non-renewable resource
      • Fossil Fuel
      • Coal
      • Oil
      • Natural Gas
      • Conservation
      • Nuclear Energy
      • Renewable resource
      • Wind energy
      • Geothermal energy
      • Solar Energy
      • Hydropower
    • Closure
      • We know there is a limited amount of non-renewable resources on earth.
      • As technology improves, we may be better able to harness renewable resources and find new sources of energy.
      • It is still our responsibility to conserve the resources we have today for future generations and to help preserve the earth.
      • Please list five things you can do to conserve energy.
    • References
      • Appenzeller, Tim. (2004, June). The end of cheap oil. National Geographic, 205(6), 88-89.
      • Montgomery, Carla W. (2006). Environmental Geology (7 th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.