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  1. 1. Environmental Science Chapter 2 Methods of Science
  2. 2. What is Science? <ul><li>Way to learn about the World </li></ul><ul><li>Process by which information is gathered and interpreted </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Scientific Method
  4. 4. Hypothesis <ul><li>A hypothesis is an educated guess </li></ul><ul><li>Possible explanation for a set of observations </li></ul><ul><li>Must be based on observations and testable </li></ul><ul><li>May be changed or altered </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Scientific Method <ul><li>Make an observation </li></ul><ul><li>Form a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Design an experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Collect and organize data </li></ul><ul><li>Form a conclusion </li></ul>
  6. 6. Observations <ul><li>Can be made through your senses </li></ul><ul><li>Can be made with scientific tools </li></ul><ul><li>Observations are usually followed by a question </li></ul><ul><li>Research follows questioning </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hypothesizing <ul><li>Determine which direction the investigation will go </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis is followed by a prediction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A prediction is what will happen if the hypothesis is correct </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Experimenting <ul><li>Used to test hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments cannot ever “prove” a hypothesis to be true </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments must have a control and a variable </li></ul>
  9. 9. Experimenting <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors that were there when the original observation was made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The factor that does not change </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Experimenting <ul><li>Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any factor that effects the outcome of an experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The factor that changes in an experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types of variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Variables <ul><li>Independent Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the variable being tested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Water on grass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass growth because of the water put on it </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Collecting and Organizing Data <ul><li>A record of the results from the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Must be recorded in a manner so they can be interpreted </li></ul>
  13. 13. Graphs can show a lot of information quickly
  14. 19. Forming a conclusion <ul><li>The conclusion either supports or does not support the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>May lead to another hypothesis </li></ul>
  15. 20. Using the Scientific Method <ul><li>A farmer notices that his fence is falling down. It hasn’t fallen all the way down, but is only a foot off of the ground. He notices that his sheep are hopping the fence to get to the other pasture. As they are hopping the fence, one of the sheep catches the fence with its foot tearing the fence down. On their way back to the first pasture, the farmer notices the sheep did not hop. He decides to conduct an experiment with his sheep. </li></ul>
  16. 21. Using the Scientific Method <ul><li>Observation: The sheep hopping the fence </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: Sheep do as the sheep they are following do </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction: If the first sheep jumps, then the following sheep will also jump </li></ul>
  17. 22. Using the Scientific Method <ul><li>Experiment: The farmer can have the sheep jump a fence then take it away to see if they will follow the leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Control: The group of sheep </li></ul>
  18. 23. Using the Scientific Method <ul><li>Independent Variable: Removing of the fence during the experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable: Whether the sheep continue to jump or not </li></ul>
  19. 24. Using the Scientific Method <ul><li>Data: In table form, How many sheep followed the leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: does not support the hypothesis </li></ul>
  20. 25. What is your Environment? <ul><li>Environment- Everything that surrounds an organism </li></ul><ul><li>Our Environment would include the class, the room, the desks, etc. </li></ul>
  21. 26. What Environments Provide to Organisms <ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul><ul><li>Other Resources </li></ul>
  22. 27. Environmental Science <ul><li>Environmental Science is an integrated science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It stems from other sciences including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biology: Organisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry: Matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physics: Energy and Motion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 28. Ecology vs. Environmental Science <ul><li>Often refer to the same thing </li></ul><ul><li>However, humans have the power to affect the environment on a global scale. </li></ul>
  24. 29. Parts of the Environment <ul><li>Biotic Factors- all living parts of the environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Other students, microbes,etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abiotic Factors- nonliving parts of the environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Desks, Chairs </li></ul></ul>
  25. 30. Environmental Interactions <ul><li>What would happen to the deer population if coyotes, wolves and mountain lions did not exist? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. </li></ul></ul>