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Ch 1esnew

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  • 1. Introduction to Earth Science Chapter 1
  • 2. Biogeosciences
    • Earth sciences today incorporates biology.
    • Some once thought to be inorganic processes may in fact be geochemical……….
    • Bacteria have been found everywhere there is water, including the tiny pore spaces between mineral grains. Many minerals are made by biological processes.
    • Find some examples…………EXTRA CREDIT OPPORTUNITY
  • 3. Earth Science is………
    • The name for the group of sciences the deals with Earth and its neighbors in space.
    • Geology – “study of Earth”
    • a. physical geology – includes the materials and processes that shape the Earth.
    • b. historical geology – tries to establish a timeline for the vast number of physical and biological changes that have occurred in the past.
  • 4.
    • Oceanography – integrates chemistry, physics, geology, and biology.
    • a. Composition and movements of seawater, coastal processes, seafloor topography, and marine life
  • 5.
    • Meteorology – The composition of Earth’s atmosphere.
    • a. Earth’s motions and energy from the sun cause the atmosphere to produce different weather conditions. This in turn, creates the basic pattern of global climates
  • 6.
    • Astronomy – is the understanding of Earth’s position in the universe.
    • a. Learning about other members of our solar system and the universe may help us understand Earth.
  • 7. How do you think the Earth formed?
    • Catastrophic – The earth formed rapidly in a series of “catastrophic” events.
    • This occurred approximately 4.56 billion years ago ………
    • What are some catastrophic events?
    • Volcanic events, earthquakes, tsunami, asteroid impacts.
    • You must ask yourself… What kind of impact do these events have?
  • 8. Another Possibly
    • Uniformitarianism – The earth formed over a long period of time through the geologic process at work in the world today…….
    • Plate tectonics or continental drift is a example of a slow continuous process.
  • 9. As It Turns Out
    • Both theories were part correct….
    • The earth probably did form quickly, but cooled slowly and continuously since that time.
  • 10. A Closer Look… at the Solar System.. Protoplanet Hypothesis
    • What kinds of things does the solar system have in common..
    • All planets orbit the sun in the same direction (counter-clockwise)
    • Most planets have moons that orbit their planets in the same direction (counter-clockwise)
  • 11.
    • 3. Most planets rotate the same direction (counter-clockwise)
    • 4. The sun rotates in the same direction as the planets rotate
    • What does all this mean?
  • 12. Formation of Earth
    • Nebular hypothesis – suggests that the bodies of the solar system evolved from an enormous cloud called the solar nebula .
    • This cloud was made of mostly hydrogen and helium with a small percentage of heavier elements
  • 13. What Happened Next….
    • High temperatures and weak gravity characterized the inner planets. As a result they could not hold onto the lighter gases in the nebula.
    • The lighter gases hydrogen and helium were whisked away to toward the heavier planets by the solar wind.
    • Earth, Mars, and Venus were able to hold some of these heavier gases including water vapor and CO 2
  • 14.
    • The outer planets have water vapor, CO 2 , ammonia, and methane.
  • 15. Earth’s Place in the Universe
    • In the 1900s Edwin Hubble demonstrated that the Milky Way is one of perhaps hundreds of billions of galaxies in the universe.
    • How old is our universe?
    • Between 13 & 14 billion years old
  • 16. How do we think the universe formed?
    • It formed from a dense, hot mass that violently exploded.
    • Within seconds the temperature of the expanding universe cooled 10 billion degrees.
    • Basic atomic structures formed like protons and neutrons.
    • After a few minutes simple atoms of hydrogen and helium formed.
  • 17.  
  • 18. Layers form on Earth
    • Shortly after the Earth formed radio active elements combined with heat released from colliding particles, produced some melting of the interior.
    • This allows heavier elements like iron and nickel to sink.
    • The lighter rocky components floated to the surface.
  • 19.
    • This differences in density allowed a layering to occur with each layer having its own properties.
    • Gases escaped the surface much like with volcanic eruptions today.
    • The atmosphere as well as the oceans formed from gases that were released from within the the Earth.
  • 20. Earth’s Major Spheres
    • Hydrosphere
    • Atmosphere
    • Geosphere
    • Biosphere
  • 21. Hydrosphere
    • All the water on the Earth
    • 97% of all water is salt water
    • 3% is freshwater
      • 2% of the freshwater is locked up in ice
      • 1% of the freshwater is usable
  • 22. Atmosphere
    • 90% is within 16 kilometers of the surface
    • Importance:
      • Breathable air
      • Protection from the sun’s intense heat and radiation
      • Weather and climate patterns
      • Weathering and erosion
  • 23. Geosphere
    • Is not uniform, is divided into three main parts based on composition
      • Crust – (lithosphere) least dense layer.
        • Continental crust
        • Ocean crust
        • Asthenosphere – partially molten, this allow the pieces of the crust to flow
      • Mantle
      • Core – most dense layer
        • Outer core
        • Inner core
  • 24. Biosphere
    • It extends from the ocean floor to several kilometers above the Earth’s surface
    • Plants and animals depend on this biosphere
    • Organisms help maintain and alter their physical environment
  • 25. A Dynamic Planet
    • Earth’s ever changing surface
    • Two types of forces
      • Destructive forces - weathering and erosion
      • Constructive forces – volcanism and mountain building
  • 26. Plate Tectonics
    • This theory provided scientists with a model to explain how earthquake and volcanic eruptions occur. How continents move.
    • The lithosphere is broken into sections called plates.
    • The plates move as a result of unequal distribution of heat within the Earth.
    • This movement of the plates generates earthquakes, volcanoes, and forms mountains.
  • 27. Plate Tectonics
    • There are two types of forces that affect the Earth’s surface.
    • 1. Destructive forces – like weathering and erosion. These forces tend to flatten the surface of the Earth
    • 2. Constructive forces – volcanism and mountain building. These build up the surface of the Earth and in some cases from new land. These forces are driven by the Earth’s internal heat.
  • 28. The Model
    • The theory that emerged, called plate tectonics, provided geologists with a model to explain how earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur and how continents move.
  • 29. Representing Earth’s Surface
    • How do we determine our location on the Earth?
    • We use 2 measurements
    • 1. latitude - is the distance north or south of the …………..
    • equator and is measured in degrees
    • 2. longitude – is the distance east or west from the
    • prime meridian and is measured in degrees
  • 30. Lines of latitude and longitude form a global grid.
  • 31. The Need for Maps……..
    • Globes are great, but………
    • Maps – are flat representations of the Earth’s surface.
    • No matter what kind of map is made, some portion of the surface will always look to small, to large, or out of place.
    • Map makers have found ways to limit the distortion.
  • 32. Mercator Projection
    • Geradus Mercator, (1569)
    • His map was designed for use by sailors. It is great for navigation, but distorts sizes of landmasses.
  • 33. Robinson Projection
    • Widely used
    • Shows most distances and sizes without much distortion
  • 34. Conic Projection
    • Only the lines that touch the cone are accurate.
    • Good for making road and weather maps
  • 35. Gnonomic Projection
    • Distances and directions are distorted
    • Good for short or straight line navigation at sea and when flying.
  • 36. Topographic map
    • Represents the three dimensional Earth on a two dimensional map.
    • These maps show elevation by means of contour lines.
  • 37. Topographic map terms
    • Contour interval – determines the distance between contour lines.
    • Index contour – darker in color they represent 100s of feet
    • Scale – distance measure made to scale with the land surface
    • Depression – a hole in the ground
    • Declination – difference between true north and magnetic north
  • 38. Topographic Maps
    • Are designed to show the “ relief “ of the land ( shape of the land ).
    • They are made to a scale.
    • Smaller scaled maps show greater detail
  • 39. Maps Scale
    • Map scale is a ratio
    • 1:52000 means?
    • 1 inch on the map = 52000 inches on the ground
  • 40. Map Scale 1:20000 1:63300
  • 41. Topographic Map Colors Brown - Contour lines Thick Brown - Index contour lines Black - Man made objects Green - vegetation Red - some roads Blue - water
  • 42. Contour lines Vegetation Road Man made Water
  • 43.  
  • 44.  
  • 45. STEEP SLOPE GRADUAL SLOPE
  • 46. Hill top Hill top Valley Valley Valley
  • 47. Bench Mark Actual surveyed spot gives latitude, longitude and elevation above sea level
  • 48. Map Scale Tenths of a mile 0
  • 49. Declination the angle of difference between magnetic north and true north.
  • 50. Legend
  • 51. Contour lines
    • The distance between contour lines is the contour interval .
    • It is printed under the map scale on the bottom- center of each map.
    • They are measured from sea level
  • 52.  
  • 53.  
  • 54. Calculating average slope Ave. slope = change in elevation (ft.) distance (mi) Ave. slope = 1060 ft – 960 ft = 100ft = 25 ft/mi 4 mi 4 mi
  • 55. 1210 ft . 1160 ft. south or S-E 144.4 ft./mi. Steep slope 1190 ft. S-E 1170 ft. 1270 ft. 920 ft.
  • 56. Geologic Maps
    • Show types and ages of rocks exposed on the Earth’s surface.
  • 57. Advanced Technology
    • Satellites for remote sensing, GPS devices, etc.
  • 58. Earth System Science
    • The Earth is seen as being dynamic planet with separate but interactive parts or spheres which are also interconnected.
    • Each interactive and interconnected sphere is a subsystem…..
    • EX: geology, physics, chemistry, biology, etc.
    • Earth needs to be seen as a whole and not separated from its subsystems.
  • 59. What is a System
    • Can be any size group of interactive parts that form a complex whole.
    • Most natural systems are driven by sources of energy that move matter and/or energy from one place to another.
    • EX: Cooling system of a car. This is a closed system. Energy moves through the system and eventually out. No matter enters or leaves this system.
  • 60.
    • Most natural systems are open systems.
    • Both energy and matter flow into and out of the system.
    • Ex: A river system… the amount of water flowing changes all the time as well as the water temperature and even the ground temperature.
  • 61. Earth as a System
    • The Earth system is powered by two heat sources…….
    • 1. the sun …this powers the atmosphere, hydrosphere at the Earth’s surface.
    • 2. interior heat produced by radioactive materials and friction
    • The parts of the Earth system are linked so that a change in one part can cause changes in another part or even the whole Earth.
    • Ex: A new volcanic island forms… What are the changes that can happen?
  • 62. Human Effect
    • Burning fuels
    • Getting rid of wastes
    • Construction
    • The list is almost endless.
  • 63. People and the Environment
    • The environment is everything that surrounds and influences and organism.
    • These influences can be both living and non-living factors…Name some?
    • All this comes under the heading of environmental science.
    • Environmental science is used for things that focus on relationships between people and the natural environment.
  • 64. Resources
    • Include:
    • Water
    • Soil
    • Metallic and non-metallic minerals
    • Energy
  • 65. Resources divided into 2 categories
    • Renewable – can replenish over a short period of time.
    • Ex: plants, animals and their products, water, wind for energy.
    • Nonrenewable – iron, aluminum, copper, other minerals, also fossil fuels.
    • The processes that form these are very slow perhaps millions of years.
  • 66. Environmental problems
    • May occur locally or regionally
    • They include significant threats to the environment which includes:
    • Air pollution
    • Soil pollution and loss
    • Natural hazards
    • Acid rain
    • Ozone deletion
    • Global warming
  • 67. What is Scientific Inquiry?
    • All science is based on two assumptions:
    • 1. the natural world behaves in a consistent and predictable manner.
    • 2. Through careful, systematic study, we can understand and explain the natural world’s behavior.
  • 68. Developing New Scientific Knowledge Requires…..
    • Gathering data through observation and measurement.
    • Forming a (n) hypothesis – this is a possible explanation .
    • Testing the hypothesis… If found to have merit then….
    • Form a theory – which has been tested and widely accepted by the scientific community and best explains certain observable facts.
    • This is the basis of the scientific method.

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