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Persuasion By Dr Jose Lopez
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Persuasion By Dr Jose Lopez

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A presentation I use in some of my courses, it is on persuasion and influence.

A presentation I use in some of my courses, it is on persuasion and influence.

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  • 1. Dr. Jose Lopez
  • 2. Persuasion
    • Social Psychology
    • Ethos
    • Myth
  • 3. Persuasion
    • Q: What about logic and reason?
    • A: That’s what you studied in college, and you know that’s only a small part. So let’s look at other things.
  • 4. Persuasion
    • Social Psychology
    • Ethos
    • Myth
  • 5. I. Social Psychology
    • Reciprocity
    • Consistency
    • Social proof
    • Authority
    • Likeability
    • Scarcity
    Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  • 6.  
  • 7. 1. Reciprocity Cialdini One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  • 8. 1. Reciprocity Cialdini One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  • 9. 1. Reciprocity Cialdini
    • give a flower then ask for a donation
    • LBJ called in favors; Carter had none to call in; political patronage
    • send prospect pre-printed return address labels with solicitation letter
    • small gifts and comped meals
    I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us E.g:
  • 10. 1. Reciprocity
    • I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
    Cialdini
    • Technique 1 : If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession
    • Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution
  • 11. 1. Reciprocity
    • I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
    • Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession
    • Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution
    Cialdini
    • Technique 2 : Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to
  • 12. 1. Reciprocity
    • I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
    • Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession
    • Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution
    • Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to
    Cialdini
    • Technique 3 : Contrast principle: sell the costly item first; or present the undesirable option first
  • 13. 1. Reciprocity
    • I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
    • Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession
    • Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution
    • Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to
    • Technique 3: Contrast principle: sell the costly item first; present undesirable option first
    Cialdini
  • 14. 2. Consistency
    • Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
    • Consistency is usually associated with strength, inconsistency as weak; we want to look virtuous
    Cialdini
  • 15. 2. Consistency
    • Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
    • Consistency is usually associated with strength, inconsistency as weak; we want to look virtuous
    Cialdini
  • 16. 2. Consistency
    • Technique 1 : Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency
    • Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments
    • Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments manipulate a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment)
    Cialdini
  • 17. 2. Consistency
    • Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency
    • Technique 2 : Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments
    • Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments manipulate a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment)
    Cialdini
  • 18. 2. Consistency
    • Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency
    • Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments
    • Technique 3 : Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments begin to shape a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment)
    Cialdini
  • 19. 2. Consistency
    • Outcome 1 : Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound
    • Outcome 2: Commitments lead to inner change and grow their own legs
    Cialdini
  • 20. 2. Consistency
    • Outcome 1: Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound
    • Outcome 2 : Commitments lead to inner change and grow their own legs
    Cialdini
  • 21. 2. Consistency Cialdini
    • negotiating a car price
    • “ Hi, how are you?”
    • Howard Dean’s campaign (meet ups and volunteers writing letters)
    • have customers not salespeople fill out sale agreements
    • testimonials
    • campaign leadership
    Examples:
  • 22. 3. Social Proof
    • One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct.
    • The greater number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct.
    • Pluralistic ignorance: each person decides that since nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong
    • Similarity: social proof operates most powerfully when we observe people just like us
    Cialdini
  • 23. 3. Social Proof
    • One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct .
    • The greater number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct.
    • Pluralistic ignorance: each person decides that since nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong
    • Similarity: social proof operates most powerfully when we observe people just like us
    Cialdini
  • 24. 3. Social Proof Cialdini
    • laugh tracks
    • faith communities
    • mob behavior
    • inaction toward crime or emergency
    • Jonestown
    • applause
    • testimonials
    Examples:
  • 25. 4. Authority
    • We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority
    • Tests demonstrate that adults will do extreme things when instructed to do so by an authority figure
    Cialdini
  • 26. 4. Authority
    • We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority
    • Tests demonstrate that adults will do extreme things when instructed to do so by an authority figure
    Cialdini
  • 27. 4. Authority
    • Titles
    • Uniforms
    • Clothes
    • Trappings of status
    Cialdini
  • 28. 5. Likeability
    • We prefer to say yes to someone we know and like
    Cialdini
  • 29. 5. Likeability
    • We prefer to say yes to someone we know and like
    Cialdini
  • 30. 5. Likeability Cialdini
    • similarity of opinion, life-style, background, personality traits
    • familiarity and contact
    • cooperation in shared goals
    Compliance factors:
  • 31. 5. Likeability Cialdini
    • physical attractiveness
    • compliments
    • association with positive things (beauty, what’s hip, food)
    • success
    • smile
    Compliance factors:
  • 32. 5. Likeability Cialdini
    • Tupperware parties
    • peer solicitation
    • good cop / bad cop
    • eating together
    • celebrity endorsements
    Examples:
  • 33. 6. Scarcity
    • Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited
    • We want it even more when we are in competition for it
    • E.g.: final $4.4 million in matching funds disappeared in one week
    Cialdini
  • 34. 6. Scarcity
    • Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited
    • We want it even more when we are in competition for it
    • E.g.: final $4.4 million in matching funds disappeared in one week
    Cialdini
  • 35. I. Social Psychology
    • Reciprocity
    • Consistency
    • Social proof
    • Authority
    • Likeability
    • Scarcity
    Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  • 36. I. Social Psychology
    • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
    • Consistency
    • Social proof
    • Authority
    • Likeability
    • Scarcity
    Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  • 37. I. Social Psychology
    • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
    • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
    • Social proof
    • Authority
    • Likeability
    • Scarcity
    Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  • 38. I. Social Psychology
    • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
    • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
    • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct
    • Authority
    • Likeability
    • Scarcity
    Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  • 39. I. Social Psychology
    • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
    • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
    • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct
    • Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority
    • Likeability
    • Scarcity
    Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  • 40. I. Social Psychology
    • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
    • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
    • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct
    • Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority
    • Likeability: we say yes to someone we like
    • Scarcity
    Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  • 41. I. Social Psychology
    • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
    • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
    • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct
    • Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority
    • Likeability: we say yes to someone we like
    • Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability
    Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  • 42. I. Social Psychology
    • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
    • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done
    • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct
    • Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority
    • Likeability: we say yes to someone we like
    • Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability
    Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  • 43. Persuasion
    • Social Psychology
    • Ethos
    • Myth
  • 44. Ethos
    • The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.
    • Goal = credibility
    • Personae: expert, friend, genuine
  • 45. Ethos
    • Definition: the type of person that a writer or speaker projects
    • Aristotle: demonstrate trustworthiness within one’s speech
  • 46. Ethos
    • Definition: the type of person that a writer or speaker projects
    • Aristotle: demonstrate trustworthiness within one’s speech
  • 47. Ethos
    • Definition: The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.
    • Lysias: provide words appropriate to the speaker
    • E.g., the simple rustic
  • 48. Ethos
    • Definition: The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.
    • Lysias: provide words appropriate to the speaker
    • E.g., the simple rustic
  • 49. Ethos
  • 50. Ethos
  • 51. Ethos
  • 52. Ethos
  • 53. Ethos
    • the absentminded professor
    • the overbearing school principal
    • the precocious child
    • the immature father
    • the rich snob
    • the bimbo
    Comedy thrives on personality types .
  • 54. Ethos
    • simplicity or sophistication
    • elitism or egalitarianism
    • emphasis on faculty or students, research or teaching
    • careers and professionalism or the liberal arts
    • athletics or academics
    • regional or national or global
    Variable elements of institutional ethos:
  • 55. Ethos
  • 56. Ethos
    • diversity, tolerance, and openness
    • inquiry and discovery
    • heritage and history
    • location, region and campus
    • community
    • sports
    Common elements of institutional ethos:
  • 57. Ethos
    • The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.
    • What is the ethos of your school? It’s defining characteristics and values?
    • What is the ethos you bring to your writing and speaking?
    • What is the ethos you wish to project?
  • 58. Persuasion
    • Social Psychology
    • Ethos
    • Myth
  • 59. Myth
    • Popular meaning = lies
    • Greek  mythos  = story
    • Greek  mythos  opposes λογος (logos), i.e., reason
    • Goal: frame or define a situation to create common ground
    • Benefit: enliven rhetoric
  • 60. Myth
    • some myths / stories explain why and how we do the things we do (the first Thanksgiving);
    • some reinforce the values we share in common (Horatio Alger);
    • some frame the way we view the world (manifest destiny)
  • 61. What is your story?
    • Help your donors see themselves in a story, especially a meaningful story
    • Touch big ideas
    • Make the story sensory
    • Fill it with shared values (ethos)
    • Provide meaning to your donors’ lives and their philanthropy
    • Create their self-image as donors
  • 62. Persuasion
    • Social Psychology
    • Ethos
    • Myth
  • 63. [email_address]