Dr. Jose Lopez
Persuasion <ul><li>Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Myth </li></ul>
Persuasion <ul><li>Q: What about logic and reason? </li></ul><ul><li>A: That’s what you studied in college, and you know t...
Persuasion <ul><li>Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Myth </li></ul>
I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof </li></ul><ul><li>Au...
 
1. Reciprocity Cialdini One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance: We want to repay, in kind, what anothe...
1. Reciprocity Cialdini One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance: We want to repay, in kind, what anothe...
1. Reciprocity Cialdini <ul><li>give a flower then ask for a donation </li></ul><ul><li>LBJ called in favors; Carter had n...
1. Reciprocity <ul><li>I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul>Cialdini <ul><li>Tec...
1. Reciprocity <ul><li>I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 1:...
1. Reciprocity <ul><li>I.e.:  We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 1...
1. Reciprocity <ul><li>I.e.:  We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 1...
2. Consistency <ul><li>Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done </li></...
2. Consistency <ul><li>Our nearly obsessive  desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done </li><...
2. Consistency <ul><li>Technique 1 : Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 2: Public, a...
2. Consistency <ul><li>Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 2 : Public, a...
2. Consistency <ul><li>Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 2: Public, ac...
2. Consistency <ul><li>Outcome 1 : Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound </li></ul><ul><li>O...
2. Consistency <ul><li>Outcome 1: Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound </li></ul><ul><li>Ou...
2. Consistency Cialdini <ul><li>negotiating a car price  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hi, how are you?” </li></ul><ul><li>Howard De...
3. Social Proof <ul><li>One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct. <...
3. Social Proof <ul><li>One means we use  to determine what is correct  is to  find out what other people think is correct...
3. Social Proof Cialdini <ul><li>laugh tracks </li></ul><ul><li>faith communities </li></ul><ul><li>mob behavior </li></ul...
4. Authority <ul><li>We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority </li></ul><ul><li>Tests demonstrate that adults will...
4. Authority <ul><li>We have a  deep-seated sense of duty to authority </li></ul><ul><li>Tests demonstrate that adults wil...
4. Authority <ul><li>Titles </li></ul><ul><li>Uniforms </li></ul><ul><li>Clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Trappings of status </l...
5. Likeability <ul><li>We prefer to say yes to someone we know and like </li></ul>Cialdini
5. Likeability <ul><li>We prefer to say yes to someone we know and like </li></ul>Cialdini
5. Likeability Cialdini <ul><li>similarity of opinion, life-style, background, personality traits </li></ul><ul><li>famili...
5. Likeability Cialdini <ul><li>physical attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>compliments </li></ul><ul><li>association with p...
5. Likeability Cialdini <ul><li>Tupperware parties </li></ul><ul><li>peer solicitation </li></ul><ul><li>good cop / bad co...
6. Scarcity <ul><li>Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited </li></ul><ul><li>We want it...
6. Scarcity <ul><li>Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited </li></ul><ul><li>We want it...
I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof </li></ul><ul><li>Au...
I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity:  we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><l...
I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity:  we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><l...
I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity:  we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><l...
I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity:  we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><l...
I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity:  we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><l...
I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity:  we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><l...
I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity:  we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><l...
Persuasion <ul><li>Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Myth </li></ul>
Ethos <ul><li>The type of person that a writer or speaker projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal = credibility </li></ul><ul><li...
Ethos <ul><li>Definition: the type of person that a writer or speaker projects </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle: demonstrate tr...
Ethos <ul><li>Definition: the type of person that a writer or speaker projects </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle: demonstrate tr...
Ethos <ul><li>Definition: The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.  </li></ul><ul><li>Lysias: provide words a...
Ethos <ul><li>Definition: The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.  </li></ul><ul><li>Lysias: provide words a...
Ethos
Ethos
Ethos
Ethos
Ethos <ul><li>the absentminded professor </li></ul><ul><li>the overbearing school principal </li></ul><ul><li>the precocio...
Ethos <ul><li>simplicity or sophistication </li></ul><ul><li>elitism or egalitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>emphasis on facul...
Ethos
Ethos <ul><li>diversity, tolerance, and openness </li></ul><ul><li>inquiry and discovery </li></ul><ul><li>heritage and hi...
Ethos <ul><li>The type of person that a writer or speaker projects. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the ethos of your school? It...
Persuasion <ul><li>Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Myth </li></ul>
Myth <ul><li>Popular meaning = lies </li></ul><ul><li>Greek   mythos  = story </li></ul><ul><li>Greek   my...
Myth <ul><li>some myths / stories explain why and how we do the things we do (the first Thanksgiving);  </li></ul><ul><li>...
What is your story? <ul><li>Help your donors see themselves in a story, especially a meaningful story </li></ul><ul><li>To...
Persuasion <ul><li>Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Myth </li></ul>
[email_address]
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Persuasion By Dr Jose Lopez

1,706

Published on

A presentation I use in some of my courses, it is on persuasion and influence.

0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,706
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Persuasion By Dr Jose Lopez

  1. 1. Dr. Jose Lopez
  2. 2. Persuasion <ul><li>Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Myth </li></ul>
  3. 3. Persuasion <ul><li>Q: What about logic and reason? </li></ul><ul><li>A: That’s what you studied in college, and you know that’s only a small part. So let’s look at other things. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Persuasion <ul><li>Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Myth </li></ul>
  5. 5. I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Likeability </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul>Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  6. 7. 1. Reciprocity Cialdini One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  7. 8. 1. Reciprocity Cialdini One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us
  8. 9. 1. Reciprocity Cialdini <ul><li>give a flower then ask for a donation </li></ul><ul><li>LBJ called in favors; Carter had none to call in; political patronage </li></ul><ul><li>send prospect pre-printed return address labels with solicitation letter </li></ul><ul><li>small gifts and comped meals </li></ul>I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us E.g:
  9. 10. 1. Reciprocity <ul><li>I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul>Cialdini <ul><li>Technique 1 : If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession </li></ul><ul><li>Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution </li></ul>
  10. 11. 1. Reciprocity <ul><li>I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession </li></ul><ul><li>Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution </li></ul>Cialdini <ul><li>Technique 2 : Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to </li></ul>
  11. 12. 1. Reciprocity <ul><li>I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession </li></ul><ul><li>Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to </li></ul>Cialdini <ul><li>Technique 3 : Contrast principle: sell the costly item first; or present the undesirable option first </li></ul>
  12. 13. 1. Reciprocity <ul><li>I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession </li></ul><ul><li>Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 3: Contrast principle: sell the costly item first; present undesirable option first </li></ul>Cialdini
  13. 14. 2. Consistency <ul><li>Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency is usually associated with strength, inconsistency as weak; we want to look virtuous </li></ul>Cialdini
  14. 15. 2. Consistency <ul><li>Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency is usually associated with strength, inconsistency as weak; we want to look virtuous </li></ul>Cialdini
  15. 16. 2. Consistency <ul><li>Technique 1 : Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments manipulate a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment) </li></ul>Cialdini
  16. 17. 2. Consistency <ul><li>Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 2 : Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments manipulate a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment) </li></ul>Cialdini
  17. 18. 2. Consistency <ul><li>Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Technique 3 : Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments begin to shape a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment) </li></ul>Cialdini
  18. 19. 2. Consistency <ul><li>Outcome 1 : Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome 2: Commitments lead to inner change and grow their own legs </li></ul>Cialdini
  19. 20. 2. Consistency <ul><li>Outcome 1: Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome 2 : Commitments lead to inner change and grow their own legs </li></ul>Cialdini
  20. 21. 2. Consistency Cialdini <ul><li>negotiating a car price </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hi, how are you?” </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Dean’s campaign (meet ups and volunteers writing letters) </li></ul><ul><li>have customers not salespeople fill out sale agreements </li></ul><ul><li>testimonials </li></ul><ul><li>campaign leadership </li></ul>Examples:
  21. 22. 3. Social Proof <ul><li>One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct. </li></ul><ul><li>The greater number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct. </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralistic ignorance: each person decides that since nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity: social proof operates most powerfully when we observe people just like us </li></ul>Cialdini
  22. 23. 3. Social Proof <ul><li>One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct . </li></ul><ul><li>The greater number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct. </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralistic ignorance: each person decides that since nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity: social proof operates most powerfully when we observe people just like us </li></ul>Cialdini
  23. 24. 3. Social Proof Cialdini <ul><li>laugh tracks </li></ul><ul><li>faith communities </li></ul><ul><li>mob behavior </li></ul><ul><li>inaction toward crime or emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Jonestown </li></ul><ul><li>applause </li></ul><ul><li>testimonials </li></ul>Examples:
  24. 25. 4. Authority <ul><li>We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority </li></ul><ul><li>Tests demonstrate that adults will do extreme things when instructed to do so by an authority figure </li></ul>Cialdini
  25. 26. 4. Authority <ul><li>We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority </li></ul><ul><li>Tests demonstrate that adults will do extreme things when instructed to do so by an authority figure </li></ul>Cialdini
  26. 27. 4. Authority <ul><li>Titles </li></ul><ul><li>Uniforms </li></ul><ul><li>Clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Trappings of status </li></ul>Cialdini
  27. 28. 5. Likeability <ul><li>We prefer to say yes to someone we know and like </li></ul>Cialdini
  28. 29. 5. Likeability <ul><li>We prefer to say yes to someone we know and like </li></ul>Cialdini
  29. 30. 5. Likeability Cialdini <ul><li>similarity of opinion, life-style, background, personality traits </li></ul><ul><li>familiarity and contact </li></ul><ul><li>cooperation in shared goals </li></ul>Compliance factors:
  30. 31. 5. Likeability Cialdini <ul><li>physical attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>compliments </li></ul><ul><li>association with positive things (beauty, what’s hip, food) </li></ul><ul><li>success </li></ul><ul><li>smile </li></ul>Compliance factors:
  31. 32. 5. Likeability Cialdini <ul><li>Tupperware parties </li></ul><ul><li>peer solicitation </li></ul><ul><li>good cop / bad cop </li></ul><ul><li>eating together </li></ul><ul><li>celebrity endorsements </li></ul>Examples:
  32. 33. 6. Scarcity <ul><li>Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited </li></ul><ul><li>We want it even more when we are in competition for it </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: final $4.4 million in matching funds disappeared in one week </li></ul>Cialdini
  33. 34. 6. Scarcity <ul><li>Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited </li></ul><ul><li>We want it even more when we are in competition for it </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: final $4.4 million in matching funds disappeared in one week </li></ul>Cialdini
  34. 35. I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Likeability </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul>Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  35. 36. I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Likeability </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul>Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  36. 37. I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Likeability </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul>Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  37. 38. I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Likeability </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul>Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  38. 39. I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct </li></ul><ul><li>Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority </li></ul><ul><li>Likeability </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul>Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  39. 40. I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct </li></ul><ul><li>Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority </li></ul><ul><li>Likeability: we say yes to someone we like </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul>Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  40. 41. I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct </li></ul><ul><li>Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority </li></ul><ul><li>Likeability: we say yes to someone we like </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability </li></ul>Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  41. 42. I. Social Psychology <ul><li>Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done </li></ul><ul><li>Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct </li></ul><ul><li>Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority </li></ul><ul><li>Likeability: we say yes to someone we like </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability </li></ul>Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)
  42. 43. Persuasion <ul><li>Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Myth </li></ul>
  43. 44. Ethos <ul><li>The type of person that a writer or speaker projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal = credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Personae: expert, friend, genuine </li></ul>
  44. 45. Ethos <ul><li>Definition: the type of person that a writer or speaker projects </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle: demonstrate trustworthiness within one’s speech </li></ul>
  45. 46. Ethos <ul><li>Definition: the type of person that a writer or speaker projects </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle: demonstrate trustworthiness within one’s speech </li></ul>
  46. 47. Ethos <ul><li>Definition: The type of person that a writer or speaker projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Lysias: provide words appropriate to the speaker </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., the simple rustic </li></ul>
  47. 48. Ethos <ul><li>Definition: The type of person that a writer or speaker projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Lysias: provide words appropriate to the speaker </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., the simple rustic </li></ul>
  48. 49. Ethos
  49. 50. Ethos
  50. 51. Ethos
  51. 52. Ethos
  52. 53. Ethos <ul><li>the absentminded professor </li></ul><ul><li>the overbearing school principal </li></ul><ul><li>the precocious child </li></ul><ul><li>the immature father </li></ul><ul><li>the rich snob </li></ul><ul><li>the bimbo </li></ul>Comedy thrives on personality types .
  53. 54. Ethos <ul><li>simplicity or sophistication </li></ul><ul><li>elitism or egalitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>emphasis on faculty or students, research or teaching </li></ul><ul><li>careers and professionalism or the liberal arts </li></ul><ul><li>athletics or academics </li></ul><ul><li>regional or national or global </li></ul>Variable elements of institutional ethos:
  54. 55. Ethos
  55. 56. Ethos <ul><li>diversity, tolerance, and openness </li></ul><ul><li>inquiry and discovery </li></ul><ul><li>heritage and history </li></ul><ul><li>location, region and campus </li></ul><ul><li>community </li></ul><ul><li>sports </li></ul>Common elements of institutional ethos:
  56. 57. Ethos <ul><li>The type of person that a writer or speaker projects. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the ethos of your school? It’s defining characteristics and values? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the ethos you bring to your writing and speaking? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the ethos you wish to project? </li></ul>
  57. 58. Persuasion <ul><li>Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Myth </li></ul>
  58. 59. Myth <ul><li>Popular meaning = lies </li></ul><ul><li>Greek  mythos  = story </li></ul><ul><li>Greek  mythos  opposes λογος (logos), i.e., reason </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: frame or define a situation to create common ground </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit: enliven rhetoric </li></ul>
  59. 60. Myth <ul><li>some myths / stories explain why and how we do the things we do (the first Thanksgiving); </li></ul><ul><li>some reinforce the values we share in common (Horatio Alger); </li></ul><ul><li>some frame the way we view the world (manifest destiny) </li></ul>
  60. 61. What is your story? <ul><li>Help your donors see themselves in a story, especially a meaningful story </li></ul><ul><li>Touch big ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Make the story sensory </li></ul><ul><li>Fill it with shared values (ethos) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide meaning to your donors’ lives and their philanthropy </li></ul><ul><li>Create their self-image as donors </li></ul>
  61. 62. Persuasion <ul><li>Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Myth </li></ul>
  62. 63. [email_address]

×