Volume 3, Issue 4, Winter2004     AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY A HIGH POTENTIAL MARKET FOR NONWOVENS                          SOUND...
Table 2 World growths of automotive textiles (in 1,000 tonnes) [1]Type                  Quantity                      1985...
70’s, natural materials are gaining ground in       requirements. With a good availability and aautomotive applications as...
In order to be molded natural fibers are used                  Compression molding, applicable toin mixture with thermoset...
highlighted certain differences regarding thedriving forces of different market (e.g.            The main challenge for au...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5

Avtomobilebi prezentaciebi


Published on


1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Avtomobilebi prezentaciebi

  1. 1. Volume 3, Issue 4, Winter2004 AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY A HIGH POTENTIAL MARKET FOR NONWOVENS SOUND INSULATION Simona Vasile Lieva Van Langenhove Gent University, Belgium Simonaileana.vasile@ugent.be lieva.vanlangenhove@ugent.be AbstractThis paper highlights the increasing penetration of nonwovens in automotive sector and theirsuitability for certain applications (e.g. sound insulation). Suitable technologies and rawmaterials to process insulations are discussed and remarks regarding their advantages anddisadvantages are pointed out. As the recyclability is one of the main drivers of automotiveindustry, especially in Europe, a deeper insight has been given to natural, renewable resources,and their advantages and downsides have been underlined, in comparison with some traditionalmaterials.Keywords: automotive, nonwovens, sound insulation, technologies, renewable resources,recyclability1. Automotive industry- a high plastics, 15% aluminum, etc.)[1], potential market for textiles considering the amount of existing vehicles worldwide (table1) one can see thatTextiles are used in cars for a wide variety automotive industry represents a highof purposes: to enhance comfort, thermal potential market for the textile industry. Theinsulation, design, vehicle safety and more worldwide growth of automotive textiles,often required, acoustic properties. disseminated by group of products is shown in table 2 and it can be seen that is likely toDespite of the fact that textiles represent increase for nonwovens, as well as foronly 3% of the raw materials used in motor woven strucures, composite and othersvehicle (compared with 60% steel, 20% group of products. Table 1 Production of motor vehicles and amount of existing motor vehicles worldwide (in million units) [2] Type 2001 2008 Annual production of automobiles 38.5 43 Trucks 15.5 17 Amount of existing motor vehicles 7001) 8851) 1990: 300Article Designation: Scholarly 1 JTATM Volume 3, Issue 4,Winter 2004
  2. 2. Table 2 World growths of automotive textiles (in 1,000 tonnes) [1]Type Quantity 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005Wovens 953 1125 1170 1221 1214Nonwovens 95 109 107 111 114Composite materials 284 443 521 736 976Other 76 97 119 152 179 2. Nonwovens in automotive 3. bulky wadding, acoustical parts industry 3.1. Nonwovens as replacement ofNonwovens are used in automotive industry PURfor a variety of purposes due to theiradvantages: lightweight, sound efficiency, Textile composite used in cars refers toflexibility, versatility and easily tailored combination of one or more textile and/orproperties, moldability (easiness to non-textile materials, e.g. foam and warpconforms to irregular shapes), recyclability, knitted fabrics used as upholstery or interiorlow process and materials costs as well as trim materials. However, three-dimensionaland attractive cost/performance ratio. nonwovens are lately considered as replacement for PUR foam. Some of theAccording to INDA (Association of the advantages of such “textile foam” are:Nonwovens Fabrics Industry) the most • reduced fogging and unwantedcommon technologies used to process odoursnonwovens for automotive applications are • environmental-friendly laminatingthe following (sqm): spunbonded (66%), processneedlepunching (27%), • surface material uniformityhydroentangled/resin (6%), others (1%). • possibility of using reclaimed fibers • recycling into reclaimed or recycledAccording to the same source, the fibersdissemination of nonwovens on productgroup shows that insulations represent 17% Some technologies to process bulky,(sqm) from the total applications. Others compression-elastic nonwovens are:applications are: carpet related products • carding and vertical lapping: e.g.(43%), trunk (13%), hoodliner (10%), seat STRUTO, WAVEMAKER(6%), headliner (6%), rear shelf (3%), door • stichbonding processes: KUNIT,(1%), others (1%). MULTIKNIT, MALIVLIES; e.g. Caliweb is a trademark of products 3. Nonwoven sound insulation: manufactured by use of Kalitherm applications, technologies, raw technique. It refers to mechanical materials (Kunit and/or Multiknit), thermal bonded and calibrated nonwovens asWithin a car the acoustic materials can be well as for the composite laminationused in structures such as: door panels, of such nonwovens with any surfaceheadliners, A-B-C pillars, luggage fabric.compartment, under bonnet/hoodliner, floor- • 3D Weblinker, NAPCO technologycarpet underlay mat. According to the for 3D structuresspecific destinations, automotive nonwovensinsulations can have different appearance 3.2. Pressed /molded interiorand can be separated into three categories: components from renewable raw 1. composite /laminates used as materials replacement of PUR 2. pressed /molded interior After having been almost completely replaced components from renewable raw by their synthetic counterparts in 60’s and materialsArticle Designation: Scholarly 2 JTATM Volume 3, Issue 4,Winter 2004
  3. 3. 70’s, natural materials are gaining ground in requirements. With a good availability and aautomotive applications as moulded fiber part comparatively low price, flax, sisal, jute andcomponents: interior trim parts/door panels, coconut play the most important role. Thoughroof linings, luggage compartment linings, hemp provides stronger fibers than flax, as theparcel selves. processing of hemp fiber is not yet sufficiently sophisticated, flax remains the commerciallyFibers with high strength and low elongation most important plant fiber. Some comparisonsproperties are required for composites, and between flax and other reinforcing fibers canmost of the bast fibers fulfil these be seen in table 3. Table 3 Properties of flax compared with other reinforcing fibers [3] [4] Strength Ecological Specific Industrial Cost compatibility mass safety Glass fiber ++ + +++ + ++ Carbon fiber +++ ++ ++ + +++ Flax fiber + +++ + +++ ++++- high; ++- medium; +- lowAnother major reason for this renewed growth recycling. Other furtheris an increased awareness for environment, advantages/disadvantages of natural fibersreflected in phrases such as protection of versus their counter parts can be seen in figureresources, reduction of CO2 emission and 1. Figure 1 Advantages/disadvantages of natural fibers used in automotive applicationsArticle Designation: Scholarly 3 JTATM Volume 3, Issue 4,Winter 2004
  4. 4. In order to be molded natural fibers are used Compression molding, applicable toin mixture with thermoset or thermoplastic resinated fiber mats, hybrid mats (PP/naturalpolymers. fibers), NMT (Natural fiber Mat reinforced • Thermoset polymers such as PF Thermoplastic) comparable to GMT (Glass(phenolic resin) or (EP) epoxy are binders fiber Mat reinforced Thermoplastics)for cotton or similar fibers for applications Structural Reaction Injectionsuch as inner trim parts or damping Molding (S-RIM)materials. Some of their advantages are: Injection Molding with short fibersufficient mechanical properties (stiffness reinforcement [5]and strength), comparable with the glasscomposite, have a superior thermal stability, Compression molding is most used, inlower water absorption compared with different variants: (1) using a pre-meltedthermoplastic polymers (PP) and acceptably polymer, (2) using a fibrous polymer that islow prices levels. Their disadvantages are combined with the plant fibers into a hybridrelated to the moisture and air: moisture can mats before compression molding and (3)affect the chemical reaction therefore the others use polymer powders that arefibers have to be dried before down to 2-3 introduced into the fiber mats beforepercent; the air present in the fibers leads to compression molding. Some typicalmany voids in matrix thus a poor fiber productions lines are: Hermann Processmatrix interface. Another downside of PF (Laroche), Fibroline, etc.refers to ecological problems: the thermaldisposal needs high temperature as an 3.3. Bulky wadding acoustical partsincomplete combustion occurs at lowertemperatures. Air laid is the most appropriate technology • Thermoplastic polymer (e.g. to process such high loft products due to the polypropylene PP) following advantages: equilibrate MD/CDThe main problems refer to a high viscosity, ration, suitability to process any type ofwhich leads to a difficult wetting while high automotive fibers (especially recycledtemperatures can damage or destroy the fibers) and a thick, voluminous product canfibers. Nevertheless a low price, reasonable be produced with a high productivity.processing temperatures and recyclability Machine manufacturers such Fehrer,are reasons for a growing interest in Laroche, Fibroline, etc offer completethermoplastics and they are likely to replace airlaid lines. Example of application: on thethe thermosets. door panel.The manufacturing process mostly takes 4. Summaryplace in two steps, one for structuring thefiber arrangement and one for consolidating There is already a high penetration ofthe structure. In the first step “hybrid nonwovens in automotive sector and thefleeces” are produced by nonwoven present papear only refers to the specifictechnologies (e.g. carding/airlaid and case of sound insulation. For eachneedlepunching). In a second step the hybrid application there is still room for valuefleece is heated mostly between two heated added products and that will only furtherplates using certain compression. Sometimes consolidate nonwovens’ position.a preheating either using hot air or radiationis combined. The heat is necessary to melt When they have to choose between varietiesthe thermoplastic material or to start the of products, manufacturers considerreaction of this thermosetting material, when following criteria: economics, durability,a phenolic resin is used. aesthetics, processibility, moldability, added benefits (e.g.: acoustics, flame retardant,The main manufacturing processes presently recyclable, etc.), which are main drivingused for the production of plant fiber forces of nonwoven in automotive industrycomposites are: worldwide. However, some studies [6]Article Designation: ITMA 4 JTATM Volume 3, Issue 3,Fall 2003
  5. 5. highlighted certain differences regarding thedriving forces of different market (e.g. The main challenge for automotive textilesEuropean and NAFTA), thus the penetration manufacturers can be synthesised asof nonwovens for some applications will be following: process recyclable materialsdifferent: e.g nonwovens are highly today, optimally recycle them tomorrow andpenetrated European headliner&floor optimally dispose them the day aftersurface applications and weight save (gas tomorrow.reduction) pressure is higher in Europewhile acoustic performances and cost save Referencespressure are equally higher inEurope&NAFTA. [1] Bottcher, P., Textile composites, their use in motor vehicle manufacture, and oldRecycling is at the moment a significant care regulations, Industrial textile, ITSEurope driver not yet U.S. driver. EU Publishingregulations on the disposal of used cars are [2] Hunger, M., Naumann, S, Schimanz, B.,effective from 1st July 2002. They focus on Bottcher, P., Nonwovens for the interior ofthe re-use of textiles from used cars and on cars with recycling potential in accordancerecycling materials in new cars. It requires to Regulations on disposal of used cars,that by the year of 2006 at least 85% of an lecture Techtextil 2003, Frankfurt/Mainautomobile’s weight to be recycled. [3] Mueller, D., Krobjilowsky, A., Muessig, J., Molded Fiber-Reinforced Parts-SpecialAs the textile materials currently used in Properties and Influencing Parameters,motor vehicles represent low quantities, one Nonwovens Market 5/2001cannot expect them to become economically [4] Mueller, D., Krobjilowsky, A., Newrecycled because themselves consist of 2 to discovery in the properties of composites5 fiber components blends and they are reinforced with natural fibers, lecturemoreover combined with non-textile Techtextil 2003, Frankfurt/Mainmaterials (metal, plastic materials) thus not [5] Schuh, T., Daimler-Chrysler AG,very cost-effective to dissemble. Besides Stuttgart, Renewable Materials forthat, due to ageing and contamination, these Automotive Applicationstextiles have, in many cases, no value with [6] Eller, R., Role of nonwovens inregard to recycling. In this respect, EU automotive interior surface and constructionregulation offers the framework to solve applications, Auto Interior 2003, Detroitthese problems and open up a chance for thetextile industry.Article Designation: Scholarly 5 JTATM Volume 3, Issue 4,Winter 2004