Bram Bruekers & Bart Corstiaans  June 17, 2003 Emergency supply with ULTRA CAPACITORS for HF-R ballast
<ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra ...
<ul><li>Philips Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Problem situation </li></ul><ul><li>Problem theorem </li></ul><ul><li>Project a...
<ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra ...
<ul><li>Emergency standards </li></ul><ul><li>Schematic </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements </li></ul>Present emergency ballast...
Emergency standards PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Dimming light </li></ul><ul><li>One or three hour emergency lighting time </li>...
Schematic PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul>battery- charger mains detection communication ballas...
Measurements PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present  emergency ballast </l...
Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Block diagram </li></ul>Overall design PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><u...
Specifications  <ul><li>V in  = 230Vac at 50-60Hz </li></ul><ul><li>P in_max     240W </li></ul><ul><li>Charge time about...
Block diagram PDC, Eindhoven Charge  Converter Ultra Caps Controller Mains Detector + Logic supply Mains 230V~ 50Hz 300-40...
Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>What is an ultra capacitor? </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent circuit diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Calculations </li></ul>...
What is an ultra capacitor? <ul><li>Doubled layer electrolyte capacitor  </li></ul><ul><li>BCAP0010  2600F & 2.5V </li></u...
Equivalent circuit diagram PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present  emergen...
Calculations <ul><li>E  = ½CV 2   = ½ 650 10 2   </li></ul><ul><li>= 32500Ws = 9Wh </li></ul>PDC, Eindhoven 8.2 Wh    49....
Advantages and disadvantages  when using ultra capacitors <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency time of one ...
Expectations <ul><li>Currently costs  €  0.03 per Farad,  €  78 </li></ul><ul><li>Expected costs €  0.01 per Farad,  €  26...
But what if? PDC, Eindhoven V ultracapacitors  = 10V,  R load  = 0.033Ω I = 10/0.033 = 333A P = V • I = 10 • 333 = 3330W <...
Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Quasi resonant converter (QRC) </li></ul><ul><li>Transformer </li></ul><ul><li>Co...
Specifications <ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Mains in = 230V AC  +/- 10%  at  50-60Hz </li></ul><ul><li>No requirements ...
<ul><li>Circuit diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent schematic </li></ul><ul><li>Working </li></ul><ul><li>Calculations </...
QRC, Circuit diagram PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present  emergency bal...
QRC, Equivalent schematic PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present  emergenc...
QRC, principle PDC, Eindhoven 0 tx1  T/2  tx2  T  Time I  OUT I I  V_HB’ V_BH’ 0 tx1  T/2  tx2  T  Time I  OUT I I  V_HB’ ...
QRC, calculations PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present  emergency ballas...
QRC, simulations PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present  emergency ballast...
<ul><li>Requirements  </li></ul><ul><li>Copper foil or litzwire </li></ul><ul><li>Transformer with integrated L r </li></u...
<ul><li>Turns-ratio of 8 </li></ul><ul><li>L r  = 50 uH  or  L leakage  = 50 uH </li></ul><ul><li>I primary  = 10 Amp peak...
<ul><li>Copper foil or litzwire ? </li></ul>Transformer Litzwire : - Relatively low current - Litzwires parallel for high ...
Transformer with integrated L r 3 mm  Plastic isolator Secondary 7 mm 9 mm 12.6 mm Primary PQ 35 / 35 core <ul><li>+ Only ...
Low leakage transformer + Coresize can be smaller + Low power dissipation + Compact design - External inductor needed PDC,...
<ul><li>Placing L r  at primary side </li></ul>Transformer <ul><li>+ Smaller transformer possible </li></ul><ul><li>+ Rela...
<ul><li>Placing L r  at secondary side </li></ul>Transformer <ul><li>+ Smaller transformer possible </li></ul><ul><li>High...
<ul><li>Summary </li></ul>Transformer Integrated L r  possible, bigger core or special construction  needed. External prim...
<ul><li>Current feedback </li></ul><ul><li>TEA1610 swingchip </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Max/min freqs </li></ul></ul></ul><...
<ul><li>Simulated schematic </li></ul><ul><li>Waveforms </li></ul>Simulations PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Schematic  </li></ul><ul><li>Waveforms </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>Measurements PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li...
Schematic PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present  emergency ballast </li><...
<ul><li>Schematic  </li></ul><ul><li>Waveforms </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>Overall simulations & measurements ...
Schematic PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present  emergency ballast </li><...
Waveforms PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present  emergency ballast </li><...
<ul><li>Output current  : 31  down to  15 A  </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency range  : 61…206 kHz </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency ...
Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Possible to charge four ultracaps in  series within five minutes </li></ul>Conclusions and recommendations PDC, Ei...
Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li...
Discussion PDC, Eindhoven Why don’t you just…..? What will happen if…..? What was meant by…..? Is it possible to…..? <ul><...
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Charging ultracapacitors, how is it possible?

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Charging ultracapacitors, how is it possible?

  1. 1. Bram Bruekers & Bart Corstiaans June 17, 2003 Emergency supply with ULTRA CAPACITORS for HF-R ballast
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>Agenda Length of presentation +/- 50 minutes PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Philips Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Problem situation </li></ul><ul><li>Problem theorem </li></ul><ul><li>Project assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Project goal </li></ul><ul><li>Method of investigation </li></ul>Introduction <ul><li>Problem situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ni-Cd batteries are used in the present emergency ballast. These involve very high costs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Checking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Project assignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design an emergency ballast prototype using ultra capacitors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate if ultra capacitors can be used for emergency lighting systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitors have many advantages compared to the currently used batteries, but certainly also disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Method of investigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study present emergency ballast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior ultra capacitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements </li></ul></ul>PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>Agenda PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Emergency standards </li></ul><ul><li>Schematic </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements </li></ul>Present emergency ballast PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  6. 6. Emergency standards PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Dimming light </li></ul><ul><li>One or three hour emergency lighting time </li></ul><ul><li>1 lux at a half meter </li></ul><ul><li>Ni-Cd have to be checked and replaced </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  7. 7. Schematic PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul>battery- charger mains detection communication ballast battery pack DALI fluorescent lamp mains 230V~ 50Hz <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  8. 8. Measurements PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  9. 9. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Block diagram </li></ul>Overall design PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  11. 11. Specifications <ul><li>V in = 230Vac at 50-60Hz </li></ul><ul><li>P in_max  240W </li></ul><ul><li>Charge time about five minutes </li></ul><ul><li>V out = 400V </li></ul><ul><li>P out_emergency = 10W </li></ul><ul><li>DALI which provides a dim level for the fluorescent lamp </li></ul><ul><li>EMI friendly </li></ul>PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  12. 12. Block diagram PDC, Eindhoven Charge Converter Ultra Caps Controller Mains Detector + Logic supply Mains 230V~ 50Hz 300-400V 0…10V Logic Supply 2 LED outputs DALI Flyback Converter Dim level  on/off on/off V caps DALI BUS <ul><li>Detailed block diagram of the designed </li></ul><ul><li>emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>HF-R DALI ballast Emergency Supply with ultracaps Mains 230V~ 50Hz Fluorescent lamp 300- 400V DALI <ul><li>Simplified block diagram of the designed </li></ul><ul><li>emergency system </li></ul>
  13. 13. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>What is an ultra capacitor? </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent circuit diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages and disadvantages when using ultra capacitors </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul>Ultra capacitor PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is an ultra capacitor? <ul><li>Doubled layer electrolyte capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>BCAP0010 2600F & 2.5V </li></ul>PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Very low ESR </li></ul><ul><li>I MAX =600A </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  16. 16. Equivalent circuit diagram PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Specs of four ultracaps in series: </li></ul><ul><li>L total = 150nH = L wire total + 4  ESL </li></ul><ul><li>C total = 650F </li></ul><ul><li>Specs of one ultracap: </li></ul><ul><li>ESR = 0.7m  </li></ul><ul><li>C = 2600F </li></ul><ul><li>R leak = 17k  </li></ul>
  17. 17. Calculations <ul><li>E = ½CV 2 = ½ 650 10 2 </li></ul><ul><li>= 32500Ws = 9Wh </li></ul>PDC, Eindhoven 8.2 Wh  49.2 minutes <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>8.2
  18. 18. Advantages and disadvantages when using ultra capacitors <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency time of one hour instead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of three hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast chargeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the fly testable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer lifetime </li></ul></ul>PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  19. 19. Expectations <ul><li>Currently costs € 0.03 per Farad, € 78 </li></ul><ul><li>Expected costs € 0.01 per Farad, € 26 </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity will increase </li></ul><ul><li>Currently afwijking per batch is 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Expected afwijking per batch is <5% </li></ul>PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  20. 20. But what if? PDC, Eindhoven V ultracapacitors = 10V, R load = 0.033Ω I = 10/0.033 = 333A P = V • I = 10 • 333 = 3330W <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  21. 21. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Quasi resonant converter (QRC) </li></ul><ul><li>Transformer </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Overall simulations & measurements </li></ul>Charge converter PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  23. 23. Specifications <ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Mains in = 230V AC +/- 10% at 50-60Hz </li></ul><ul><li>No requirements for mains harmonics reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Galvanically isolated logic on / off input </li></ul>PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Galvanically isolated from mains </li></ul><ul><li>I OUT = 24A </li></ul><ul><li>V OUT = 0…10V </li></ul><ul><li>P OUT_max  240W when output voltage is 10V </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum on time : 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>EMI friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Output overvoltage protected </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Circuit diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent schematic </li></ul><ul><li>Working </li></ul><ul><li>Calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul>Quasi resonant converter (QRC) PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  25. 25. QRC, Circuit diagram PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  26. 26. QRC, Equivalent schematic PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  27. 27. QRC, principle PDC, Eindhoven 0 tx1 T/2 tx2 T Time I OUT I I V_HB’ V_BH’ 0 tx1 T/2 tx2 T Time I OUT I I V_HB’ V_BH’ 0 tx1 T/2 tx2 T Time I OUT I I V_HB’ V_BH’ 0 tx1 T/2 tx2 T Time I OUT I I V_HB’ V_BH’ 0 tx1 T/2 tx2 T Time I OUT I I V_HB’ V_BH’ <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  28. 28. QRC, calculations PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  29. 29. QRC, simulations PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Copper foil or litzwire </li></ul><ul><li>Transformer with integrated L r </li></ul><ul><li>Small leakage transformer </li></ul><ul><li>Placing L r at primary side </li></ul><ul><li>Placing L r at secondary side </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>Transformer PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Turns-ratio of 8 </li></ul><ul><li>L r = 50 uH or L leakage = 50 uH </li></ul><ul><li>I primary = 10 Amp peak-peak </li></ul><ul><li>I seconday = 90 Amp peak-peak , maximum </li></ul>Transformer, Requirements PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Copper foil or litzwire ? </li></ul>Transformer Litzwire : - Relatively low current - Litzwires parallel for high currents - Almost no Skin-effect - different winding layouts possible Copper foil : - High current - Equalizing currents when parallel - Thin foil to minimize Skin-effect - Special foil needed to create high leakage PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  33. 33. Transformer with integrated L r 3 mm Plastic isolator Secondary 7 mm 9 mm 12.6 mm Primary PQ 35 / 35 core <ul><li>+ Only one magnetic component needed </li></ul><ul><li>+ Compact design </li></ul><ul><li>+ Good galvanically isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly a bigger core size </li></ul><ul><li>Locally high temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Special foil needed to create high leakage </li></ul>PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  34. 34. Low leakage transformer + Coresize can be smaller + Low power dissipation + Compact design - External inductor needed PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>Secondary Primary PQ 35 / 35 core
  35. 35. <ul><li>Placing L r at primary side </li></ul>Transformer <ul><li>+ Smaller transformer possible </li></ul><ul><li>+ Relativly low current through L r </li></ul><ul><li>Extra magnetic component (PQ 20/16 core) </li></ul><ul><li>More volume </li></ul>Secondary 24 : 3 41.6 uH 7 uH Primary Transformer PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Placing L r at secondary side </li></ul>Transformer <ul><li>+ Smaller transformer possible </li></ul><ul><li>High current through L r </li></ul><ul><li>High dissipation </li></ul><ul><li>Thick litzwire needed </li></ul>Secondary 24 : 3 781 nH 7 uH Primary Transformer PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Summary </li></ul>Transformer Integrated L r possible, bigger core or special construction needed. External primary inductor is a good option. Secondary inductor difficult to realize due to high currents. PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Current feedback </li></ul><ul><li>TEA1610 swingchip </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Max/min freqs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Max/min currents </li></ul></ul></ul>Control PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Simulated schematic </li></ul><ul><li>Waveforms </li></ul>Simulations PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Schematic </li></ul><ul><li>Waveforms </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>Measurements PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  41. 41. Schematic PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Schematic </li></ul><ul><li>Waveforms </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>Overall simulations & measurements PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  43. 43. Schematic PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  44. 44. Waveforms PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Output current : 31 down to 15 A </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency range : 61…206 kHz </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency : 90-94% maximum </li></ul>Performance Charge times: V IN = 240V 5 minutes and 2 seconds V IN = 320V 4 minutes and 32 seconds V IN = 360V 4 minutes and 24 seconds PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  46. 46. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Possible to charge four ultracaps in series within five minutes </li></ul>Conclusions and recommendations PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  48. 48. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>PDC, Eindhoven <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  49. 49. Discussion PDC, Eindhoven Why don’t you just…..? What will happen if…..? What was meant by…..? Is it possible to…..? <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Present emergency ballast </li></ul><ul><li>Overall design </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra capacitor </li></ul><ul><li>Charge converter </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  50. 50. Thank you for your attention!

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