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Human Development-Chapter 7-Physical Development of Infants
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Human Development-Chapter 7-Physical Development of Infants


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  • 1. Human Development I Chapter 7 Physical Development of Infants
  • 2. Learning Objective and FCS Standards Learning Objective: Students will understand how a baby develops physically in the first year. Also identify what influences development and care that babies need in the first year of life. FCS Standards:06-12.5.1, 5.A, 5.B, 5.C
  • 3. Patterns of Development Growth: changes in size, such as weight and length. Development: Increase in skills and changes in physical, emotional, social, or intellectual skills.
  • 4. Physical Development Follows 3 basic patterns Head to foot  head is first to develop, even in the womb  Babies can first control their headthen their arms, hands Near to far  starts close to trunk of body and moves outward  Goes from waving to grasping Simple to complex  large muscle groups develop first, then more complex movements, requiring small muscle development.
  • 5. Developmental Milestones Developmental milestones: Certain skills that are acquired at certain times in a child’s life. Child development experts have studied the range of ages to determine the averages ages at which children acquire certain skills. These are used to check progress.
  • 6. What influences a child’s growth and development? Why might some kids reach the development milestones on time and others reach the developmental milestone late?
  • 7. Influences on Growth and Development  Heredity: the gene effect-traits passed down from generation to generation  Nutrition: essential nutrients found in food can influence how a baby grows and develops. Not getting enough can place baby at risk for illness, delayed growth, even death.  Health: through good health, baby is able to explore his/her environment and therefore grow and develop normally  Experiences: when a child experiences a variety of things, it stimulates their brain to develop  Environment: stimulating environment: one in which the baby has a wide variety of things to see, taste, smell, hear, and touch-enhances brain development. Poor stimulation can lead to weaker connections in the brain and delayed development.
  • 8. The growth and development of a child during the first year of life is dramatic. What changes are obvious from these photos?
  • 9. Growth During the First Year From birth to age one, babies typically triple their birth weight and increase their length by 50%. Doctors judge this by using growth charts: shows the average weight and height of girls and boys at various stages. Doctors are more concerned that a baby is steadily growing, versus meeting a certain weight or height at a certain time.
  • 10. Average Lengths and Weights 0-12 months Males Females Age Length/Inches Weight/Pounds Length/Inches Weight/Pounds Birth 19 ¾ 7 ½ 19 ½ 7 ½ 3 Months 24 13 23 ½ 12 ¼ 6 Months 26 ½ 17 ½ 25 ½ 15 ½ 9 Months 28 20 ½ 27 ½ 18 ¾ 12 Months 29 22 ½ 29 21
  • 11. Weight One of the best signs of good health. Initially a newborn loses about 10% of their weight, however after that they begin to gain rapidly. Weight should triple by the end of year one. One-year-olds usually weigh 20-22 lbs. Boys usually weigh more than girls.
  • 12. Length Bone growth is rapid during the first year. The average newborn is 20 inches. A year later, they are about 30 inches. Not all babies grow at the same rate and boys are usually slightly longer than girls. Heredity plays a bigger part in height than weight.
  • 13. Body Shape Babies change from holding their extremities close to their bodies and in a curled up position to stretching out. Legs and feet straighten out. They look chubby by 3 months, but will lose some of this as they become more active. When babies begin to practice standing, they lean forward slightly and have a protruding belly.
  • 14. Proportion Proportion: the size relationship between different parts of the body Baby’s head and abdomen are large compared to the rest of the body. More than half of the head’s total growth happens during this time. Fontanels allow the head to grow. Legs and arms are short and small compared to the rest of the body.
  • 15. Activity… Complete Infant Growth Rates worksheet
  • 16. Development During the First Year Vision How far can an infant see?  At birth: 7-10 inches  1 month: 3 feet  6 months: eyesight is almost fully developed, clarity and sharpness close to an adult Babies first see the world two-dimensionally, but by the second month, the infant develops depth perception: the ability to perceive objects that are three-dimensional.  How would this change affect how they interact with the world?
  • 17. Development During the First Year Vision Colors are important to a baby. They prefer patterns that show high contrast: stripes, bull’s eye, simple faces. Typically look at red and blue most often. If baby has one eye that looks slightly crossed or both are this way, this typically improves by 4 months when the eye muscles strengthen.
  • 18. Development During the First Year Hearing  Babies can hear, even in the womb.  At birth, a baby can tell which direction a sound comes from.  Newborns respond to tone rather than words.  By seven months, babies recognize their parents’ voice.  Language development begins early by hearing and eventually imitating sounds.  Premies and babies with frequent ear infections can have problems developing language.
  • 19. Development During the First Year Touch Newborns rely on the touch of others to teach them about their environment. Meeting a baby’s needs through gentle touch, builds trust. Sense of touch continues to develop, as they are able to explore their environment. They begin to notice differences in texture and explore different objects.
  • 20. Development During the First Year Smell and Taste Sense of smell doesn’t have a chance to develop until after birth, But by 10 days old, a baby can distinguish the scent of mom from another person. Sense of taste also develops rapidly. Even 2- week-old babies prefer sweet tastes over others. Babies learn by putting things in their mouth. It’s important to watch them closely for this reason.
  • 21. Development During the First Year Voice The shrill cry of a newborn becomes softer as baby’s lungs mature. Throat muscles, tongue, lips, teeth, and vocal cords all mature as well, preparing the baby for the ability to speak. At 3 months, baby begins making vowel sounds (“ooh”, “ah”). By age one, babies may imitate speech sounds and understand simple phrases.
  • 22. Motor Skills- Much of the physical development in the first year is in muscle movement, or motor skills Gross Motor Skills large motor skills Involve large muscles, such as legs and shoulders Allow for movements like running, jumping. Fine Motor Skills small motor skills Involve the smaller muscles, such as the fingers Used in writing and using scissors.
  • 23. Gross Motor Skills Fine Motor Skills
  • 24. What do you think would happen?  You are holding your 3 month old baby and walking along the pool. No one else is around. You trip and fall and hit your head. Your baby falls into the pool.  What is going to happen to your baby?
  • 25. Your baby would swim!  Swimming Reflex If you hold an infant over water or place them in water. ○ Move arms and legs in a coordinated swimming motion ○ Hold their breath ○ Disappears between 6-12 months ○ Let’s watch them swim! Video 1, Video 2  These are called INFANT REFLEXES automatic reactions to help a babies chance of survival
  • 26. Infant Reflexes Stepping reflex Hold an infant so feet touch a surface They will lift legs up and down as if their were walking Disappears at 3-4 months Video Crawling reflex Place infant on stomach and stroke the soles of their feet They will move arms and legs as if they were crawling. Disappears at 3 months Would they actually walk or crawl?
  • 27. Infant Reflexes Rooting Stroke the baby’s cheek or side of mouth Baby will turn head towards the stimulus and begin sucking Disappears 3-4 months Sucking Place an object in baby’s mouth Baby begins sucking Disappears 3-4 months What would happen if a baby was born without these reflexes? What about 100 years ago? Rooting/Sucking video
  • 28. Infant Reflexes Grasping Touch a baby’s palm or place something in their palm Baby will grasp it tightly with their hand Weakens after 3 months and disappears after a year Video Moro-startle If a baby hears a loud noise of the sensation of being dropped Startle – baby will arch their back, throw their head back, fling their arms and legs and then rapidly close them to the center of their body Disappears 3-4 months Video 1, Video 2
  • 29. Infant Reflexes  Asymmetric Tonic Neck Place an infant on their back ○ Baby’s head turns to one side, the limbs on the face side extend while the limbs on the opposite side flex (fencer position) ○ Disappears at 2 months My son-Adam, 2 months
  • 30. Infant Care Skills Baby’s Do’s and Don’ts
  • 31. Infant Care Skills Handling Babies Make sure to support their head- especially until they can hold up their head without support (3-4 months). Rocking, holding a baby close, swaddling, and patting their back can be soothing. BABIES NEED TO BE HELD.
  • 32. Shaken Baby Syndrome Shaken baby syndrome: a condition that occurs when someone severely shakes a baby, usually in an effort to make them stop crying. Can lead to serious brain damage, cerebral palsy, blindness, fractures, neck or spine injuries, or even death.
  • 33. Shaken Baby Syndrome What to do if you are close to the breaking point: Put the baby down and go to another room to calm down. Ask a friend or relative to care for the baby for a while. Talk to someone. Call a parenting hotline.
  • 34. Ensuring Adequate Sleep Sleep safety  Choose a safe bed  No fluffy blankets, pillows, or stuffed animals.  Place baby face up  Don’t allow baby to sleep in bed with adults. Sleep is essential for growth and development!
  • 35. Feeding Babies birth to 6 months-breast milk or formula 6 months-solid foods can be introduced 12 months-most calories should come from solid foods, still drinking breast milk or milk Babies will eat through the night-about every 3 hours. When a baby weighs about 12 lbs., they no longer need a late-night feeding, as their stomachs are big enough to get them through the night.
  • 36. Nutritional Concerns Malnutrition: inadequate nutrition  It’s important for baby to get nutritious, well-balanced meals.  They should get to eat when they are hungry-not just during regular meal times. Allergies-tend to run in families. Symptoms can include puffy, itchy eyes or hives, up to anaphylactic shock: life- threatening condition which can prevent a person from breathing.  Excessive fussiness, vomiting almost all food after eating, watery stools can be signs of allergies in babies.
  • 37. Baby’s Health Teething: the process of the teeth pushing their way through the gums. When teeth start to appear, they should be cleaned with a moist cloth.
  • 38. Baby’s Health Regular Check-ups  The first checkup is done within a day of birth-includes a thorough check, including blood test.  Weight, length, head circumference are tracked over the next year.  Additional check-ups occur at 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months. Illness to look for-irritability, lack of energy, constipation, nasal congestion, persistent coughing, diarrhea, rashes, vomiting, fever.
  • 39. Baby’s Health Immunizations: giving the body a small amount of a disease-carrying germ so the body can build resistance to the disease.  Most commonly done through a vaccine: the disease carrying germ is injected into the body.  Very important part of caring for a baby’s health.
  • 40. Baby Care Skills Create a Pamphlet for new parents Dressing Bathing Diapering Feeding Sleeping