Human Development II - Guidance Problems
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  • 1. Human Development II Chapter 14 Guidance Problems Learning Objective: Students will analyze the cause of behavioral problems, both environmental and personal experience, and effective ways of dealing with these problems. FCS Standard: Child Development Standard 5
  • 2. What causes behavior problems in young children?   Some are related to the environment and some are related to the child themselves. As a teacher, it is your job to understand these causes and help children learn how to deal with difficult situations or emotions properly.
  • 3. Environmental Causes  Overstimulation: becoming overexcited.   Causes: too many children in one area, too many activities, special occasions. The degree a child is affected differs from child to child. What to do: Limit the number of children in an area.  Don’t announce special occasions to early.  Reduce the number of activities. 
  • 4. More Environmental Causes   Breaks in routine-disruption in nap time, differences between home and daycare or school, special occasions that disrupt a routine. How to help…   Balance type of activity-active vs. quiet. Prepare a child for change in routinewhat will happen and what you expect from them.
  • 5. More Environmental Causes   Noise-some are more sensitive than others, can cause a variety of reactions-getting away from noise, becoming physically aggressive, withdrawing. What to do…   Keep music and TV levels down. Don’t yell-this will only cause a chain reaction, and then CHAOS!!
  • 6. Even More Environmental Causes   Waiting Time-Children are, by nature, active most of the time. If they have to wait too long, behavior problems may occur. Like what?? What to do…    Manage your time wisely. Be prepared. Have something for them to do in the meantime.
  • 7. Causes of Behavioral Problems Due To A Child’s Personal Experience  Frustration: When children feel defeated, discouraged, or that they aren’t in control.   Can occur when the activity is too advanced, there is no way to let out bottled up energy, forcing children into activities, fights over toys. What to do…     Provide a variety of activities. Provide many of the same types of toys. Help kids pick developmentally appropriate activities. Stay calm.
  • 8. Other Personal Experiences That Cause Behavioral Problems   Physical Problems-poor health, poor nutrition, certain medical problems or disease, medications, prolonged illness. What to do…     Don’t just assume a child is trying to be “naughty”. Take time to observe the child. Talk to the parents. Adjust for their needs accordingly.
  • 9. Stress and Young Children  Stress: the body’s reaction to physical or emotional danger signals.    Stress can be both positive and negative for kids and adults. What a child observes in adults and their own management of stress has a major impact on the child’s own development of coping skills. Inadequate daycares can be a possible stressor for children.
  • 10. Family Stressors   The family can buffer stress or can be a source of stress. A family crisis can cause major stress for everyone involved. What are some examples?     These situations lead to a decreased sense of security and predictability. Children can be irritable, have difficulty eating, sleeping, or become clingy. This is normal. Being constantly active is another source of minor stress. If the family schedule is hectic, this can catch up with a young child. Reactions will differ depending on the child.
  • 11. Effects of Stress for Young Children  Prolonged stress in early childhood can undermine healthy brain development.   Neuroscientists believe there is a “window of opportunity” (birth to 3 years) in which children learn to control emotions and cope with stress. This actually affects the development of the brain. When children are exposed to abuse, neglect, or constant stress, the body releases chemicals that impact the brain’s complex wiring.
  • 12. Signs of Stress   Regression: showing behaviors that were typical at earlier stages of development. Examples: toileting problems and thumbsucking Other possible signs: look on pg. 226
  • 13. Communicating With Families About Stress  A daycare provider or teacher is in a partnership with parents.     Ask parents to keep you informed of changes or stressors at home. If the provider notices changes in a child, communicate with the parents. The more consistency between parents and daycare givers/teachers, the better. Be sensitive to parents needs as well.
  • 14. Helping Children Cope   Try to understand how the child feels. They can’t handle stress like adults can. Keep these things in mind..       Observe changes Don’t criticize a child’s behavior. Help them talk about their feelings. Offer support, reassurance, and an affectionate environment. Correct misconceptions they may have about themselves. It’s never to early to teach coping skills.
  • 15. Specific Problem Behaviors  Negativism: Especially evident in children 2-3 year old. They are trying to become more independent.   What to do: Accept it, unless safety or health is affected. Be firm and expect cooperation. Don’t hurry the child. Stealing: When children are under age 3, they are not stealing. Still figuring out the difference between mine and yours.  What to do: Don’t ask them why, just make them return it. Have kids ask others for permission. Minimize the opportunity for stealing.
  • 16. More Problem Behaviors  Anger: As a child gets older, physical expression turns to verbal. These situations are opportunities to help a child deal with anger.   What to do: Provide opportunities to release the anger, stop hurting behavior, ignore outbursts, catch children before it gets out of control. Biting: Form of body language for a 2year-old.  What to do: Avoid large groups, isolate the child temporarily, don’t allow them to bite back.
  • 17. More Problem Behaviors  Tattling: Children will sometimes do this to get attention. Listen, but tell them you don’t need to be told when a child misbehaves.   What to do: Give kids your attention to build their self-esteem, ignore the tattling and encourage kids to problem solve for themselves. Exploring the Body: This begins as early as 1-year-old. Interest in their genital areas increases with potty training and becoming aware of sex differences.  What to do: Don’t shame or threaten a child. Tell them that touching their private areas is not appropriate to do in public. Speak to the child in private.
  • 18. More Problem Behaviors  Thumsucking: 18 months is when it reaches it’s peak. Will usually decrease the older a child gets and stops by 6 or 7. One way a child may comfort themselves.   What to do: For young children, try a pacifier. Accept and ignore thumbsucking for older children. Fear: Imaginary fears are outgrown, but real fears may continue.  What to do: Accept the fear, comfort them when they are scared, but also talk to them about their fear, help them learn to face their fears gradually, allow them to act out their fears