Human Development I - Chapter 12 - Intellectual Development, Ages 1-3

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  • 1. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT I Chapter 12 Intellectual Development from One to Three
  • 2.  A Baby and A Magazine
  • 3. Intelligence  Intelligence: the ability to interpret and understand everyday situations and to use prior experiences when faced with new situations or problems.   Shaped both by heredity and environment. Everyone is born with certain limits of possible intellectual development, however a person’s potential is greatly influenced by that person’s environment.
  • 4. Methods of Learning  Incidental learning: unplanned learning   Example: A 5-month-old finding that when he pushes a button, it makes music. Trial-and-Error Learning: takes place when a child tries several solutions before finding one that works.   Happens with a child as young as 12-18 months, but becomes more complex the older the child is. Example: A 3-year-old trying several different solutions to get his block tower to stand.
  • 5. More Methods of Learning  Imitation: learning by watching and copying others.   Example: A 2-year-old copying the song an older sibling is singing. Directed Learning: learning that results from being taught, often by parents, other caregivers, teachers, or older siblings.   Example: A 5-year-old learning how to write the alphabet by his kindergarten teacher. It’s what you are doing right now!!
  • 6. Concept Development  Concepts: general categories of objects and information.    Toddlers have broad generalizations that have to be sorted out.  Example: thinking every round food is a cookie. Children learn to categorize objects by shape, color, and size.    Occurs in stages Size distinctions come in 2 steps:  1st step: the relationship between 2 items-big and little-may be recognized as early as 18 months.  2nd step: knowing the middle-sized ball out of 3 possibilities. Concepts concerning what is alive and not alive comes later. The concept of time improves during years 2 and 3. How might this affect their patience?
  • 7. The 7 Areas of Intellectual Activity 1. Attention 2. Memory 3. Perception 4. Reasoning 5. Imagination 6. Creativity 7. Curiosity
  • 8. Attention   Infants and very young children aren’t able to block out much sensory information and focus on one thing. As they get older, their attention span develops and they are able to learn more.
  • 9. Memory   Without memory, there would be no learning. Older adults and children have both short and long-term memory.     Something must first enter short-term memory, before it can become part of long-term. Babies demonstrate memory early-it’s based on food and faces. Between 6 months and 1 year, babies develop recall memory: the ability to remember more for longer periods of time, especially those that have a strong emotional impact. As children grow, they develop long-term memory. A 3 year-old can remember past celebrations and look forward to the next one.
  • 10. Perception   As a child grows, their brains use the sensory information they are receiving more effectively. Descriptive observations help children develop their perception. Also answering all of the Why? How? What’s that? questions develops perception.
  • 11. Reasoning    Necessary to gain the ability to solve problems, make decisions, recognizing relationships, and forming concepts. Simple problem solving occurs at 4-6 months and becomes more sophisticated as a child grows. It’s important to give children practice making their own decisions.
  • 12. Imagination     Becomes apparent at 2 years. Enhances learning by trying new things and acting out a variety of roles. Imagination also helps children connect what they see and hear with themselves. Imagination can also help children cope with anxiety and frustration.
  • 13. Creativity  Creativity: imagination is used to produce original ideas.  Examples: finger painting, silly stories, dramatic play.
  • 14. Curiosity   Causes a child to wonder why? and how? or to try new things. It’s important for a child to have a safe environment, but still be allowed to explore and be curious.
  • 15. Encouraging Learning From 1-3    Children can’t learn more than what they are physically and intellectually ready to learn. However, if children are not encouraged to learn when they are ready, they may experience problems in the future. A child’s readiness to learn depends much on the environment the caregivers create.
  • 16. Reading Readiness   R eading Readiness: learning skills necessary for reading. Before age three this involves…     After age three this involves…    Learning how to handle books. Beginning to associate written words with the words being spoken. Feeling a sense of accomplishment when finishing a book and choosing what is read next. Letter recognition. Understanding letters combine to form words. Enthusiasm from the caregiver about reading goes a
  • 17. Math Readiness   Math Readiness: the level of knowledge of basic math concepts, such as number recognition, needed for learning math. Encouraging math readiness:    Teach numbers every chance you get-use everyday examples. Teach shape recognition-blocks, puzzles, sorting. Allow children to explore their environment.
  • 18. Guiding Learning            Give your time and attention. Allow time for thinking. Give only as much help as the child needs. Encourage children to draw their own conclusions. Demonstrate how to solve problems. Model problem solving. Maintain a positive attitude. Keep explanations simple and on a child’s level. Allow children to explore and discover. Help children understand the world and how it works. Take frequent breaks.
  • 19. Appropriate Toys for Ages 1-3  Ages 1-2     Ages 2-3    Toys that allow motor control. Learning through exploration. Some toy possibilities-household items, riding toys, books, simple puzzles. Make sure they aren’t too small. Toys that allow them to role play-child-sized vacuum, shopping cart, play dishes and food. Also crayons, play dough, books, sandbox. Ages 3-4   Toys encouraging their imagination-dolls, construction sets. Also crayons, paint, scissors, books, tricycles, swings and slides.
  • 20. Speech Development › Vocabulary develops rapidly ›    › › 12 months: 2-8 words 18 months: 50 words 2 years: 200 words 3 years: 600-1000 words By age 3 they speak using complete sentences Children understand more words than they can say
  • 21. Speech Difficulties     Children develop speech at different rates. If a child doesn’t seem to understand what is said, doesn’t speak at all, or speaks very little may need an examination. Speech-language pathologist: a specialist who is trained to detect and correct speech problems. Treating speech problems can begin as early as age 3. The earlier the better.
  • 22. Speech Difficulties   Articulation: the ability to use clear, distinct speech.  Problems with articulation are common until age 3-4. Stuttering: occurs when a person speaks with sporadic repetition or prolonged sounds.  Some children may seem to stutter, but their thinking and speaking abilities are just immature.  Stuttering is usually the repetition of the beginning sound of a word and involves differences in rhythm, pitch, and speed of speech.