Human Development I-Chapters 5-6

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Human Development I-Chapters 5-6

  1. 1. Human Development I Chapters 5-6 • Preparing For Baby’s Arrival • The Baby’s Arrival
  2. 2. Learning Objectives and FCS Standards  Learning Objective: Students will identify the medical care a pregnant woman receives, how she should care for herself during pregnancy, describe the decisions and preparations of parenthood, and identify newborn characteristics.  FCS Standards: FCS 4.A, 5.B, 5.C
  3. 3. Early Signs of Pregnancy  A missed menstrual period  A full feeling or mild ache in the lower abdomen  Feeling tired or faint  A frequent need or urge to urinate  Swollen breasts causing discomfort  Nausea and/or vomiting particularly in the morning
  4. 4. Who cares for the pregnant woman  Obstetrician  a doctor who specializes in pregnancy and child birth-for medical care during pregnancy.  Family Doctor  Midwife  trained to assist women in childbirth
  5. 5. Where can baby be delivered?  Hospitals  has only happed for about the last 100 years. Mom and baby will usually stay for 2-3 days. Government requires insurance to pay for at least 2 days.  Home  only if pregnancy is low risk, newborns born at home are 2x as likely to die if problems arise.  Alternative Birth Centers  more homelike environment and focus on natural childbirth with no pain control. Close to hospital if problems should arise. Midwife usually delivers.
  6. 6. Types of Birth  Vaginal  Cesarean or C-section  Premature Birth-Those born before 37 weeks and weighing less than 5 lbs. 8 oz.  Causes can include teenage births, multiple births, other medical problems  Require special care to help control their body temperature, breathing, and feeding.  Baby is placed in an incubator: oxygen supply, temperature, and humidity can be closely controlled.  Babies may grow to be completely healthy or my have long-term health problems.
  7. 7. The First Exam  Includes:  checking blood pressure, pulse, respiration, weight.  Discussion of medical history  Measurement of pelvis  Urine analysis-checking for infection, diabetes  Blood tests  An approximate date is determined
  8. 8. Later Check-ups  Check-ups happen once a month until about the 6th or 7th month, then twice a month, and during the last month-once a week.  Between 24-28 weeks, a glucose tolerance test is done to check for gestational diabetes.  Mom is also monitored for preeclampsia: high blood pressure and the presence of protein in the mother’s urine.
  9. 9. Nutrition During Pregnancy  The old idea of eating for two is incorrect.  Mom needs about 300 extra calories a day-a bit more of each food group than normal-especially fruits rich in vitamin C and leafy green veggies, and she should drink lots of water.  She should stay away from raw eggs, undercooked meats, milk or cheese that is not pasteurized, and certain fish.  It’s also important to exercise and get plenty of rest.
  10. 10.  Nutrition During Pregnancy activity
  11. 11. Preparing for Parenthood  Do they have all the clothes, equipment and space they need?  Diapering needs  Clothing  Feeding equipment  Bedding/bedroom  bathing/hygiene supplies  Travel equipment
  12. 12. Must make decisions about…  Feeding  Breast or bottle feed?  Choosing a pediatrician  A doctor who specializes in treating children  Money (make a new budget)  Balancing work and family  How much time will each parent take off from work?
  13. 13. Maternity or Paternity Leave  Time a mom or dad take off from work after a baby is born.  Family Medical Leave Act:  employers with more than 50 workers must offer 12 weeks of unpaid family or medical leave to new mothers and fathers.
  14. 14. Characteristics of a Newborn  Baby’s head looks large and is actually about ¼ of the baby’s total height.  The skull bones are not fully fused creating fontanels: open spaces on the baby’s head where the bones and not yet joined.  The face and eyes may look swollen.  Their noses are flat and short and they have a receding chin. Why??
  15. 15. Characteristics of a Newborn  Some babies have lanugo: fine, downy hair growing on their foreheads, backs, and shoulders.  Baby is covered with vernix: a thick white pasty substance that covers the skin. Made of the baby’s shed skin cells and secretions from glands in the skin.  Some babies also have milia: tiny white bumps on their nose and cheeks, which are plugged oil ducts caused by mom’s hormones.
  16. 16. Examining the Newborn  Apgar scale: a system of rating the physical condition of a newborn.  5 factors  heart rate  Breathing  muscle tone  response to stimulation  skin color  checked at 1 minute after birth and again after 5 minutes.  They are rated on a scale from 0-2 and added together. Normal score is from 6- 10. Newborn Apgar T
  17. 17. Examining the Newborn  Baby is also weighed, measured, cleaned.  Antibiotic drops or ointment are put in the eyes to prevent infection.  Baby often receives a shot of vitamin K.  Baby’s foot prints are done and identification bands are attached to the baby’s ankle and to the mother and father’s wrist. Newborn care immediately after birth
  18. 18. The Postnatal Period  Bonding  Forming emotional ties between parents and child.  Neonatal period  the first month after the baby is born.  Average stay in the hospital is 2-3 days.
  19. 19. The Postnatal Period  Jaundice: a condition that occurs in over 50% of newborns.  Causes the baby’s skin and eyes to look yellow.  Occurs when the liver can’t remove bilirubin, which is produced by the breakdown of red blood cells. Baby may be producing too much or the liver isn’t removing it quickly enough.  If left untreated, it can damage the nervous system.  Treated by phototherapy: use of ultraviolet light to help the liver do its job.
  20. 20. The Postnatal Period  In the hospital…  Lactation Consultants: professional breastfeeding specialists, may become involved  Rooming-in: the degree in which baby spends time with mom in her room. Partial means baby spends part of the time in the nursery  Legal documents-the process for the birth certificate and social security numbers are started.
  21. 21. Caring for Premature Babies  Neonatal intensive care unit: (NICU) unit in hospital that has special equipment and highly trained nurses to care for premature babies.  The earlier a baby is born, the more complications and medical care it requires.  Advances in medical care have allowed for premature babies survival rate to increase. They may be fed through a feeding tube and breathing machines may be used to help baby breathe  Premies can usually leave the hospital when they are off of most machines, can eat and breathe on their own, and are steadily gaining weight.
  22. 22. Mom’s needs during the postnatal period  Rest  Exercise  Nutrition  Medical checkups- 4-6 weeks after the birth.  Emotional needs of mom are also considered and she is monitored for postpartum depression.
  23. 23. Breast Feeding vs. Bottle Feeding  Activity  Review the chart on page 165.  Complete the worksheet.

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