Human Development - Chapter 10, Physical Development, Ages 1-3


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Human Development - Chapter 10, Physical Development, Ages 1-3

  1. 1. Physical Development Ages 1-3
  2. 2.  Learning Objective: Students will identify how growth is changing, compared to the first year, what physical developmental milestones occur from the age of 1-3, and what care skills are important for the 1-3 year old (sleeping, nutrition, self care, and health and safety).  FCS Standards: 06-12.5.1, 5.A, 5.B, 5.C
  3. 3.  1-3 year olds  Why do we call them “toddlers”?
  4. 4.  Between the ages of one and three, children take short, tottering steps, called toddling, when they are learning to walk
  5. 5.  3-5 year olds  Why do we call them “preschoolers”?
  6. 6.  Growth slows down.  Children begin to show greater variation in size.  The size different continues through life. A tall 2 year old often grows to be a tall adult.
  7. 7.  Posture  By the ages of 3, a child stands straighter  Arms  improves legs and torso lengthen. Improves balance and coordination
  8. 8. 1 year old – 8 teeth  2 year old – 16 teeth  3 year old – 20 teeth   To prevent tooth decay a child should:     Have a diet high in Calcium and Vitamin D Drink tap water with floride Limit sweets and sugary drinks Don’t send a bottle to bed with a child Brush teeth daily. Teach and monitor teeth brushing.  See a dentist about 18 months old 
  9. 9.  Both gross and fine motor skills improve dramatically.  Gross  Climb  walk  run  jump  Fine    Motor Skills Motor Skills Stack blocks Turn knobs Eat with spoon
  10. 10.  1-year-olds   sleep about 6 or more hours a night nap for several hours a day  2-3 year-olds need 10-14 hours of sleep a day  Usually have an afternoon nap  Having a bedtime routine is important!
  11. 11.  Fear of the dark  Nightmares  Night terrors: a type of sleep disturbance that occurs during the first few hours of sleep, when children are sleeping deeply.  What to do: be reassuring  turn off disturbing TV  reduce the stress in their life 
  12. 12.  The eating habits formed at this age will influence eating for the rest of a child’s life.  It’s important to offer a variety of healthy foods and allow the child to pick.  Continue exposing them to foods that they don’t eat, as their tastes and habits may change.
  13. 13.  Children 1-2 years old don’t need to eat as often as compared to the 1st year, but their stomachs are still small. Still need to eat every 3-4 hours.  The amount they eat day to day can vary greatly. Why is this??
  14. 14.  Be a good role model.  Let them help in the kitchen.  Don’t use food as a reward or withhold food as a punishment.  Encourage water vs. sugary drinks.
  15. 15.  One-year-olds:     Two-year-olds:   Finger foods Should avoid hard foods-carrots Can use a spoon Can use utensils, but it may take a while to eat. Three-year-olds:    Usually have all of their primary teeth, so chewing is no problem. Are skillful with utensils. Meats still need to be cut into small pieces.
  16. 16.  Color: Provide a variety of color.  Texture: Provide a variety of textures.  Shape: Be creative. (cut foods using a cookie cutter, cut foods into shapes)  Temperature: meal.  Ease Serve both hot and cold in a of eating: They are more likely to eat what is easy to eat-cut up spaghetti, use ground beef instead of steak.
  17. 17.  Complete Planning Meals for Young Children
  18. 18.  Bath more often as they get older. WHY?  Slowly transfer the responsibility of bathing and washing to the child. By the age of 3, they would be able to do it all by themselves.  Safety    in the tub is very important. A child can drown in 1 in. of water. Never leave a child alone in the tub. Be careful of falls.
  19. 19.  Most are ready about 2-3 years old  How to know if they are ready:  Physically a child must be able to control their bladder and bowel function.    Sphincter muscles: muscles that help regulate elimination. This level of maturity is typically reached at 18 months. Emotionally a child needs to show an interest and want to use the toilet.  Children have to be able to dress and undress themselves.  It’s best to start during calm period in a child’s life.  Expect accidents and never scold a child for an accident!
  20. 20.  Checkups occur at 12, 15, 18, and 24 months and then usually yearly.  Illnesses are common and usually minor. Children’s immune systems are not as strong as adults.  Illnesses like the flu can be life threatening.   See a doctor if you are concerned!
  21. 21.  Make a list of things a caregiver should do to provide a safe environment for a child.
  22. 22.  Be aware of choking hazards-children should stay seated when eating and be monitored by an adult.  Toys should be safe and not include small parts that can break off or be removed.  Keep all poisons locked up.  Keep children away from candles, matches, fireplaces, etc. They should know some basic fire safety at this age.  Car seats-They should ALWAYS be a in a car seat, and be placed in the back seat.  Watch kids around pets.  Keep them protected from the sun.