Chapter 2 - Types of Programs

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  • 1. Human Development II Chapter 2-Types of Early Childhood Programs Learning Objectives: Students will compare and contrast various types of early childhood programs and how they are funded. FCS Standard: Child Development Standard 1
  • 2. Writing Prompt… What might parents look for when making decisions about childcare and early education?  What kinds of questions might they ask when making a decision? 
  • 3. Types of Childcare Programs  Family Child Care  Care provided in a person’s home  Some mainly provide custodial care (meeting the child’s basic needs), but others may provide more curriculum for the children.  Should be licensed, but this is hard to regulate  Child Care Centers  Meet basic needs and education, depending on skills of staff  Most are open early and stay open late. Some are open 24 hours a day.
  • 4. More Childcare Programs  Montessori Schools  Based on the methods of education established by Maria Montessori (the first woman in Italy to receive a degree in medicine). Early 1900s  Primary goal of the Montessori Approach is for children to “learn how to learn”.  Stresses independence, sensory training, academics, practical life experiences, and prescribed sequence
  • 5. Childhood Programs Cont.  Head Start  Started in the 1960s by the federal government to overcome negative effects of poverty  Mainly education for four and five-year-olds, but some have started programs for infants and toddlers. Some also have before and after-care  Operates year-round and children typically attend for half of the day  Curriculum is designed to build self-esteem. Staff encourage self confidence, curiosity, and self-discipline  Nutrition is stressed-required to provide one snack and one hot meal.  Health-all children are given a full health plan  Also stressed parental involvement
  • 6. More Programs-Kindergarten       Developed in 1837 by Fredrick Froebel in Germany. Curriculum stressed play First American kindergarten opened in 1856 in Wisconsin Restricted to children who are at least 4 y.o. Schedules vary from full-day to half-day and other variations Goals-respect for others, develop positive feelings about school, positive self-concept, growth in language, social, physical, creative skills, problem-solving, independence, interpersonal skills, appreciation of objects of beauty Curriculums vary from very academic to more relaxed. Also involve free play and instruction in science, math, language, and social studies
  • 7. Even More Programs…  School-Age Child Care Programs    Care for before and after school Check-in service is another option Parent Cooperatives       Formed and run by parents who want to have a part in their child’s preschool experience Development experiences are also available for adults Advantages-parents take care of the logistics so teachers have more time to teach, parents develop strong bonds with teachers Disadvantages-Teacher doesn’t have a lot of control. Differences of opinion may develop Usually operate for 2-3 hours 2-5 days a week, schedules vary Fees are usually less. Parents act as classroom aides and volunteer for other duties
  • 8. More Options…  Laboratory Schools  Also called campus schools  Located on a postsecondary or college campus  Provide excellent child care, but main focus is to train future teachers  Most are well-planned, have good curriculums, are staffed with highly qualified people, and have good equipment
  • 9. More Program Options  High School Child Care Programs  Provide preschool for children of students, faculty, and community members  Provides vocational training for students who are interested in early childhood-some observe, some are more involved, including planning the curriculum, under supervision of teacher.
  • 10. Sponsorship of Early Childhood Centers  Public  Funded by federal, state, or local government. May come through school or social services Head Start is an example. No fee is required, unless income exceeds federal guidelines. Usually funded by grants.  State funded may be housed in a school  Other support comes from parental fees, United Way, donations, tuition. 
  • 11. Sponsorship Cont.  Private-rely on parent fees  Privately sponsored program-may be operated by a church, hospital, charitable organization. Many are non-profit and are operated as a service to the community  Private programs that are independently owned are operated by families who want to make a profit  National Child Care Chains-operated by large national corporations, however some are privately held.  Often found in large cities and suburban areas  Enrollment must be high to make a profit
  • 12. Sponsorship Cont.  Employer Sponsorship  On-site-located at or near the work site    Off-site-Several companies form a group    May be closer to home, if space is available-can serve other children in community Vendor Model-Companies purchase space in a child care center. Voucher Model-Parents receive a voucher or coupon worth a certain amount of money from the company.    Advantages-you are near your children Disadvantages-commuting with children can be difficult May pay for entire cost, or a portion Allows for parents to choose the daycare Care for ill children-center may provide services or nurse may be sent to the child’s home
  • 13. What parents look for in childcare and early education.        Is it safe and comfortable? What’s the cost? What’s the location? What’s the quality of the program (space, materials, equipment, adult/child ratios, training and experience of staff, is there a lot of turnover, security)? Is the center accredited? What kind of meals and snacks are provided? As a possible future childcare provider you will need to communicate these answers to parents
  • 14. Activity… Choosing a Program  Read the scenario and choose the type of early childhood program that you feel would be best. Explain your reasoning. 
  • 15. Reflection…  Did you attend childcare or early education programs?  If so, what type of program did you attend. Explain your reasoning.  If not, what type of program would you have wanted to attend? Explain.