Human Development II
Chapter 2-Types of Early Childhood
Learning Objectives: Students will compare
and contrast various types of early
childhood programs and how they are
FCS Standard: Child Development
What might parents look for when making
decisions about childcare and early
What kinds of questions might they ask
when making a decision?
Types of Childcare Programs
Family Child Care
provided in a person’s home
Some mainly provide custodial care (meeting the
child’s basic needs), but others may provide more
curriculum for the children.
Should be licensed, but this is hard to regulate
Child Care Centers
basic needs and education, depending on skills
Most are open early and stay open late. Some are
open 24 hours a day.
More Childcare Programs
on the methods of education
established by Maria Montessori (the first
woman in Italy to receive a degree in
medicine). Early 1900s
Primary goal of the Montessori Approach is for
children to “learn how to learn”.
Stresses independence, sensory training,
academics, practical life experiences, and
Childhood Programs Cont.
in the 1960s by the federal government to
overcome negative effects of poverty
Mainly education for four and five-year-olds, but some
have started programs for infants and toddlers. Some
also have before and after-care
Operates year-round and children typically attend for
half of the day
Curriculum is designed to build self-esteem. Staff
encourage self confidence, curiosity, and self-discipline
Nutrition is stressed-required to provide one snack and
one hot meal.
Health-all children are given a full health plan
Also stressed parental involvement
Developed in 1837 by Fredrick Froebel in Germany.
Curriculum stressed play
First American kindergarten opened in 1856 in Wisconsin
Restricted to children who are at least 4 y.o.
Schedules vary from full-day to half-day and other
Goals-respect for others, develop positive feelings about
school, positive self-concept, growth in language, social,
physical, creative skills, problem-solving, independence,
interpersonal skills, appreciation of objects of beauty
Curriculums vary from very academic to more relaxed.
Also involve free play and instruction in science, math,
language, and social studies
Even More Programs…
School-Age Child Care Programs
Care for before and after school
Check-in service is another option
Formed and run by parents who want to have a part in their
child’s preschool experience
Development experiences are also available for adults
Advantages-parents take care of the logistics so teachers have
more time to teach, parents develop strong bonds with teachers
Disadvantages-Teacher doesn’t have a lot of control.
Differences of opinion may develop
Usually operate for 2-3 hours 2-5 days a week, schedules vary
Fees are usually less. Parents act as classroom aides and
volunteer for other duties
called campus schools
Located on a postsecondary or college
Provide excellent child care, but main focus is
to train future teachers
Most are well-planned, have good curriculums,
are staffed with highly qualified people, and
have good equipment
More Program Options
High School Child Care Programs
preschool for children of students,
faculty, and community members
Provides vocational training for students who
are interested in early childhood-some
observe, some are more involved, including
planning the curriculum, under supervision of
Sponsorship of Early Childhood
by federal, state, or local government.
May come through school or social services
Head Start is an example. No fee is required,
unless income exceeds federal guidelines. Usually
funded by grants.
State funded may be housed in a school
Other support comes from parental fees, United
Way, donations, tuition.
Private-rely on parent fees
sponsored program-may be operated by a
church, hospital, charitable organization. Many are
non-profit and are operated as a service to the
Private programs that are independently owned are
operated by families who want to make a profit
National Child Care Chains-operated by large
national corporations, however some are
found in large cities and suburban areas
Enrollment must be high to make a profit
On-site-located at or near the work site
Off-site-Several companies form a group
May be closer to home, if space is available-can serve other children
Vendor Model-Companies purchase space in a child care center.
Voucher Model-Parents receive a voucher or coupon worth a
certain amount of money from the company.
Advantages-you are near your children
Disadvantages-commuting with children can be difficult
May pay for entire cost, or a portion
Allows for parents to choose the daycare
Care for ill children-center may provide services or nurse may be
sent to the child’s home
What parents look for in childcare
and early education.
Is it safe and comfortable?
What’s the cost?
What’s the location?
What’s the quality of the program (space,
materials, equipment, adult/child ratios, training
and experience of staff, is there a lot of turnover,
Is the center accredited?
What kind of meals and snacks are provided?
As a possible future childcare provider you will
need to communicate these answers to parents
Choosing a Program
Read the scenario and choose the type of
early childhood program that you feel
would be best. Explain your reasoning.
Did you attend childcare or early
so, what type of program did you attend.
Explain your reasoning.
If not, what type of program would you have
wanted to attend? Explain.