Nutrition and Your Health
Learning Objectives and FCS
Learning Objective: Students will identify what
influences food choices, how food is used by the
body, including identifying the six nutrients, how
each is used by the body, and what food source
this nutrient comes from. Students will identify
basic knowledge needed to make healthy food
FCS Standards: 06-12.7.1, 7.A, 7.B, 7.D, 7.E
Your food is your fuel. You really are what
Nutrition: The process by which the body
takes in and uses food.
Nutrients: substances in food that your body
needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply
you with energy.
What is a Calorie?
Calories measure the energy a food or beverage
They come from the carbohydrate, fat, protein
Calories are the fuel you need to work and play. You
even need calories to rest and sleep!
Foods and beverages vary in how
many calories and nutrients they contain.
When choosing what to eat and drink, it's important to
get the right mix - enough nutrients, but not too
What influences food choices?
Hunger: a natural physical drive that protects you from
Appetite: a desire, rather than a need to eat.
Family, friends, and peers
Cultural and ethnic background
Convenience and cost
Why is nutrition so important to teens?
You are growing
You may use a lot of energy
You need to stay mentally alert
Helps you feel good
Helps you avoid unhealthful weight gain and
The Six Essential Nutrients
Carbohydrates: the starches and sugars
present in foods. Body’s preferred source of
The role of carbs.
The body converts carbohydrates into glucose, which is
used for energy. If it’s not used right away it becomes
glycogen, which is stored in the muscles and liver. When
more energy is needed, glycogen can be converted back
into glucose. If you consume more carbs than you use right
away or store as glycogen, it’s stored as fat.
More on Carbohydrates
Sugars: such as fructose and lactose (found in milk and fruit)
or sucrose (found naturally in sugar beets or cane and is
refined to make sugar).
Starches: found in whole grain, seeds, nuts, legumes, and
55-60% of your daily calories come from
carbohydrates-mostly complex carbs.
More on Carbohydrates
Fiber: an indigestible complex carbohydrate that is
found in the tough, stringy, parts of vegetables,
fruit, and whole grains.
Not used as energy
Helps the digestive system stay healthy, may also
reduce risk of heart disease and control diabetes.
Nutrients that help build and maintain body cells
Made of amino acids.
Your body can manufacture all but 9 of the 20 different amino
acids that make up proteins.
The 9 you can’t make are called essential amino acids.
Role of proteins
builds new cells and replaces old cells, used to make enzymes,
hormones, and antibodies. Also supply the body with energy.
More on Protein
Classified into complete and incomplete
contain adequate amounts of all nine essential amino acids.
Found in fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt, and
lack one or more of the essential amino acids
Found in beans, peas, nuts, and whole grains
You have to consume a combination of incomplete proteins to
get the equivalent of a complete protein.
Also known as lipids: a fatty substance that
does not dissolve in water.
Need some in your diet for good health.
Provides more than twice the energy of carbs.
Fatty acids the body needs, but can’t produce
are essential fatty acids (found in foods)
More on Fats
Only 20-30% of total daily calories should
come from fat.
Role of fats:
Provide concentrated energy
transport some vitamins in your blood
Essential fatty acids are needed for growth
and healthy skin
More on Fats
solid at room temperature
Found in animal fats (beef, pork, egg yolks, dairy) and
tropical oils (palm, palm kernel, and coconut)
High intake of saturated fats are related to increased risk
of heart disease.
usually liquid at room temperature
Found in olive, canola, soybean, corn, and cottonseed oil.
Associated with a reduced risk of heart disease.
Definition: Waxy, lipid-like substance that circulates in blood.
Your body uses the small amount it manufactures to make cell
membranes, nerve tissue, and produce hormones, vitamin D, and
Excess cholesterol is deposited in arteries which increases the risk
of heart disease.
Eat small amounts of saturated fats such as egg yolks, meats,
especially organ meats, and high-fat milk products because these
foods are related to increased cholesterol production.
Compounds that help regulate many vital body
processes, including digestion, absorption,
and metabolism of other nutrients.
More on Vitamins
Dissolve in water, pass easily into the blood stream
Body doesn’t store these, so you need to replenish them
regularly through your food
C, B1, B2, Niacin, B6, Folic Acid, B12
Absorbed, stored, and transported in fat
These are stored in the body
Excess can become toxic
A, D, E, K
Substances that the body cannot manufacture
Needed for forming healthy bones and teeth
Regulate many vital body processes
Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Iron are some
Vital to every body function
Carries waste from cells
Helps maintain a normal body temperature
You should drink 8 glasses a day
Caffeinated actually cause you to lose some
water through increased urination, possibly
leading to dehydration.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
a set of recommendations for healthful eating and
ABCs of Good Health
Aim For Fitness
Have a Healthy Weight
Be Physically Active Each Day
Build a Healthy Base
The base is MyPlate
A diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol
Choosing beverages that are low in sugar
Prepare foods with less salt
Some Other Things to Remember
Eat a good breakfast!
Pick nutritious snacks.
Choose sensibly when eating out.