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An Add On Nitrifying MBR As Effluent Polishing Technique For Ee2
 

An Add On Nitrifying MBR As Effluent Polishing Technique For Ee2

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    An Add On Nitrifying MBR As Effluent Polishing Technique For Ee2 An Add On Nitrifying MBR As Effluent Polishing Technique For Ee2 Presentation Transcript

    • ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009 Bart De Gusseme B. Pycke, T. Hennebel, A. Marcoen, S. E. Vlaeminck, H. Noppe, N. Boon, W. Verstraete Laboratory of Microbial Ecology & Technology, Ghent University, Belgium
      • An add-on nitrifying membrane bioreactor as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol
      Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009
    • Introduction
      • Municipal WWTPs = constructed for efficient removal of organic nutrients (g/L)
      • Conventional WWTPs ≠ designed for the removal of micropollutants such as PPCP (μg – ng/L)
      • Since discovery of feminization of male fish, growing concern about endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs)
      Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009
    • 17α-ethinylestradiol
      • Estrogens are the most studied and known EDCs
      • 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is the main contributor to estrogenic activity in WWTP effluents
      • (Johnson & Williams, 2004; ES&T, 38: 3649-3658)
      Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009
    • Need for effluent post-treatment
      • EE2 present in WWTP effluents
        • 1-6 ng/L
        • (Cargouet et al., 2004; Sci Tot Environ, 324: 55-66; Vethaak et al., 2005; Chemosp, 59: 511-524; Johnson et al., 2007; Environ Poll, 147: 194-202)
        • up to 106 ng/L
        • (Clara et al., 2005; Wat Res, 39: 97-106)
      • EE2 in receiving surface waters
        • up to 20 ng/L
        • (Barel-Cohen et al., 2006; J Environ Manag, 78: 16-23)
      Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009
    • Need for effluent post-treatment
      • WWTP effluent polishing
        • Techniques
          • Chlorination, UV photolysis, ozonation
          • Activated carbon
          • Membrane filtration
        • Problems
          • High costs
          • F i nal products may still exert endocrine activity
          • Or are potentially toxic/carcinogenic
      Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009 Need for alternative and sustainable WWTP effluent polishing techniques
    • Nitrifying cultures and EE2 removal
      • Researchers demonstrated the degradation of EE2
        • by nitrifying sludge (Vader et al., 2000; Chemosp, 41: 1239-1243)
        • by the AOB Nitrosomonas europaea
        • (Shi et al., 2004; Wat Res, 38: 2323-2330)
      • The enzyme ammonium monooxygenase (AMO) can mediate an EE2/NH 4 + cometabolism (Yi & Harper, 2007; ES&T, 41: 4311-4316)
      • Shi et al. (2004) suggested that
        • AOBs initially degrade EE2 to intermediates
        • These intermediates serve as substrate for heterotrophs
      Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009
    • Research questions
      • 1. Can we use a commercially available nitrifier enrichment culture (NEC) for biological EE2 removal?
      • 2. What is the role of sorption and nitrification in the mechanism?
      • 3. Can we use the NEC in a MBR system for continuous removal?
      Commercially available NEC (ABIL) (Grommen et al., 2002; Aquacult, 211: 115-124; LabMET) AOB: Nitrosomonas NOB: Nitrobacter & Nitrospira Heterotrophic strains Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009
    • 1. Batch incubation experiments
      • Incubation of NEC in minimal (Stanier) medium
        • 0.75 g VSS/L
        • 750 μg EE2/L
        • 52.5 mg NH 4 + -N/L
      • Incubation of NEC in WWTP effluent (Ossemeersen, Gent)
        • C ontaining 1.5 mg NH 4 + -N/L
        • Spiked with 750 μg EE2/L
      • Incubation of heat-treated NEC in minimal medium
        • 121 °C, 30 min
        • To test the role of sorption
      • Negative (biomass-free) control in minimal medium
      Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009
    • 1. Batch incubation experiments Heat-treated NEC B iomass-free control Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009 NEC in WWTP effluent 9 μg EE2/g VSS.h NEC in minimal medium 9 μg EE2/g VSS.h NH 4 + -N : 52.5  < 2 mg/L
      • Take home message:
      1. Batch incubation experiments Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009
      • Biological EE2 removal by NEC in WWTP effluent possible
      • The role of sorption is limited
      • Highest removal rates at low NH 4 + -N conc. : competition?
    • 2. Mechanism
      • Role of nitrification?
        • AMO can mediate EE2/NH 4 + cometabolism (Yi & Harper, 2007; ES&T, 41: 4311-4316)
        • Allylthiourea (ATU) is a specific inhibitor of AMO (Hooper & Terry, 1973; J Bacteriol, 115: 480-485)
        • Incubation of NEC in minimal medium
          • W ithout ATU
          • With 50 mg ATU/L
      Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009
    • 2. Mechanism Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009 EE2 removal ---- Nitrate production 96  1 % removal without ATU Complete nitrification 38  1 % removal with ATU No nitrification
      • Nitrification is driving force for EE2 removal
    • 3. Continuous EE2 removal in MBR A. Reactor design Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009 Influent (tap water containing EE2) Plate membranes Effluent Gas diffuser Sprue with vacuum Air
    • 3. Continuous EE2 removal in MBR B. Operational parameters
      • MBR operated at different HRTs, NH 4 + -N influent concentrations, EE2 loading rates
      • Prevention of biofouling of membranes
        • Low VSS concentration (0.75 g VSS/L)
        • Discontinuous pumping allows relaxation periods
      Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009 100 μg/L 83 ng/L
    • 3. Continuous EE2 removal in MBR C. Reactor performance Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009
      • High EE2 removal efficiency at both μg and ng/L level
      • Flux (7 L/m 2 .h) comparable with practice ( Hoinkis & Panten, 2008; Chem Eng Process, 47: 1159-1164 )
      • Optimal performance at ± 1 mg NH 4 + -N/L input
    • Future perspectives Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009
      • European Directive 91/271/EEC :
      • Total nitrogen in urban WWTP effluent < 10 mg N/L
      Discharge to surface waters Add-on MBR with NEC Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Activated sludge If necessary, d osage of NH 4 + -N to 1 mg/L
    • Conclusions
      • Biological removal of EE2 by a NEC is possible
        • Both in minimal medium and in WWTP effluent (batch)
        • Continuously in a nitrifying MBR
        • Maximum removal rates at minimal ammonium concentrations, suggesting a competition between NH 4 + and EE2 for enzymatic removal
      • Nitrification is driving force in EE2 removal
      • This add-on MBR technology offers perspectives for continuous effluent polishing
        • Low VSS concentrations prevents biofouling of the membranes
        • Minimal ammonium-N input  minimal nitrate-N output
      Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009
    • Acknowledgements Bart De Gusseme (Aspirant), Tom Hennebel (project no. 7741-02) and Siegfried E. Vlaeminck (Aspirant) are supported by the Fund of Scientific Research (FWO)-Flanders Benny Pycke is supported by a PhD grant (IWT-SB/53360) of the Institute for the Promotion of Innovation through Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT) This study was part of the EU Neptune project (ContractNo. 036845, SUSTDEV-2005-3.II.3.2), which was financed by the EU Commission and the Sixth Framework (FP6-2005-Global-4). Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009
    • B. De Gusseme, B. Pycke, T. Hennebel, A. Marcoen, S. E. Vlaeminck, H. Noppe, N. Boon & W. Verstraete
      • Biological removal of 17α-ethinylestradiol by a nitrifier enrichment culture in a membrane bioreactor. Water Research, 43, 2493-2503.
      [email_address] LabMET.UGent.be Bart De Gusseme An add-on MBR as effluent polishing technique for 17α-ethinylestradiol ISEST 2009, Shanghai, June 4, 2009