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HighRise Presentation
 

HighRise Presentation

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Winner \’Best Integrated Design Award\’ (from TechniPlan) as a project manager:

Winner \’Best Integrated Design Award\’ (from TechniPlan) as a project manager:
Workshop High Rise Buildings (TU Delft).

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    HighRise Presentation HighRise Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • TEXT HIGH RISE WORKSHOP FINAL PRESENTATION
    • TEAM 5 2
    • TEAM 5 3 MIRTE de GRAAFF | structural engineer building technology engineer | REMCO KEMPERMANbuilding services engineer | TEUN van SCHIJNDEL RICHARD ter MATEN | structural BIM architect | TIMO CARDOL BART DANKERS | process manager architectural BIM | VINCENT de WIT SASKIA de NIE | sustainable engineer
    • MULTIDISCIPLINARYMULTI DISCIPLINARY TEAM 4 CIVIL ENGINEERING BUILDING TECHNOLOGY REAL ESTATE & HOUSING CIVIL ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE REAL ESTATE & HOUSING ARCHITECTURE REAL ESTATE & HOUSING
    • STATISTICS 5 The past 8 weeks together we spend 2.464 hours on this workshop. We drunk about 1.232 coffees... AND 943 choco-de-luxe
    • TABLE OF CONTENT 6 AMBITION STRATEGY VISION CONCEPTS FINAL CONCEPT HOOGKWARTIER REFLECTION
    • TABLE OF CONTENT 7 AMBITION STRATEGY VISION CONCEPTS FINAL CONCEPT HOOGKWARTIER REFLECTION
    • AMBITION 8 NEED TO MAKE IT FIT AS A TEAM
    • AMBITION 9 ANSWER PEOPLES NEEDS - PHYSIOLOGICAL - SAFETY - BELONGING - ESTEEM - SELF-ACTUALIZATIONTHEORY OF MASLOW
    • AMBITION 10 CREATE SUITABLE HIGH RISE BUILDING FOR ROTTERDAM XL L M S
    • AMBITION 11 WHICH GIVES AN ANSWER TO THE QUESTION OF THE CITY IN HIGH RISE !
    • AMBITION 12 BECAUSE WE WANT TO MAKE AN ATTRACTIVE BUILDING TO EXPRESS THE EXTRA QUALITY OF HIGH RISE
    • AMBITION 13 FOR MANY PEOPLE !!!
    • AMBITION 14 WE WANT TO PROVIDE HORIZONTAL LIVING IN A VERTICAL BUILDING
    • AMBITION 15 TY flows into building BLEND OUR BUILDING WITH THE URBAN FABRIC
    • TABLE OF CONTENT 16 AMBITION STRATEGY VISION CONCEPTS FINAL CONCEPT HOOGKWARTIER REFLECTION
    • STRATEGY 17 BRAINSTORM CREATE OUR WORKFIELDCONVENTIONALIDEAS INNOVATIVE IDEAS UTOPIAN IDEAS
    • STRATEGY 18BIM CYCLES: OPTIMALISATIONSTime line 8 maart 11 maart 18 maart Convert to revit Discuss Build revit model TH 3 TH Find solutions Find errors 2 ST 1
    • STRATEGY 19 1.INITIALISATION INTERACTION OF APPLICATIONS2. VISUALISATION 3. PRESENTATION
    • TABLE OF CONTENT 20 AMBITION STRATEGY VISION CONCEPTS FINAL CONCEPT HOOGKWARTIER REFLECTION
    • VISION 21 “1+1=3” WE BASE OUR DESIGN SOLUTIONS ON ADDED VALUE FOR THE WHOLE OF THE BUILDING
    • VISION 22 Abstract Function Structure Shape Design Make Use Discard re-use Time Architect User | owner | city | community | developer BIM engineer User | owner | city | community | developer Proces manager User | owner | city | community | developer Sustainable engineer User | owner | city | community | developer Building service engineer User | owner | city | community | developer Builtding technolity engineer User | owner | city | community | developer Actors IN THE 3 DIMENSIONS OF THE INTEGRATED DESIGN PROCES
    • VISION 23 Design, Quality, Service, Performance , Status, Rabobank Comfort, Flexibility .......... € LOW COST FOCUS ! DIFFERENTIATION MARKET STRATEGY
    • VISION 24 0h 35min: Amsterdam 0h 20min: Schiphol Rotterdam 0h 40min: Utrecht Londen 0h 35min: Antwerp 2h 14 min: Dusseldorf 1h 10min: Brussels 2h 40 min: Paris LOCATION HAS INFLUENCE ON THE BUILDING: CONNECTIONS WITH BUSSINESS HUBS
    • VISION 25 21002010 WE SEE OUR BUILDING AS AN URBAN AREA THAT WILL BE ADEQUATE FOR A LONG TIME
    • VISION 26 2020 BUILDING HAS INFLUENCE ON ITS SURROUNDINGS
    • VISION 27 2020 N RLIJ IJN S POO ORL SPO AM M T ERD RDA ROT RAAL RO TTE AL T CEN TRA CEN N RLIJ ENA ENA WE WE A COO O O C C COO L N L N LSIN L IN L IN LSIN GEL LIJN E E I GEL B A BAA LIJN I L L N BAA AN N SURROUNDING ROUTING ON ITS SURROUNDINGS
    • VISION 28 WE NEED A DESIGN WHICH IS FLEXIBLE IN USE
    • VISION 29 AND ALSO FLEXIBLE IN SIZE
    • TABLE OF CONTENT 30 AMBITION STRATEGY VISION CONCEPTS FINAL CONCEPT HOOGKWARTIER REFLECTION
    • CONCEPTS 31 SHOWCASE VERTICAL CITY LIGHTHOUSE- MUSCLES IN SIGHT - ONE BUILDING - GOLD NUGGET- FREE FLOORPLAN - ATRIA - ADDED URBAN LEVEL- SILHOUETTE - CITY WALL - EFFICIENT - HUMAN SCALE
    • CONCEPTS 32 Vertical city Lighthouse Showcase Priority EVALUATION DIAGRAM #1 10 value value value ARCHITECT Strengthen the walking route on ground level (station pompenburg centrum) 8 2 1 0 Relation between program on ground level and upper parts of the building 7 1 2 3 Relation between the building and its surrounding context 5 2 3 2 Creating an attractive building that represent the concept of highrise 9 1 2 3 An integrated building design (actors forms functions time) 10 1 0 3 All the spaces in the building have the same level quality 7 2 2 1 BUILDING INFORMATION MODEL Level of integrated design for all design disciplines 10 2 1 3 Error risk during the future proces 8 1 0 2 Consistency in design process 8 3 2 0 PROCESS MANAGER Building is flexible for use 9 2 3 0 The building implementation is feasible 10 1 0 2 Space efficiency 8 1 1 1 Material efficiency 8 1 1 3 Building can be delivered in phases 6 1 1 2 All parts of the program are commercial attractive 10 1 3 3 SUSTAINABLE ENGINEER Smart solutions for energy consumption 7 2 3 1 Closing cycles of energy, water and materials 6 1 1 2 Sustainability is integral incorporated in the design 9 2 2 3 The building can be used flexible in time 7 1 2 3 STRUCTURAL DESIGN Minimal use of materials 9 1 1 1 Contribution of construction to the concept and design 7 1 3 1 Dimished Gross Floor Area needed for construction 8 2 1 2 BUILDING SERVICES efficient horizontal transport 9 2 3 1 Efficient division of installation system 7 0 2 3 Match of the construction with the concept 7 0 2 2 Firesafety of the design 6 0 2 1 comfort of use 9 2 1 1 BUILDING TECHNOLOGY Use the façade to serve the sustainable concept 7 1 3 3 Low maintenance of the building 9 3 2 3 Cold bridges 9 0 3 2 Free floor plans and connection with interior walls 6 1 2 3 No unnecessary large façade area 9 2 1 1 Free view from interior to exterior 6 2 1 1 REMAINING consistency of the concept in the design 9 2 1 2 suitable for the urban requirements 9 1 2 1 Prevention of wind inconvenience 9 1 2 2 TOTAL PRODUCT 200 72 296 OUR CHOICE... VERTICAL CITY
    • CONCEPTS 33 SWOT ANALYSIS 1. DEFINE WEAKNESSES OF VERTICAL CITY 2. EXTRACT STRENGTHS OF OTHER CONCEPTS 3. USE OTHER CONCEPTS TO GIVE US SOLUTIONS 4. TURN WEAKNESSES INTO OPPORTUNITIES
    • CONCEPTS 34LIGHTHOUSE VERTICAL CITY SHOWCASEANSWERS QUESTIONS ANSWERS + +EFFICIENT INEFFICIENT FLOORPLANSMORE DAYLIGHT = LESS ENERGY LIGHT ADMISSION SILHOUETTE CREATING GATE FOR ROTTERDAMINTEGRATED DESIGN COMPLEX TECHNOLOGY LESS FLEXIBLE FLOORPLANS FLEXIBLE DUE TO EXTERNAL ELEVATORS HIGH RISK DUE TO ATRIUM EXPENSIVE FACADE PREFAB ELEMENTS LOW EFFICIENCY EXPENSIVE VERTICAL TRANSPORT BOTH TRANSFER & SERVICE AREASINNOVATION IN CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM HIGH RISK VARIANTCORE + OUTRIGGERS+FACADE = STABILITY COMPLEX STRUCTURE NO ENERGY GENERATION PV CELLS ON FACADE TOO MUCH MATERIALSHADING BY FACADE THICK FACADELESS MISTAKES BY INTEGRATED DESIGN COMPLICATED DESIGN INTEGRATION MODEL
    • TABLE OF CONTENT 35 AMBITION STRATEGY VISION CONCEPTS FINAL CONCEPT HOOGKWARTIER REFLECTION
    • FINAL OF CONTENTTABLE CONCEPT 36 CITY GROWS
    • FINAL OF CONTENTTABLE CONCEPT 37 living business commerce leisure CITY DISTRICTS WITH DENSITY GRADIENT
    • FINAL OF CONTENTTABLE CONCEPT 38 living business VE RT ICA LC commerce ITY leisure CITY DISTRICTS WITH DENSITY GRADIENT
    • FINAL OF CONTENTTABLE CONCEPT 39 living business VE RT ICA LC commerce ITY leisure SLICE OF ROTTERDAM DISTRICTS
    • FINAL CONCEPT 40 POMPENBURG (PARK) CS ROTTERDAM CS LIJNBAAN & Rotterdam COOLSINGEL ANCHOR BUILDING BY CONNECTIONS
    • FINAL CONCEPT 41 THE CITY ALSO REACTS TO THE BUILDING...
    • FINAL CONCEPT 42 STACKED MERGE 1920 1960 2020 TECHNICAL EFFICIENT NETWORK
    • FINAL CONCEPT 43 MAKE ONE BIG TOWER
    • FINAL CONCEPT 44 ONE BIG CORE
    • FINAL CONCEPT 45 CREATE ATRIUM FOR LIGHT & AIR
    • FINAL CONCEPT 46 WE PROTECT OUR CORE WITH AN OUTER CITY WALL
    • FINAL CONCEPT 47 CONNECT WITH SKYBRIDGES
    • FINAL CONCEPT 48 - PEOPLE TRANSFER - STRUCTURE - INSTALLATIONS
    • FINAL CONCEPT 49 CREATE MULTIPLE ATRIA WITH DENSITY GRADIENT THAT DIVIDE TOWER IN URBAN DISTRICTS
    • FINAL CONCEPT 50 ADAPT ATRIA TO HUMAN SCALE AND CREATE URBAN SPACE
    • FINAL CONCEPT 51 MULTIPLE ROUTES
    • FINAL CONCEPT 52 APARTMENTS OFFICE HOTEL BAKERY CLUB INTERACTION OF PROGRAM
    • FINAL CONCEPT 53 HOMEPAGE
    • FINAL CONCEPT 54 IDENTITY TO CITY & USERS
    • TABLE OF CONTENT 55 AMBITION STRATEGY VISION CONCEPTS FINAL CONCEPT HOOGKWARTIER REFLECTION
    • HOOGKWARTIER 56 ROTTERDAM CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT EAST
    • HOOGKWARTIER 57 LIGHTHOUSE IN CITY
    • HOOGKWARTIER 58 CONNECT STATION / HOFPLEIN / POMPENBURG
    • HOOGKWARTIER 59 -1 +1 0 HOW USERS APPROACH BUILDING
    • PLINTH 60
    • PLINTH 61
    • PLINTH 62 END SCHIEKADEBLOCK WITH AN HUMAN SCALE PLINTH. CEES DAM BUILDING REMAINS AS IT FUNCTIONS WELL IN IT’S CURRENT PRESENCE CREATE A MODULAR PLINTH THAT COULD CONNECT TO THE HOFPLEIN IN THE FUTURE...
    • PLINTH 63
    • FACADE 64 SHELL WITH HIGH RISE QUALITY: AMAZING VIEW MAKE FLOOR-TO-CEILING height windows!
    • FACADE 65 BUT HOW TO MANAGE THIS ON 200M HEIGHT? ? > we want people to FEEL SAFE
    • FACADE 66 WE SHOW MUSCLES IN FACADE
    • FACADE 67 ! FEEL SAFE
    • FACADE 68 FEEL COMFORTABLE
    • FACADE 69 EVEN OUTSIDE (LOGGIA)
    • FACADE 70 LOGGIA? BUT LIGHT CAN ALSO BE ANNOYING
    • FACADE 71 LOGGIA? CREATE LIGHTSHELF IN OFFICES
    • FACADE 72VIEWPLAN WE WANT TO SHOW MUSCLES IN FACADE
    • FACADE 73VIEWPLAN ENLARGE MUSCLES WITH STRICT RHYTM
    • FACADE 74 WINDOWS SEEM BIGGER
    • FACADE 75 VIEW SEEMS WIDER
    • FACADE 76 AND WE GET NICE FLOODLIGHT FOR FREE
    • FACADE 77POSSIBILITY OF STRUCTURE & INSTALLATIONS IN CITY WALL
    • FACADE 78 CITY IS REFLECTED BY THE PLINTH & ATRIUM FACADE AND PROTECTED BY THE HIGH RISE SHELL THESE TWO CREATE AN APPROPIATE HIGH RISE FACADE
    • EFFICIENCY 79 SHIELD & CORE IN PLAN MAKE LETTABLE SPACE FLEXIBLE & EFFICIENT
    • EFFICIENCY 80 Fire Fire Fire Fire SMALL EFFICIENT CORES - TRANSPORT IN DISTRICTS - DUCTS IN FACADES - MULTIPLE USE OF CORE SPACE
    • EFFICIENCY 81TRAINS Fire Fire TRAMS Fire FireTRAINS SMALL EFFICIENT CORES - TRANSPORT IN DISTRICTS - DUCTS IN FACADES - MULTIPLE USE OF CORE SPACE
    • FACADE 82 CITY IS REFLECTED BY THE PLINTH & ATRIUM FACADE AND PROTECTED BY THE HIGH RISE SHELL THESE TWO CREATE AN APPROPIATE HIGH RISE FACADE
    • EFFICIENCY 83 100 90 88% 84% 81% 90% 91% 95% 91% 94% 85% av. 77% Excl. extra public space 80 73% 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 av. 72% 0 EFFICIENCY LA / GFA
    • PLANS 84 DIFFERENT TYPES OF FLOOR PLANS
    • PLANS 85 TYPICAL FLOORPLAN
    • PLANS 86 OFFICE & APARTMENTS FOORPLAN
    • TOP-VIEW APARTMENT ON SOUTH 87
    • APARTMENT INTERIOR 88 RENDER APARTMENTS INTERIOR + MINI PLATTEGROND PLAATS RENDER VINCENT INTERIOR VIEW APARTMENT
    • HOTEL ROOM 89 HOTELS & APARTMENTS ALWAYS HAVE LOGGIA’S
    • TOP-VIEW OFFICE ROOM 90
    • TOP FLOORS 91
    • ROOFPLAN 92
    • 93
    • SECTION 94NORTH HOFPLEIN
    • SECTION 95 CLUB CLUB CONGRESS CONGRESS PROGRAMME
    • SECTION 96 CLUB CLUB Program GFA Demanded Actual % Office 76.000 m2 79.681 105 % Housing 23.000 m2 23.172 101 % Hotel 23.000 m2 22.646 98 % Retail 15.000 m2 24.058 160 % Congres 9.500 m2 8.921 94 % Casino 15.000 m2 12.864 86 % Clubs 2.000 m2 2.785 139 % Viewpoint - 3.790 - CONGRESS CONGRESS Non le able 7.500 m2 17.051 227 % Transfer level/lobby - 11.137 - Services area - 5.914 - sub total: 171.000 m2 194.968 114 % Total parking 25.000 m2 - parking abovegroundlevel - 9.355 - Parking under groundlevel - 29.520 - sub total: 25.000 m2 38.875 156 % Total 196.000 m2 233.843 119 % PROGRAMME (GFA)
    • SECTION 97 POSSIBLE PROGRAMME IN FUTURE
    • ATRIUM 98
    • CROSS-SECTION ATRIUM 99 ETFE
    • ATRIUM 100
    • TRANSPORT 101 Fire Fire Fire Fire Installation Installation Fire Fire Fire Fire Departures Installation Installation platform 2 1 Fire Freight elevator Fire Hotel High speed housing elevator Fire Fire 3 4 platform Departures
    • TRANSPORT 102“ALL TRAINS ON TIME”
    • FIRE SAFETY 103 Max floorspace (without vide) 1314 m² GFA Corecompartment + facade/structure 320 m² Fire compartment 994 m² = <1000 m² Fire Fire 8,6 m 28,8 mUSABLE FLOOR SPACE 26,1 m< 1000 M2 FLEXIBLE SPACEONE FIRE COMPARTMENT 8,6 m 28,8 m Fire Fire Max floorspace (without vide) 1314 m² GFA Corecompartment + facade/structure 320 m² Fire compartment 994 m² = <1000 m²
    • STRUCTURAL CONCEPT 104 EXTRA COLUMNS IN ATRIUM FACADE: LESS DEFORMATIONS & SIMPLE JOINTS
    • STRUCTURAL CONCEPT 105 CANTILEVERS: EFFICIENT ATRIUM SPACE
    • STRUCTURAL CONCEPT 106
    • STRUCTURAL RESULTS 107 MODEL DEFORMATIONS
    • TEXT 108
    • 109A BUILDING WITH AN OPTIMAL STRUCTURE THAT CAN BE BUILD IN A SHORT TIME WITH THE MOST LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS
    • FLOOR SYSTEM 110 + LARGE SPANS + INTEGRATED DUCTS + 25X SHORTER HOISTING TIME - DIFFICULT TO MAKE STIFF STRUCTURE. LOW STEEL DECK CONCRETE FLOOR
    • STRUCTURAL FLOOR PLANS 111 TRANSFER FLOORPLAN TYPICAL FLOORPLAN
    • VIEW FROM WEENA 112
    • FACADES 113 NORTH FACADE EAST FACADE
    • FACADES 114 SOUTH FACADE WEST FACADE
    • STEELFRAME CONSTRUCTION 115 FLEXIBLE / LIGHTWEIGHT / GOOD TO RECYCLE
    • ETFE ON ATRIUM FACADE 116 LIGHTWEIGHT / UV RADIATION INSIDE
    • FLOOR SYSTEM 117 SERVICES INTEGRATED IN FLOOR + MINIMIZE FLOOR PACKAGE HEIGHT + DUCTS INTERSECT FLOOR BEAMS
    • INDOOR CLIMATE 118 INDOOR CLIMATE FOCUSED ON USER PSYCOHOLOGICAL NEEDS (MASLOV)
    • ATRIUM 119 VENTILATED AND CLOSABLE ATRIUM
    • ATRIUM 120 COLD DEMAND DECREASE 20 % TEMP RISE PCM TURNS LIQUID TEMP REMAINS CONSTANT STORES HEAT TEMP DROPS PCM TURNS SOLID TEMP REMAINS CONSTANT RELEASE HEAT
    • HYBRIC COOLING 121 COOLING WITH AIR ON THE NORTH SIDE
    • MESH FACADE 122PRESTRESS MESHBETWEEN TUBES
    • SECTION ON MESH FACADE 123
    • DETAIL DUCT & MESH FACADE 124 Air duct 630x500 - interior accoustic insulation - additional thermal insulation around air duct Rockwool - Accoustic plasterboard - Finishing plasterboard (12,5mm) Opening window (inside) Sandwich panel - Mesh facade Mesh U=1,1W/m2·K - aluminium (2mm) - PTFE coated Glasfibre Mesh suspension system ZTA =0,39 - PIR foam (100mm) - ZTA = 0,5 CHS-101,2x8 LTA =0,70 - aluminium (2mm)
    • MESH FACADE 125 PV-CELLS ON SINGLE LAYERED ETFE (ON MESH FACADE STRUCTURE)
    • SECTIONS 126 LOGGIA SECTION
    • JUNCTION OF FACADES 127 SFC FACADE ATRIUM ETFECITY WALL
    • FACADE CONSTRUCTION 128 EXPLODED VIEW
    • AIR SYSTEM 129 FRESH AIR INTAKE ON HEIGHT = CLEANER AIR Ventilation Electricity Transformer Restaurant Housing 90.000 m³/h 702 MWh/year 2x d=1600mm Atrium Transformer Club 111 MWh/year Club Office 100.000 m³/h 2x d=1600mm 5.040 MWh/year 6x2400 m³/h 6x400 m³/h Transfer 500x630 mm 150x600 mm Atrium 425 MWh/year Transformer Offices 14.400 m³/h Congress 1200x1200 mm 442 MWh/year 6x2400 m³/h Congress 500x630 mm 285.000 m³/h 4x d=1600mm Hotel 702 MWh/year Atrium Transformer Retail 433.000 m³/h Casino 6x d=1600mm 1.029 MWh/year Casino 6x72.000 m³/h 205.000 m³/h d=1600mm 3x d=1600mm Retail 1.680 MWh/year High voltage/ low voltage Total 10.137 MWh/year EXHAUST INTO THE ATRIUM CREATING A CLIMATE BUFFER
    • HEATING 130 city heating: RE-USE WASTE HEAT WASTE HEAT 40 ELECTRICITYENERGY ELECTRICITY PLANT HARBOUR 60 WASTE HEAT INDUSTRY CITY HEATING 40 ELECTRICITYENERGY ELECTRICITY PLANT HARBOUR 60 CITY HEATING INDUSTRY
    • HEAT SYSTEM 131 ADIABATIC COOLING COOLING - ON TRANSFERFLOOR Menerga serie 98, hybrid watercoolingmachine Stage 1: Adiabatic cooling Stage 2: Mix Stage 3: Mechanical cooling air humidifier scrollcompressors water HEATING City heating After treatment heat exchanger Pump in basement CITY HEATING
    • WATER 132 WATER SYSTEM 50 % DECREASE OF DEMAND GREY WATER TANK
    • WATER 133 COLLECTING RAINWATER REUSE OF GREY WATER IN MULTIPLE WAYS
    • COSTS 134 FOUNDATION COSTS 6% Elavators SKELET STRUCTURE 22% 13% ROOF 0,3% Façade 5% Floors 11% Services (W/E) 35% Fi ng out costs 8% Calculated investment : € 845 miljoen GIY excl. parking € 692 million € 850 million GIY: 6,3 GIY:7,6 AVERAGE RENT PRICE: 300M2/YEAR Average rent price: 300 euro m2/year
    • TABLE OF CONTENT 135 AMBITION STRATEGY VISION CONCEPTS FINAL CONCEPT HOOGKWARTIER REFLECTION
    • SUMMARY 136 WHAT WE NEEDED TO SOLVE IN VERTICAL CITY & WHAT WE TOOK FROM OTHER CONCEPTS VERTICAL CITY HOOGKWARTIER QUESTIONS ANSWERS INEFFICIENT FLOORPLANS COPY FLOORPLANS + CORE (LH) LIGHT ADMISSION FLOOR-FLOOR WINDOWS > MUSCLES (SC) SILHOUETTE GOLD NUGGET (LH) LIGHTHOUSE & GATE (SC) COMPLEX TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATED DESIGN (LH) LESS FLEXIBLE FLOORPLANS SMART ELEVATOR SYSTEM (SC) EXPENSIVE FACADE GOLD NUGGET ON TOPLIGHTHOUSE EXPENSIVE VERTICAL TRANSPORT SKYBRIDGES WITH TRANSFER & SERVICES (SC) HIGH RISK VARIANT INNOVATION IN COMBINING SYSTEMS (LH) COMPLEX STRUCTURE BRIDGES + VISIBLE K-FRAMES = NO OUTRIGGERS (SC) NO ENERGY GENERATION PV CELLS ON SOUTH FACADE IN STEAD OF MESH (LH) THICK FACADE USE FACADE AS SHUTTER (LH) COMPLICATED DESIGN INTEGRATED DESIGN (LH)
    • VIEW FROM NEW ORLEANS 137
    • HIGH RISE WORKSHOP FINAL PRESENTATION