Scientific method conc
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    Scientific method conc Scientific method conc Presentation Transcript

    • The Scientific Method Science is a methodical approach to learning about the world around us .
    • Steps of the scientific method
      • S TATE THE PROBLEM
      • C ONDUCT RESEARCH
      • H YPOTHESIS
      • E XPERIMENT
      • M AKE OBSERVATIONS & RECORD
      • E XPRESS CONCLUSIONS
      The Scientific method is a SCHEME for doing science
    • State the Problem
      • The P roblem is a scientific question to be solved. It is normally found by:
        • Observing- using your senses and prior knowledge
        • Researcing- reviewing previous studies.
      • Example: “ Why are fish dying in the lake?”
      • Stipulations:
      • Should be limited in it’s scope…..
      • “ We’re only researching the affects of salt . ”
      • Can be solved experimentally……
      • “ Observe the affects as salt is added to water that is at boiling
      • temperatures – under controlled conditions.
    • Collect Information
      • Collecting information is done by researching your own experiences, knowledgeable sources, and data from exploratory experiments to help you understand the topic .
      • Do use many references from printed
      • sources— books, journals, magazines, and
      • newspapers—as well as electronic sources—
      • computer software and online services .
      • Do gather information from professionals—instructors, librarians,
      • and scientists, such as physicians and veterinarians .
    • Hypothesize
      • A hypothesis is an idea about the solution to a problem, based on knowledge and research – an educated guess .
      • “ If salt is added then it will cause the food to cook faster.”
      • Your experiment should be able to test the hypothesis .
      • Do use the information you collected in determining your hypothesis .
      • Do write down your hypothesis before beginning the project
      • experimentation. (Generally write the hypothesis in an “if… then statement).
      • “ If salt is added to boiling water then it will cause the food to cook faster”
      • Don't change your hypothesis even if experimentation does not
      • support it - that’s science! If time permits, repeat or redesign the
      • experiment to confirm your results.
    • Experiment
      • “ TESTING ” the Hypothesis
      • Know your “ variables ”
      • Independent (manipulated) variable: is the variable you or the
      • scientist purposely manipulate ( change ). Ex . Adding salt
      • Dependent (responding) variable: is the variable that changes in
      • response to the independent variable Exp: water temp .
      • Controlled (constants) variables: are variables that are not changed .
      • Ex . Amount of water used, applying same amount of heat
      • Control Group: A group that is tested in which the independent variable is not applied. It is used as the standard by which the test results can be compared (Exp: Boiling the water without the salt added)
    • Experiment
      • Do’s of Experimentation:
        • Do have only one independent variable during an experiment. All others must be controlled variables
        • Do repeat the experiment to verify your results, if possible.
        • Do have a control group .
        • .
    • Make observations of the experiment
      • Collect data
      • Organize data- charts; graphs; tables; etc
      • Analyze the data
    • Evaluate and Conclude
      • In this step you create a s ummary of the results and a statement of how the results relate to the hypothesis .
    • Conclusion
      • When writing a conclusion make sure to include the following:
        • Statements on how the results of the experiment related to your hypothesis (whether it was supported or refuted)
        • Explanations as to why the experimental results were achieved
        • Other hypotheses that can be made based on the experimental results
        • Any experimental flaws in your experiment
    • Theory vs. Law
      • Theory - an explanation of things or events based on many observations and investigations
      • Law - Statement about what happens in nature that seems to be true at all times.
        • Exp: Law of Gravity
        • Unlike theories…laws do NOT explain why.