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# Scientific Method

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### Transcript

• 1. The Scientific Method Science is a methodical approach to learning about the world around us .
• 2. Steps of the scientific method
• S TATE THE PROBLEM
• C ONDUCT RESEARCH
• H YPOTHESIS
• E XPERIMENT
• M AKE OBSERVATIONS & RECORD
• E XPRESS CONCLUSIONS
The Scientific method is a SCHEME for doing science
• 3. Steps of the Scientific Method
• Identify the p roblem , question , or a unique observation .
• R esearch the problem.
• Form a question and from there create a h ypothesis & make a prediction .
• Test the hypothesis – e xperiment .
• O bserve and record your results – analysis .
• Arrive at a c onclusion or make a general rule – inductive or deductive.
• 4. Problem
• The P roblem is a scientific question to be solved. It is normally based on a problem that is:
• Observed- using your senses and prior knowledge
• Researched- reviewing previous studies.
• “ Why do recipes tell you to add salt to boiling water ?”
• Can be answered in a statement….. (usually an “if…then” statement is used)
• “ If salt causes water to boil at a higher temperature, then it will cook
• the food faster .”
• Should be limited in it’s scope…..
• “ We’re only researching the affects of salt . ”
• Can be solved experimentally……
• “ Observe the affects as salt is added to water that is at boiling
• temperatures – under controlled conditions.
• 5. Research
• Research is the process of collecting information from your own experiences, knowledgeable sources, and data from exploratory experiments to help you understand the topic .
• Do use many references from printed
• sources— books, journals, magazines, and
• newspapers—as well as electronic sources—
• computer software and online services .
• Do gather information from professionals—instructors, librarians,
• and scientists, such as physicians and veterinarians .
• 6. Hypothesis
• A hypothesis is an idea about the solution to a problem, based on knowledge and research – an educated guess .
• “ I think salt changes how the water affects the food. ”
• Experimenting will be designed to test the hypothesis .
• Do state facts from past experiences or observations on which
• you base your hypothesis .
• Do write down your hypothesis before beginning the project
• experimentation. (Generally write the hypothesis in an “if… then statement).
• “ If salt is added to boiling water then it will cause the food to cook faster”
• Don't change your hypothesis even if experimentation does not
• support it - that’s science! If time permits, repeat or redesign the
• experiment to confirm your results.
• 7. Experimentation
• “ TESTING ” the Hypothesis
• Know your “ variables ”
• Independent (manipulated) variable: is the variable you purposely
• manipulate ( change ). Ex . Adding salt
• Dependent (responding) variable: is the variable that changes in
• response to the independent variable – water temp .
• Controlled (constants) variables: are variables that are not changed .
• Ex . Amount of water used.
• Control Group: A group that is tested in which the independent variable is not applied. It is used as the standard by which the test results can be compared (Exp: Boiling the water without the salt added)
• 8. Experimentation
• Does and Don’ts of Experimentation:
• Do have only one independent variable during an experiment. All others must be controlled variables
• Do repeat the experiment to verify your results.
• Do have a control group.
• Do have more than one control, with each being identical.
• Do organize data.
• 9. Observe and Record
• Collect data
• Organize data- charts; graphs; tables; etc
• Analyze the data
• Pay attention to detail
• Interpretation and evaluation of results
• Write the results in a clear and concise
• manner so others can understand them
• 10. Conclusion
• After recording the results of the experimentation, you need a s ummary of the results and a statement of how the results relate to the hypothesis . Remember :
• * If your results do not support your hypothesis (refutes) :
• DON'T leave out experimental results that do not support your hypothesis.
• DO give possible reasons for the difference between your hypothesis and the experimental results.
• DO give ways that you can experiment further to find a solution .