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Organic compounds

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    Organic compounds Organic compounds Presentation Transcript

    • The Chemistry of Life
    • Bonds
      • Bond is a force that holds atoms together
      O H H
    • Covalent bonds
      • Force that holds 2 atoms together when they share electrons
    • Ionic bonds
      • Atoms bond with each other by gaining or losing electrons in outer shells, opposite forces attract
        • Example: sodium loses an electron to become stable
        • chlorine gains an electron and becomes stable
    • Compound
      • Substance composed of atoms that are bonded together
      • Examples:
      • 2 types
        • Organic compounds: contain carbon rings or chains
        • Inorganic: don’t have carbon rings or chains
        • Look at p. 51 fig. 3-1 organic or inorganic
        • PP: What is a monomer, polymer, and macromolecule?
        • Read 1st paragraph on p. 53 and define those words.
    • Carbohydrates “Carbon Water”
      • C, H, O
      • Always Ratio of 2 Hydrogens to 1 Oxygen CH 2 O
      • Main Role in Body:
        • Simple Carbs (Sugars)
          • Immediate Energy but doesn’t last long
        • Complex Carbs (Starches)
          • Longer lasting energy but not immediate
    • Monosaccharide “One Sugar”
      • Monomer unit of carb
      • C 6 H 12 O 6
      • Types:
        • Gluc ose - made by plants
        • Fruct ose -Fruits
      • OSE-ending= Oh So SwEEEt
      • Simple Sugar
      • Isomer- different structures but same chemical formula
    • Disaccharide “Two Sugars”
      • Two monosaccharides linked together
      • Types:
        • Sucr ose - Table Sugar
        • Lact ose - Milk Sugar
      • C 12 H 22 O 11
      • Simple Sugar
    • Polysaccharide “Many Sugars”
      • 1000s of monosaccharides linked
      • Complex carb: provides long sustaining energy but must be broken down first
    • Types of Polysaccharides
      • Starch
        • Made by plants for energy storage
        • We can get energy by eating these
        • Potatoes, Pastas, Breads etc
      • Glycogen
        • Made by animals for limited energy storage
        • Stored in liver and muscle
      • Cellulose
        • Made by plants for structure
        • We cannot digest this for energy: It is fiber
        • Leafy veggies, CELLERY, grass
    • Lipids
      • Elements: C, H, O (much less O)
      • Will NOT dissolve in water
      • Main Functions:
        • Fats: store energy, padding, and insulation
        • Wax: waterproof, forms protective layers
        • Oil: protects skin, hair, feathers
    • Fatty Acid
      • Monomer of Lipid
      • Saturated Fatty Acid: Full amount of Hydrogens
      • Unsaturated Fatty Acid: Missing hydrogens due to double bond Carbons
      • Head end: hydrophilic
      • Tail end : hydrophobic
    • Common Fats
      • Saturated
        • Made by animals (lard)
        • Solid at room temp
        • Made with saturated Fatty Acids
      • Unsaturated
        • Made plants- OILS
        • Liquid at room temp
        • Made with unsat FAs
    • Other Types of Lipids
      • Wax
        • Waterproofing agent
        • Earwax, candle wax
      • Steriods
        • Make up hormones like testosterone
    • Proteins
      • C, H, O, N
      • Nitrogen is not in carbs or lipids
      • Types:
        • Structural:
          • Muscle, hair, enzymes
        • Enzymes:
          • speed up chemical reactions
    • Amino Acids
      • Monomer of Proteins
      • 20 Different Kinds
      • R group is the group that makes each amino acid different
    • Peptide Means protein
      • Peptide bond- bond between two amino acids
      • Dipeptide- two amino acids linked
      • Polypeptide- many amino acids linked
    • Nucleic Acids
      • 2 types
        • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in nucleus, in chromosomes, molecule of heredity
        • RNA (ribonucleic acid) makes proteins, ribosomes
      htt /www.ericharhbarger.org/lego/images/dna/trans_0.jpg
    • Organic or Inorganic?
      • N 3 H 4
      • C 6 H 12 O 6
      • C 12 H 22 O 11
      • C 18 H 42 O 3