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Organic compounds

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Organic compounds Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Chemistry of Life
  • 2. Bonds
    • Bond is a force that holds atoms together
    O H H
  • 3. Covalent bonds
    • Force that holds 2 atoms together when they share electrons
  • 4. Ionic bonds
    • Atoms bond with each other by gaining or losing electrons in outer shells, opposite forces attract
      • Example: sodium loses an electron to become stable
      • chlorine gains an electron and becomes stable
  • 5. Compound
    • Substance composed of atoms that are bonded together
    • Examples:
    • 2 types
      • Organic compounds: contain carbon rings or chains
      • Inorganic: don’t have carbon rings or chains
  • 6.
      • Look at p. 51 fig. 3-1 organic or inorganic
      • PP: What is a monomer, polymer, and macromolecule?
      • Read 1st paragraph on p. 53 and define those words.
  • 7. Carbohydrates “Carbon Water”
    • C, H, O
    • Always Ratio of 2 Hydrogens to 1 Oxygen CH 2 O
    • Main Role in Body:
      • Simple Carbs (Sugars)
        • Immediate Energy but doesn’t last long
      • Complex Carbs (Starches)
        • Longer lasting energy but not immediate
  • 8. Monosaccharide “One Sugar”
    • Monomer unit of carb
    • C 6 H 12 O 6
    • Types:
      • Gluc ose - made by plants
      • Fruct ose -Fruits
    • OSE-ending= Oh So SwEEEt
    • Simple Sugar
    • Isomer- different structures but same chemical formula
  • 9. Disaccharide “Two Sugars”
    • Two monosaccharides linked together
    • Types:
      • Sucr ose - Table Sugar
      • Lact ose - Milk Sugar
    • C 12 H 22 O 11
    • Simple Sugar
  • 10. Polysaccharide “Many Sugars”
    • 1000s of monosaccharides linked
    • Complex carb: provides long sustaining energy but must be broken down first
  • 11. Types of Polysaccharides
    • Starch
      • Made by plants for energy storage
      • We can get energy by eating these
      • Potatoes, Pastas, Breads etc
    • Glycogen
      • Made by animals for limited energy storage
      • Stored in liver and muscle
    • Cellulose
      • Made by plants for structure
      • We cannot digest this for energy: It is fiber
      • Leafy veggies, CELLERY, grass
  • 12. Lipids
    • Elements: C, H, O (much less O)
    • Will NOT dissolve in water
    • Main Functions:
      • Fats: store energy, padding, and insulation
      • Wax: waterproof, forms protective layers
      • Oil: protects skin, hair, feathers
  • 13. Fatty Acid
    • Monomer of Lipid
    • Saturated Fatty Acid: Full amount of Hydrogens
    • Unsaturated Fatty Acid: Missing hydrogens due to double bond Carbons
    • Head end: hydrophilic
    • Tail end : hydrophobic
  • 14. Common Fats
    • Saturated
      • Made by animals (lard)
      • Solid at room temp
      • Made with saturated Fatty Acids
    • Unsaturated
      • Made plants- OILS
      • Liquid at room temp
      • Made with unsat FAs
  • 15. Other Types of Lipids
    • Wax
      • Waterproofing agent
      • Earwax, candle wax
    • Steriods
      • Make up hormones like testosterone
  • 16. Proteins
    • C, H, O, N
    • Nitrogen is not in carbs or lipids
    • Types:
      • Structural:
        • Muscle, hair, enzymes
      • Enzymes:
        • speed up chemical reactions
  • 17. Amino Acids
    • Monomer of Proteins
    • 20 Different Kinds
    • R group is the group that makes each amino acid different
  • 18. Peptide Means protein
    • Peptide bond- bond between two amino acids
    • Dipeptide- two amino acids linked
    • Polypeptide- many amino acids linked
  • 19. Nucleic Acids
    • 2 types
      • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in nucleus, in chromosomes, molecule of heredity
      • RNA (ribonucleic acid) makes proteins, ribosomes
    htt /www.ericharhbarger.org/lego/images/dna/trans_0.jpg
  • 20. Organic or Inorganic?
    • N 3 H 4
    • C 6 H 12 O 6
    • C 12 H 22 O 11
    • C 18 H 42 O 3