Intro Bio Notes 2010
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  • 1. BIOLOGY THE STUDY OF LIFE
  • 2. Eight Characteristics of Life
    • H omeostasis
    • E nergy Use
    • R eproduction
    • C ells
    • A daptations
    • R esponse to Stimuli
    • G rowth & Development
    • O rganized
    Pneumonic Device: Great Aunt Rose Only Ever Cooks Rare Hamburgers
  • 3. Organisms:
    • Organisms must have all eight characteristics in order to be considered alive
    • An organism is something that is currently living
    • Ranges from: Bacteria (20 nm) to Armillaria ostoyae (10 km)
    To
  • 4. Homeostasis
    • Homeostasis- Stable internal condition
    • Examples:
        • Heart rate
        • Body temperature
        • ph levels
        • water levels
        • Others:
    • Organisms must be able to maintain homeostasis in order to survive
  • 5. Energy Use
    • Autotrophic
      • Organisms that make their own food that they will then convert to energy
      • Examples:
      • Photosynthesis:
    • Heterotrophic
      • Organisms that must take in food from an outside source
      • Examples
    Organisms obtain energy by one of two methods:
  • 6. Responding to stimuli
    • Organisms respond to a stimuli in order to maintain homeostasis
    • Senses : Making observations which lead to responses
    • Reflexes : Unconscious responses to stimuli
        • Blinking
  • 7. Responding to stimuli
    • Behaviors : Learned and instinctive responses to stimuli
      • Migration
      • Hibernation
      • Putting a coat on when it is cold
  • 8. Cells
    • Cells – basic units of structure and function for all living things
    • All organisms are made of one or more
  • 9. Unicellular vs Multicellular
    • Unicellular - Composed of just one cell . Must carry out all of life's functions. 
    • Multicellular- C onsist of more than one cell. H ave differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. Individual cells cannot survive on their own.
  • 10. Adaptations
    • In order for an organism to survive it must be able to adapt in response to the environment it is in.
    • Adaptations – changes made by an organism in response to the environment in order to survive.
    • Examples :
    • Evolution: change within a population of a certain species of organisms over a long period of time
  • 11. Reproduction
    • Asexual
      • One parent
      • Each organism is genetically identical
      • “ Fast and easy”
      • Budding & fission
    • Sexual
      • Requires two parents
      • Organisms genetically different
      • “ Slow and hard”
      • Sex cells from each gender join
    • Reproduction- process by which organisms produce offspring
  • 12. Growth & Development
    • Two ways an organism can grow in a multicellular organism:
      • Cell enlargement – each cell gets bigger (exp: muscle and fat cells)
      • Cell division (reproduction)- cells reproduce producing more cells
    • Development: Occurs when an organism, cells, or body tissues gain the ability to perform a certain task
      • Occurs by:
        • Cell Division
        • Cell Specialization: Each cell becomes different to perform its task
  • 13. Organized Molecules Cell Parts Cells Tissues Organs Organ system Organism Cellular Level – All organisms are at least organized to this level