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Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
Intro Bio Notes
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Intro Bio Notes


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  • 2. Eight Characteristics of Life
    • H omeostasis
    • E nergy Use
    • R eproduction
    • C ells
    • A daptations
    • R esponse to Stimuli
    • G rowth & Development
    • O rganized
    Pneumonic Device: Great Aunt Rose Only Ever Cooks Rare Hamburgers
  • 3. Organisms:
    • Organisms must possess all eight characteristics in order to be considered alive
    • An organism is something that is currently living
    • Ranges from: Bacteria (20 nm) to Armillaria ostoyae (10 km)
  • 4. Growth & Development
    • Two ways growth occurs in multicellular organisms:
      • Cell enlargement – each cell gets bigger (exp: muscle and fat cells)
      • Cell division (reproduction)- cells reproduce producing more cells
    • Two processes of development:
      • Cell Division
    • 2. Differentiation – Each cell becomes specialized to perform a certain task (Stem cells- can become nerve cells; muscle cells; skin cells; etc.)
  • 5. Adaptations
    • Adaptations – changes made by an organism in response to the environment in order to survive.
    • Examples :
  • 6. Evolutionary Process
    • Evolution- the process by which an entire species adapts (in behavior
    • and/or physical characteristics) to the environment
    • There will be variations amongst a species:
        • Mutations – genetic differences within a species
        • Mutations may cause an “ adaptive advantage”
        • Examples:
    • Within a population there is constant struggle and competition for resources and survival.
    • How may adaptive advantages help an individual?
    • Individuals within a population that have adaptive advantages
    • survive longer:
      • Will tend to reproduce more offspring
      • Mutation will shift over time into a common trait
      • This process will continue with new mutations
  • 7. Examples of Evolution Adaptive Advantage – Giraffes Neck Anyone want to explain the process? Instinctive Migration- change in behavior
  • 8. Homeostasis
    • Homeostasis- Stable internal condition
    • Examples of homeostatic mechanisms:
        • Heart rate
        • Body temperature
        • ph levels
        • water levels
        • Others:
  • 9. Responding to stimuli
    • Organisms respond to a stimuli in order to maintain homeostasis
    • Senses : Making observations which lead to responses
    • Reflexes : Unconscious responses to stimuli
        • Blinking
  • 10. Responding to stimuli
    • Behaviors : Learned and instinctive responses to stimuli
      • Migration
      • Hibernation
      • Putting a coat on when it is cold
  • 11. Organized Molecules Cell Parts Cells Tissues Organs Organ system Organism Cellular Level – All organisms are at least organized to this level
  • 12. Energy Use
    • Autotrophic
      • Organisms make their own food that they will then convert to energy
      • Examples:
      • Photosynthesis:
      • ***Carbon dioxide and water are
      • changed into food and oxygen
    • Heterotrophic
      • Organisms must take in food from an outside source
      • Examples
      • Process:
        • Ingestion or absorption
        • Digestion
        • Transport
        • Cell Respiration
        • Excretion
    Organisms obtain energy by one of two methods:
  • 13. Cells
    • Cells – basic units of structure and function for all living things
    • All organisms are made of one or more
    • Three Types of Cells: Plant, Animal, Prokaryotic (lack a nucleus)
  • 14. Unicellular vs Multicellular
    • Unicellular - Composed of just one cell . Must carry out all of life's functions. 
    • Multicellular- C onsist of more than one cell. H ave differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. Individual cells cannot survive on their own.
  • 15. Reproduction
    • Asexual
      • One parent
      • Each organism is genetically identical
      • “ Fast and easy”
      • Budding & fission
    • Sexual
      • Requires two parents
      • Organisms genetically different
      • “ Slow and hard”
      • Sex cells from each gender join
    • Reproduction- process by which organisms produce offspring