Intro Bio Notes


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Intro Bio Notes

  2. 2. Eight Characteristics of Life <ul><li>H omeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>E nergy Use </li></ul><ul><li>R eproduction </li></ul><ul><li>C ells </li></ul><ul><li>A daptations </li></ul><ul><li>R esponse to Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>G rowth & Development </li></ul><ul><li>O rganized </li></ul>Pneumonic Device: Great Aunt Rose Only Ever Cooks Rare Hamburgers
  3. 3. Organisms: <ul><li>Organisms must possess all eight characteristics in order to be considered alive </li></ul><ul><li>An organism is something that is currently living </li></ul><ul><li>Ranges from: Bacteria (20 nm) to Armillaria ostoyae (10 km) </li></ul>To
  4. 4. Growth & Development <ul><li>Two ways growth occurs in multicellular organisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell enlargement – each cell gets bigger (exp: muscle and fat cells) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell division (reproduction)- cells reproduce producing more cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two processes of development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Division </li></ul></ul><ul><li> 2. Differentiation – Each cell becomes specialized to perform a certain task (Stem cells- can become nerve cells; muscle cells; skin cells; etc.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Adaptations <ul><li>Adaptations – changes made by an organism in response to the environment in order to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul>
  6. 6. Evolutionary Process <ul><li>Evolution- the process by which an entire species adapts (in behavior </li></ul><ul><li>and/or physical characteristics) to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>There will be variations amongst a species: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutations – genetic differences within a species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutations may cause an “ adaptive advantage” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Within a population there is constant struggle and competition for resources and survival. </li></ul><ul><li>How may adaptive advantages help an individual? </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals within a population that have adaptive advantages </li></ul><ul><li>survive longer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will tend to reproduce more offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutation will shift over time into a common trait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This process will continue with new mutations </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Examples of Evolution Adaptive Advantage – Giraffes Neck Anyone want to explain the process? Instinctive Migration- change in behavior
  8. 8. Homeostasis <ul><li>Homeostasis- Stable internal condition </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of homeostatic mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ph levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others: </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Responding to stimuli <ul><li>Organisms respond to a stimuli in order to maintain homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Senses : Making observations which lead to responses </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexes : Unconscious responses to stimuli </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blinking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Responding to stimuli <ul><li>Behaviors : Learned and instinctive responses to stimuli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hibernation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting a coat on when it is cold </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Organized Molecules Cell Parts Cells Tissues Organs Organ system Organism Cellular Level – All organisms are at least organized to this level
  12. 12. Energy Use <ul><li>Autotrophic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms make their own food that they will then convert to energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>***Carbon dioxide and water are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changed into food and oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms must take in food from an outside source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ingestion or absorption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Respiration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul></ul></ul>Organisms obtain energy by one of two methods:
  13. 13. Cells <ul><li>Cells – basic units of structure and function for all living things </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms are made of one or more </li></ul><ul><li>Three Types of Cells: Plant, Animal, Prokaryotic (lack a nucleus) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Unicellular vs Multicellular <ul><li>Unicellular - Composed of just one cell . Must carry out all of life's functions.  </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular- C onsist of more than one cell. H ave differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. Individual cells cannot survive on their own. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reproduction <ul><li>Asexual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each organism is genetically identical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fast and easy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budding & fission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires two parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms genetically different </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Slow and hard” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex cells from each gender join </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproduction- process by which organisms produce offspring </li></ul>
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