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Intro Bio Notes


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  • 2. Eight Characteristics of Life
    • H omeostasis
    • E nergy Use
    • R eproduction
    • C ells
    • A daptations
    • R esponse to Stimuli
    • G rowth & Development
    • O rganized
    Pneumonic Device: Great Aunt Rose Only Ever Cooks Rare Hamburgers
  • 3. Organisms:
    • Organisms must possess all eight characteristics in order to be considered alive
    • An organism is something that is currently living
    • Ranges from: Bacteria (20 nm) to Armillaria ostoyae (10 km)
  • 4. Growth & Development
    • Two ways growth occurs in multicellular organisms:
      • Cell enlargement – each cell gets bigger (exp: muscle and fat cells)
      • Cell division (reproduction)- cells reproduce producing more cells
    • Two processes of development:
      • Cell Division
    • 2. Differentiation – Each cell becomes specialized to perform a certain task (Stem cells- can become nerve cells; muscle cells; skin cells; etc.)
  • 5. Adaptations
    • Adaptations – changes made by an organism in response to the environment in order to survive.
    • Examples :
  • 6. Evolutionary Process
    • Evolution- the process by which an entire species adapts (in behavior
    • and/or physical characteristics) to the environment
    • There will be variations amongst a species:
        • Mutations – genetic differences within a species
        • Mutations may cause an “ adaptive advantage”
        • Examples:
    • Within a population there is constant struggle and competition for resources and survival.
    • How may adaptive advantages help an individual?
    • Individuals within a population that have adaptive advantages
    • survive longer:
      • Will tend to reproduce more offspring
      • Mutation will shift over time into a common trait
      • This process will continue with new mutations
  • 7. Examples of Evolution Adaptive Advantage – Giraffes Neck Anyone want to explain the process? Instinctive Migration- change in behavior
  • 8. Homeostasis
    • Homeostasis- Stable internal condition
    • Examples of homeostatic mechanisms:
        • Heart rate
        • Body temperature
        • ph levels
        • water levels
        • Others:
  • 9. Responding to stimuli
    • Organisms respond to a stimuli in order to maintain homeostasis
    • Senses : Making observations which lead to responses
    • Reflexes : Unconscious responses to stimuli
        • Blinking
  • 10. Responding to stimuli
    • Behaviors : Learned and instinctive responses to stimuli
      • Migration
      • Hibernation
      • Putting a coat on when it is cold
  • 11. Organized Molecules Cell Parts Cells Tissues Organs Organ system Organism Cellular Level – All organisms are at least organized to this level
  • 12. Energy Use
    • Autotrophic
      • Organisms make their own food that they will then convert to energy
      • Examples:
      • Photosynthesis:
      • ***Carbon dioxide and water are
      • changed into food and oxygen
    • Heterotrophic
      • Organisms must take in food from an outside source
      • Examples
      • Process:
        • Ingestion or absorption
        • Digestion
        • Transport
        • Cell Respiration
        • Excretion
    Organisms obtain energy by one of two methods:
  • 13. Cells
    • Cells – basic units of structure and function for all living things
    • All organisms are made of one or more
    • Three Types of Cells: Plant, Animal, Prokaryotic (lack a nucleus)
  • 14. Unicellular vs Multicellular
    • Unicellular - Composed of just one cell . Must carry out all of life's functions. 
    • Multicellular- C onsist of more than one cell. H ave differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. Individual cells cannot survive on their own.
  • 15. Reproduction
    • Asexual
      • One parent
      • Each organism is genetically identical
      • “ Fast and easy”
      • Budding & fission
    • Sexual
      • Requires two parents
      • Organisms genetically different
      • “ Slow and hard”
      • Sex cells from each gender join
    • Reproduction- process by which organisms produce offspring