Intro Bio Notes
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Intro Bio Notes






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    Intro Bio Notes Intro Bio Notes Presentation Transcript

    • Eight Characteristics of Life
      • H omeostasis
      • E nergy Use
      • R eproduction
      • C ells
      • A daptations
      • R esponse to Stimuli
      • G rowth & Development
      • O rganized
      Pneumonic Device: Great Aunt Rose Only Ever Cooks Rare Hamburgers
    • Organisms:
      • Organisms must possess all eight characteristics in order to be considered alive
      • An organism is something that is currently living
      • Ranges from: Bacteria (20 nm) to Armillaria ostoyae (10 km)
    • Growth & Development
      • Two ways growth occurs in multicellular organisms:
        • Cell enlargement – each cell gets bigger (exp: muscle and fat cells)
        • Cell division (reproduction)- cells reproduce producing more cells
      • Two processes of development:
        • Cell Division
      • 2. Differentiation – Each cell becomes specialized to perform a certain task (Stem cells- can become nerve cells; muscle cells; skin cells; etc.)
    • Adaptations
      • Adaptations – changes made by an organism in response to the environment in order to survive.
      • Examples :
    • Evolutionary Process
      • Evolution- the process by which an entire species adapts (in behavior
      • and/or physical characteristics) to the environment
      • There will be variations amongst a species:
          • Mutations – genetic differences within a species
          • Mutations may cause an “ adaptive advantage”
          • Examples:
      • Within a population there is constant struggle and competition for resources and survival.
      • How may adaptive advantages help an individual?
      • Individuals within a population that have adaptive advantages
      • survive longer:
        • Will tend to reproduce more offspring
        • Mutation will shift over time into a common trait
        • This process will continue with new mutations
    • Examples of Evolution Adaptive Advantage – Giraffes Neck Anyone want to explain the process? Instinctive Migration- change in behavior
    • Homeostasis
      • Homeostasis- Stable internal condition
      • Examples of homeostatic mechanisms:
          • Heart rate
          • Body temperature
          • ph levels
          • water levels
          • Others:
    • Responding to stimuli
      • Organisms respond to a stimuli in order to maintain homeostasis
      • Senses : Making observations which lead to responses
      • Reflexes : Unconscious responses to stimuli
          • Blinking
    • Responding to stimuli
      • Behaviors : Learned and instinctive responses to stimuli
        • Migration
        • Hibernation
        • Putting a coat on when it is cold
    • Organized Molecules Cell Parts Cells Tissues Organs Organ system Organism Cellular Level – All organisms are at least organized to this level
    • Energy Use
      • Autotrophic
        • Organisms make their own food that they will then convert to energy
        • Examples:
        • Photosynthesis:
        • ***Carbon dioxide and water are
        • changed into food and oxygen
      • Heterotrophic
        • Organisms must take in food from an outside source
        • Examples
        • Process:
          • Ingestion or absorption
          • Digestion
          • Transport
          • Cell Respiration
          • Excretion
      Organisms obtain energy by one of two methods:
    • Cells
      • Cells – basic units of structure and function for all living things
      • All organisms are made of one or more
      • Three Types of Cells: Plant, Animal, Prokaryotic (lack a nucleus)
    • Unicellular vs Multicellular
      • Unicellular - Composed of just one cell . Must carry out all of life's functions. 
      • Multicellular- C onsist of more than one cell. H ave differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. Individual cells cannot survive on their own.
    • Reproduction
      • Asexual
        • One parent
        • Each organism is genetically identical
        • “ Fast and easy”
        • Budding & fission
      • Sexual
        • Requires two parents
        • Organisms genetically different
        • “ Slow and hard”
        • Sex cells from each gender join
      • Reproduction- process by which organisms produce offspring