CLASSIFICATION DIVERSITY OF LIFE
Taxonomy <ul><li>Branch of biology that names groups of organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary hist...
History of Taxonomy <ul><li>Aristotle (385-322 BC) classified organisms into two main groups and then subclassified them i...
Linnaeus System of Classification <ul><li>Developed by Carlos Linnaeus (Sweedish Naturalist) (1707-1778) </li></ul><ul><li...
Hierarchal Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Pneumonic Device: K ings  P lay  C ards  O ften ...
Address Analogy <ul><li>Your Name </li></ul><ul><li>Rm A303 </li></ul><ul><li>200 Horace Mann Ave </li></ul><ul><li>Red Li...
Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Two word system to identify the species </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapien  or  Homo   sapien  </...
Species Named By: <ul><li>Description:  Homo sapien  = wise human </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos chaos =  amoeba </li></ul><ul><l...
Sytematics and phylogeny <ul><li>Systematics : method of organizing diversity of living things in context of their natural...
Phylogenic Tree
Morphological Comparison Brine Shrimp Frog Human Sea Urchin Tapeworm
Embryological Comparison Sea Urchin Brine Shrimp Frog Human Tapeworm
Molecular Comparison # of DNA nitrogen base sequence differences in a segment of DNA X 44 157 179 117 Human 44 X 159 180 1...
Lines of evidence used in systematics  <ul><li>Fossil record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides basic framework and order </li...
Embryological development <ul><li>Uses pattern of development to determine relatedness </li></ul><ul><li>Similar organisms...
Molecular evidence  <ul><li>Compare subcellular molecules like DNA, RNA,  proteins to determine relatedness </li></ul><ul>...
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Classification

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Transcript of "Classification"

  1. 1. CLASSIFICATION DIVERSITY OF LIFE
  2. 2. Taxonomy <ul><li>Branch of biology that names groups of organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history </li></ul>
  3. 3. History of Taxonomy <ul><li>Aristotle (385-322 BC) classified organisms into two main groups and then subclassified them into three categories </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul>Why is that method inadequate in classifying organims?
  4. 4. Linnaeus System of Classification <ul><li>Developed by Carlos Linnaeus (Sweedish Naturalist) (1707-1778) </li></ul><ul><li>Grouped Organisms by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchal Classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used morphology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Physical Appearance) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary pattern </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Hierarchal Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Pneumonic Device: K ings P lay C ards O ften F or G reat S plendor
  6. 6. Address Analogy <ul><li>Your Name </li></ul><ul><li>Rm A303 </li></ul><ul><li>200 Horace Mann Ave </li></ul><ul><li>Red Lion, PA </li></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><li>Label the parts of an address as they would relate to the following classifications: </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, </li></ul><ul><li>Family, Genus, Species </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this method more accurate than Aristotle’s method? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Two word system to identify the species </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapien or Homo sapien </li></ul><ul><li>Four requirements of Binomial Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>Always Latinized </li></ul><ul><li>Genus always capitalized; species identifier never capitalized </li></ul><ul><li>Written in italics or underlined </li></ul><ul><li>Always need both words </li></ul>Genus name Species Identifier
  8. 8. Species Named By: <ul><li>Description: Homo sapien = wise human </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos chaos = amoeba </li></ul><ul><li>Honor person: Linaea borialis = flower species native of Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Range: Lynx canadensis </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sytematics and phylogeny <ul><li>Systematics : method of organizing diversity of living things in context of their natural relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Phylogeny: Evolutionary history of species or taxonomic group </li></ul><ul><li>Phylogenic Tree: A diagram that displays the evolutionary history and relatedness of a group of organisms </li></ul>
  10. 10. Phylogenic Tree
  11. 11. Morphological Comparison Brine Shrimp Frog Human Sea Urchin Tapeworm
  12. 12. Embryological Comparison Sea Urchin Brine Shrimp Frog Human Tapeworm
  13. 13. Molecular Comparison # of DNA nitrogen base sequence differences in a segment of DNA X 44 157 179 117 Human 44 X 159 180 117 Frog 157 159 X 187 135 Brine Shrimp 179 180 187 X 165 Tapeworm 117 117 135 165 X Sea Urchin Human Frog Brine Shrimp Tapeworm Sea Urchin
  14. 14. Lines of evidence used in systematics <ul><li>Fossil record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides basic framework and order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of consistent records= inadequate method </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical features used to determine relatedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More homologous traits= more related </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analogous features can make this inadequate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Embryological development <ul><li>Uses pattern of development to determine relatedness </li></ul><ul><li>Similar organisms tend to share more developmental similarities than adult morphology </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: environmental influences and the inability to see development lead to inaccuracies </li></ul>
  16. 16. Molecular evidence <ul><li>Compare subcellular molecules like DNA, RNA, proteins to determine relatedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li># Amino acid differences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Karyotype </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA & RNA sequence= less difference= more related </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most accurate method b/c dealing with genetics </li></ul></ul>
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