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    Classification Classification Presentation Transcript

    • Taxonomy
      • Branch of biology that names groups of organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history
    • History of Taxonomy
      • Aristotle (385-322 BC) classified organisms into two main groups and then subclassified them into three categories
      • Plants
        • Herbs
        • Shrubs
        • Trees
      • Animals
        • Land
        • Sea
        • Air
      Why is that method inadequate in classifying organims?
    • Linnaeus System of Classification
      • Developed by Carlos Linnaeus (Sweedish Naturalist) (1707-1778)
      • Grouped Organisms by:
        • Hierarchal Classification
        • Used morphology
          • (Physical Appearance)
          • Evolutionary pattern
    • Hierarchal Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Pneumonic Device: K ings P lay C ards O ften F or G reat S plendor
    • Address Analogy
      • Your Name
      • Rm A303
      • 200 Horace Mann Ave
      • Red Lion, PA
      • USA
      • Label the parts of an address as they would relate to the following classifications:
      • Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order,
      • Family, Genus, Species
      • Why is this method more accurate than Aristotle’s method?
    • Binomial Nomenclature
      • Two word system to identify the species
      • Homo sapien or Homo sapien
      • Four requirements of Binomial Nomenclature
      • Always Latinized
      • Genus always capitalized; species identifier never capitalized
      • Written in italics or underlined
      • Always need both words
      Genus name Species Identifier
    • Species Named By:
      • Description: Homo sapien = wise human
      • Chaos chaos = amoeba
      • Honor person: Linaea borialis = flower species native of Canada
      • Geographic Range: Lynx canadensis
    • Sytematics and phylogeny
      • Systematics : method of organizing diversity of living things in context of their natural relationship
      • Phylogeny: Evolutionary history of species or taxonomic group
      • Phylogenic Tree: A diagram that displays the evolutionary history and relatedness of a group of organisms
    • Phylogenic Tree
    • Morphological Comparison Brine Shrimp Frog Human Sea Urchin Tapeworm
    • Embryological Comparison Sea Urchin Brine Shrimp Frog Human Tapeworm
    • Molecular Comparison # of DNA nitrogen base sequence differences in a segment of DNA X 44 157 179 117 Human 44 X 159 180 117 Frog 157 159 X 187 135 Brine Shrimp 179 180 187 X 165 Tapeworm 117 117 135 165 X Sea Urchin Human Frog Brine Shrimp Tapeworm Sea Urchin
    • Lines of evidence used in systematics
      • Fossil record
        • Provides basic framework and order
        • Lack of consistent records= inadequate method
      • Morphology
        • Physical features used to determine relatedness
          • More homologous traits= more related
          • Analogous features can make this inadequate
    • Embryological development
      • Uses pattern of development to determine relatedness
      • Similar organisms tend to share more developmental similarities than adult morphology
      • Disadvantage: environmental influences and the inability to see development lead to inaccuracies
    • Molecular evidence
      • Compare subcellular molecules like DNA, RNA, proteins to determine relatedness
        • Examples:
          • # Amino acid differences
          • Karyotype
          • DNA & RNA sequence= less difference= more related
        • Most accurate method b/c dealing with genetics