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  • 2. Taxonomy
    • Branch of biology that names groups of organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history
  • 3. History of Taxonomy
    • Aristotle (385-322 BC) classified organisms into two main groups and then subclassified them into three categories
    • Plants
      • Herbs
      • Shrubs
      • Trees
    • Animals
      • Land
      • Sea
      • Air
    Why is that method inadequate in classifying organims?
  • 4. Linnaeus System of Classification
    • Developed by Carlos Linnaeus (Sweedish Naturalist) (1707-1778)
    • Grouped Organisms by:
      • Hierarchal Classification
      • Used morphology
        • (Physical Appearance)
        • Evolutionary pattern
  • 5. Hierarchal Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Pneumonic Device: K ings P lay C ards O ften F or G reat S plendor
  • 6. Address Analogy
    • Your Name
    • Rm A303
    • 200 Horace Mann Ave
    • Red Lion, PA
    • USA
    • Label the parts of an address as they would relate to the following classifications:
    • Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order,
    • Family, Genus, Species
    • Why is this method more accurate than Aristotle’s method?
  • 7. Binomial Nomenclature
    • Two word system to identify the species
    • Homo sapien or Homo sapien
    • Four requirements of Binomial Nomenclature
    • Always Latinized
    • Genus always capitalized; species identifier never capitalized
    • Written in italics or underlined
    • Always need both words
    Genus name Species Identifier
  • 8. Species Named By:
    • Description: Homo sapien = wise human
    • Chaos chaos = amoeba
    • Honor person: Linaea borialis = flower species native of Canada
    • Geographic Range: Lynx canadensis
  • 9. Sytematics and phylogeny
    • Systematics : method of organizing diversity of living things in context of their natural relationship
    • Phylogeny: Evolutionary history of species or taxonomic group
    • Phylogenic Tree: A diagram that displays the evolutionary history and relatedness of a group of organisms
  • 10. Phylogenic Tree
  • 11. Morphological Comparison Brine Shrimp Frog Human Sea Urchin Tapeworm
  • 12. Embryological Comparison Sea Urchin Brine Shrimp Frog Human Tapeworm
  • 13. Molecular Comparison # of DNA nitrogen base sequence differences in a segment of DNA X 44 157 179 117 Human 44 X 159 180 117 Frog 157 159 X 187 135 Brine Shrimp 179 180 187 X 165 Tapeworm 117 117 135 165 X Sea Urchin Human Frog Brine Shrimp Tapeworm Sea Urchin
  • 14. Lines of evidence used in systematics
    • Fossil record
      • Provides basic framework and order
      • Lack of consistent records= inadequate method
    • Morphology
      • Physical features used to determine relatedness
        • More homologous traits= more related
        • Analogous features can make this inadequate
  • 15. Embryological development
    • Uses pattern of development to determine relatedness
    • Similar organisms tend to share more developmental similarities than adult morphology
    • Disadvantage: environmental influences and the inability to see development lead to inaccuracies
  • 16. Molecular evidence
    • Compare subcellular molecules like DNA, RNA, proteins to determine relatedness
      • Examples:
        • # Amino acid differences
        • Karyotype
        • DNA & RNA sequence= less difference= more related
      • Most accurate method b/c dealing with genetics