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Classification
Classification
Classification
Classification
Classification
Classification
Classification
Classification
Classification
Classification
Classification
Classification
Classification
Classification
Classification
Classification
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Classification

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  • 1. CLASSIFICATION DIVERSITY OF LIFE
  • 2. Taxonomy <ul><li>Branch of biology that names groups of organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history </li></ul>
  • 3. History of Taxonomy <ul><li>Aristotle (385-322 BC) classified organisms into two main groups and then subclassified them into three categories </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul>Why is that method inadequate in classifying organims?
  • 4. Linnaeus System of Classification <ul><li>Developed by Carlos Linnaeus (Sweedish Naturalist) (1707-1778) </li></ul><ul><li>Grouped Organisms by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchal Classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used morphology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Physical Appearance) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary pattern </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. Hierarchal Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Pneumonic Device: K ings P lay C ards O ften F or G reat S plendor
  • 6. Address Analogy <ul><li>Your Name </li></ul><ul><li>Rm A303 </li></ul><ul><li>200 Horace Mann Ave </li></ul><ul><li>Red Lion, PA </li></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><li>Label the parts of an address as they would relate to the following classifications: </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, </li></ul><ul><li>Family, Genus, Species </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this method more accurate than Aristotle’s method? </li></ul>
  • 7. Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Two word system to identify the species </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapien or Homo sapien </li></ul><ul><li>Four requirements of Binomial Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>Always Latinized </li></ul><ul><li>Genus always capitalized; species identifier never capitalized </li></ul><ul><li>Written in italics or underlined </li></ul><ul><li>Always need both words </li></ul>Genus name Species Identifier
  • 8. Species Named By: <ul><li>Description: Homo sapien = wise human </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos chaos = amoeba </li></ul><ul><li>Honor person: Linaea borialis = flower species native of Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Range: Lynx canadensis </li></ul>
  • 9. Sytematics and phylogeny <ul><li>Systematics : method of organizing diversity of living things in context of their natural relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Phylogeny: Evolutionary history of species or taxonomic group </li></ul><ul><li>Phylogenic Tree: A diagram that displays the evolutionary history and relatedness of a group of organisms </li></ul>
  • 10. Phylogenic Tree
  • 11. Morphological Comparison Brine Shrimp Frog Human Sea Urchin Tapeworm
  • 12. Embryological Comparison Sea Urchin Brine Shrimp Frog Human Tapeworm
  • 13. Molecular Comparison # of DNA nitrogen base sequence differences in a segment of DNA X 44 157 179 117 Human 44 X 159 180 117 Frog 157 159 X 187 135 Brine Shrimp 179 180 187 X 165 Tapeworm 117 117 135 165 X Sea Urchin Human Frog Brine Shrimp Tapeworm Sea Urchin
  • 14. Lines of evidence used in systematics <ul><li>Fossil record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides basic framework and order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of consistent records= inadequate method </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical features used to determine relatedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More homologous traits= more related </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analogous features can make this inadequate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 15. Embryological development <ul><li>Uses pattern of development to determine relatedness </li></ul><ul><li>Similar organisms tend to share more developmental similarities than adult morphology </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: environmental influences and the inability to see development lead to inaccuracies </li></ul>
  • 16. Molecular evidence <ul><li>Compare subcellular molecules like DNA, RNA, proteins to determine relatedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li># Amino acid differences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Karyotype </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA & RNA sequence= less difference= more related </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most accurate method b/c dealing with genetics </li></ul></ul>

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