Chromosomes
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Chromosomes

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    Chromosomes Chromosomes Presentation Transcript

    • CHROMOSOMES
    • What Are Chromosomes?
      • Rod shaped structures made of DNA & Protein
      • DNA – stores the genetic information that cells will use
      • Proteins- sphere shaped structures that the DNA wraps around
      Proteins DNA
    • Chromosome Shape Centromere Chromatids
    • CENTROMERES/ CHROMATIDS
      • Centromere- holds the chromatids together
      • Chromatids- identical sides of the chromosomes
        • Contain same genetic information on both sides
    • Chromatin
      • Chromososomes are only present during cell division. In between cell division chromosomes are unraveled and called Chromatim
    • PROKARYOTIC VS EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES
      • Prokaryotic Chromosomes –circular, smaller, NOT in Nucleus
      • Eukaryotic – Larger, rod shaped, in Nucleus
      Chromosome
    • Chromosome Numbers 1262 Adder’s Tongue Fern 52 Sand Dollar 48 Gorilla 46 Human 36 Earthworm 32 Cat 18 Carrot & Lettuce 8 Fruit Fly # of chromosome Organism
    • Which is more complex in terms of functions & intelligence? Adders Tongue Fern OR Human
    • … OK Bad Example
    • Two Types of Chromosomes
      • SEX… ok get your minds out of the gutter
        • Determine the gender of the individual
        • Carry few other traits
        • 2 of the 46 chromosomes
      • AUTOSOMES
        • Carry most of the traits that we inherit
        • 44 of the 46 chromosomes
    • SEX Chromosomes
      • XX =
      • XY =
    • HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES
      • A pair of autosomes that have the identical trait for a certain characteristic (eye color).
      • You receive one of the homologous pairs from your father and one homologous pair from your mother
      • Humans have 44 autosomes (minus the 2 sex chromosomes) so they have 22 pairs of homologous autosomes
      • Homologous chromosomes are the same size and shape
    • KARYOTYPE
      • A picture taken from a microscope of all the chromosomes within a cell. The chromosomes are then arranged in homologous pairs and given a set of numbers
    • Diploid vs Haploid Cells 1n 2n Abbreviation Only sex cells- Egg or Sperm All cells but sex cells (egg or sperm) Type of Cell Only one of each homologous chromosome present Both sets of homologous chromosomes present Description Haploid Diploid