Chromosomes

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Chromosomes

  1. 1. CHROMOSOMES
  2. 2. What Are Chromosomes? <ul><li>Rod shaped structures made of DNA & Protein </li></ul><ul><li>DNA – stores the genetic information that cells will use </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins- sphere shaped structures that the DNA wraps around </li></ul>Proteins DNA
  3. 3. Chromosome Shape Centromere Chromatids
  4. 4. CENTROMERES/ CHROMATIDS <ul><li>Centromere- holds the chromatids together </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatids- identical sides of the chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain same genetic information on both sides </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Chromatin <ul><li>Chromososomes are only present during cell division. In between cell division chromosomes are unraveled and called Chromatim </li></ul>
  6. 6. PROKARYOTIC VS EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES <ul><li>Prokaryotic Chromosomes –circular, smaller, NOT in Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic – Larger, rod shaped, in Nucleus </li></ul>Chromosome
  7. 7. Chromosome Numbers 1262 Adder’s Tongue Fern 52 Sand Dollar 48 Gorilla 46 Human 36 Earthworm 32 Cat 18 Carrot & Lettuce 8 Fruit Fly # of chromosome Organism
  8. 8. Which is more complex in terms of functions & intelligence? Adders Tongue Fern OR Human
  9. 9. … OK Bad Example
  10. 10. Two Types of Chromosomes <ul><li>SEX… ok get your minds out of the gutter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the gender of the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry few other traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 of the 46 chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AUTOSOMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry most of the traits that we inherit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>44 of the 46 chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. SEX Chromosomes <ul><li>XX = </li></ul><ul><li>XY = </li></ul>
  12. 12. HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES <ul><li>A pair of autosomes that have the identical trait for a certain characteristic (eye color). </li></ul><ul><li>You receive one of the homologous pairs from your father and one homologous pair from your mother </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have 44 autosomes (minus the 2 sex chromosomes) so they have 22 pairs of homologous autosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Homologous chromosomes are the same size and shape </li></ul>
  13. 13. KARYOTYPE <ul><li>A picture taken from a microscope of all the chromosomes within a cell. The chromosomes are then arranged in homologous pairs and given a set of numbers </li></ul>
  14. 14. Diploid vs Haploid Cells 1n 2n Abbreviation Only sex cells- Egg or Sperm All cells but sex cells (egg or sperm) Type of Cell Only one of each homologous chromosome present Both sets of homologous chromosomes present Description Haploid Diploid

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