Chromosomes
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Chromosomes

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Chromosomes Presentation Transcript

  • 1. CHROMOSOMES
  • 2. What Are Chromosomes?
    • Rod shaped structures made of DNA & Protein
    • DNA – stores the genetic information that cells will use
    • Proteins- sphere shaped structures that the DNA wraps around
    Proteins DNA
  • 3. Chromosome Shape Centromere Chromatids
  • 4. CENTROMERES/ CHROMATIDS
    • Centromere- holds the chromatids together
    • Chromatids- identical sides of the chromosomes
      • Contain same genetic information on both sides
  • 5. Chromatin
    • Chromososomes are only present during cell division. In between cell division chromosomes are unraveled and called Chromatim
  • 6. PROKARYOTIC VS EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES
    • Prokaryotic Chromosomes –circular, smaller, NOT in Nucleus
    • Eukaryotic – Larger, rod shaped, in Nucleus
    Chromosome
  • 7. Chromosome Numbers 1262 Adder’s Tongue Fern 52 Sand Dollar 48 Gorilla 46 Human 36 Earthworm 32 Cat 18 Carrot & Lettuce 8 Fruit Fly # of chromosome Organism
  • 8. Which is more complex in terms of functions & intelligence? Adders Tongue Fern OR Human
  • 9. … OK Bad Example
  • 10. Two Types of Chromosomes
    • SEX… ok get your minds out of the gutter
      • Determine the gender of the individual
      • Carry few other traits
      • 2 of the 46 chromosomes
    • AUTOSOMES
      • Carry most of the traits that we inherit
      • 44 of the 46 chromosomes
  • 11. SEX Chromosomes
    • XX =
    • XY =
  • 12. HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES
    • A pair of autosomes that have the identical trait for a certain characteristic (eye color).
    • You receive one of the homologous pairs from your father and one homologous pair from your mother
    • Humans have 44 autosomes (minus the 2 sex chromosomes) so they have 22 pairs of homologous autosomes
    • Homologous chromosomes are the same size and shape
  • 13. KARYOTYPE
    • A picture taken from a microscope of all the chromosomes within a cell. The chromosomes are then arranged in homologous pairs and given a set of numbers
  • 14. Diploid vs Haploid Cells 1n 2n Abbreviation Only sex cells- Egg or Sperm All cells but sex cells (egg or sperm) Type of Cell Only one of each homologous chromosome present Both sets of homologous chromosomes present Description Haploid Diploid