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  • 1. Bacteria Kingdoms Archaea & Eubacteria
  • 2. Two Kingdoms of Bacteria
    • Two Kingdoms
      • Archaea (Archaebacteria)- Extreme Bacteria
      • Eubacteria- True Bacteria
    • Why seperated into two kingdoms?
      • Cell wall of peptidoglycan- Eubacteria
      • Cell wall of unique lipids- Archaea
      • Different RNA base sequences
      • React differently to antibiotics
        • Eubacteria-susceptible Archaea- resistant
    • Why were they at once one kingdom (Monera)
      • Similar size and shape
      • Prokaryotic
  • 3. Archaebacteria Types Swamps; intestines of organisms Methanogens High Pressure Barophiles Below 15 C Psychrophiles 5-20% salt Halophiles Ph9-11 Alkophile pH 1-2 Acidophile Above 60 C Thermophile 20-45 C Mesophiles Environment Archaea Type
  • 4. Archaebacteria
  • 5. Archaebacteria Locations Salt Lake in Kenya- The red color of the lake is caused by halophiles Heat Vent in Yellowstone the red on the rocks is thermophiles Methanogens located in swamps & intestines of organisms
  • 6. Evolution of Archaea Archaea diverged totally separate from other bacteria and from eukaryotes
  • 7. Eubacteria
    • Defining Characteristics
      • Prokaryotic unicellular
      • Cell Wall of Peptidoglycan
      • Most heterotrophic; some autotrophic
      • Smaller ribosomes and circular chromosomes
    • Placed into three main groups:
      • Heterotrphic (absorb nutrients or are saprobes)
      • Autotrophic-photosynthetic- Cyanobacteria
      • Autotrophic-chemosynthetic
  • 8. Cyanobacteria Chlorophyll is not contained in chloroplasts but rather is located in the cytoplasm
  • 9. Eubacteria Shapes Cocci Spirilla Bacilli
  • 10. Eubacteria Arrangement Strept Staph Diplo
  • 11. Bacteria Structure
  • 12. Gram Positive vs Gram Negative
    • Appear Purple when stained
    • Retain the violet Gram stain
    • Thick peptidoglycan cell wall
    • Some produce endospores
    • Produce exotoxins
    • Exp: Streptococcus ; Staphalococus ; Lactobacilli; Clostridium botulinum and tetani ; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Appear Pink when stained
    • Lose the violet Gram stain and pick up the pink counterstain (Safranin)
    • Thinner peptidoglycan cell wall
    • Additional Membrane outside cell wall
    • Produce endotoxins
    • Exp: E. coli ; Enteric bacteria; nitrogen-fixing bacteria; chemoautotrophs; Salmonella; Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • 13. Gram Positives and Negatives
  • 14. Bacteria Respiration
    • Obligate aerobes
      • Must have oxygen in order to survive
      • M. tuberculosis
    • Faculative anaerobes
      • Flourish in conditions without oxygen but can survive with oxygen
    • Obligate anaerobes
      • Are poisoned in the presence of oxygen
      • Clostridium tetani; Clostridium botulinum; syphilis
  • 15. Endospores
    • Produced by some bacteria when in unfavorable conditions- dormant state
    • Hard outercovering that is resistant to drying out, chemicals, and boiling.
    • When encountering favorable conditions it resumes growth and reproduction
    • Clostridium botulinum; C. tetani
  • 16. Bacteria Reproduction
    • Binary fission - asexual method in which chromosome is copied; cell grows; cell divides w/ one chromosome copy in each cell
      • Very rapid process- 20 min!
  • 17. Conjugation
    • Process in which one bacterium transfers all or part of its chromosome to another cell through the pili.
  • 18. Other reproductive methods
    • Transformation- bacteria cell takes in DNA from external environment. New DNA is substituted into the chromosome
    • Transduction- Virus obtains fragment of DNA from host bacteria and when it infects another bacteria it releases the fragment into the new bacteria
  • 19. Toxins
    • Endotoxins-
      • produced by Gram negative bacteria
      • Not released until the bacteria is dead
      • Cause fever, body aches, weakness and can damage blood vessels
    • Exotoxins
      • Produced by Gram positive bacteria
      • Produced while bacteria is living
      • Affect nerve and muscle tissue