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Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
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Bacteria

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  • 1. Bacteria Kingdoms Archaea & Eubacteria
  • 2. Two Kingdoms of Bacteria <ul><li>Two Kingdoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaea (Archaebacteria)- Extreme Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eubacteria- True Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why seperated into two kingdoms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell wall of peptidoglycan- Eubacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell wall of unique lipids- Archaea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different RNA base sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>React differently to antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eubacteria-susceptible Archaea- resistant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Why were they at once one kingdom (Monera) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar size and shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Archaebacteria Types Swamps; intestines of organisms Methanogens High Pressure Barophiles Below 15 C Psychrophiles 5-20% salt Halophiles Ph9-11 Alkophile pH 1-2 Acidophile Above 60 C Thermophile 20-45 C Mesophiles Environment Archaea Type
  • 4. Archaebacteria
  • 5. Archaebacteria Locations Salt Lake in Kenya- The red color of the lake is caused by halophiles Heat Vent in Yellowstone the red on the rocks is thermophiles Methanogens located in swamps & intestines of organisms
  • 6. Evolution of Archaea Archaea diverged totally separate from other bacteria and from eukaryotes
  • 7. Eubacteria <ul><li>Defining Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic unicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Wall of Peptidoglycan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most heterotrophic; some autotrophic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller ribosomes and circular chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Placed into three main groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrphic (absorb nutrients or are saprobes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophic-photosynthetic- Cyanobacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophic-chemosynthetic </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Cyanobacteria Chlorophyll is not contained in chloroplasts but rather is located in the cytoplasm
  • 9. Eubacteria Shapes Cocci Spirilla Bacilli
  • 10. Eubacteria Arrangement Strept Staph Diplo
  • 11. Bacteria Structure
  • 12. Gram Positive vs Gram Negative <ul><li>Appear Purple when stained </li></ul><ul><li>Retain the violet Gram stain </li></ul><ul><li>Thick peptidoglycan cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Some produce endospores </li></ul><ul><li>Produce exotoxins </li></ul><ul><li>Exp: Streptococcus ; Staphalococus ; Lactobacilli; Clostridium botulinum and tetani ; Mycobacterium tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Appear Pink when stained </li></ul><ul><li>Lose the violet Gram stain and pick up the pink counterstain (Safranin) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinner peptidoglycan cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Membrane outside cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Produce endotoxins </li></ul><ul><li>Exp: E. coli ; Enteric bacteria; nitrogen-fixing bacteria; chemoautotrophs; Salmonella; Neisseria gonorrhoeae </li></ul>
  • 13. Gram Positives and Negatives
  • 14. Bacteria Respiration <ul><li>Obligate aerobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have oxygen in order to survive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M. tuberculosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faculative anaerobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flourish in conditions without oxygen but can survive with oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obligate anaerobes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are poisoned in the presence of oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clostridium tetani; Clostridium botulinum; syphilis </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Endospores <ul><li>Produced by some bacteria when in unfavorable conditions- dormant state </li></ul><ul><li>Hard outercovering that is resistant to drying out, chemicals, and boiling. </li></ul><ul><li>When encountering favorable conditions it resumes growth and reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Clostridium botulinum; C. tetani </li></ul>
  • 16. Bacteria Reproduction <ul><li>Binary fission - asexual method in which chromosome is copied; cell grows; cell divides w/ one chromosome copy in each cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very rapid process- 20 min! </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Conjugation <ul><li>Process in which one bacterium transfers all or part of its chromosome to another cell through the pili. </li></ul>
  • 18. Other reproductive methods <ul><li>Transformation- bacteria cell takes in DNA from external environment. New DNA is substituted into the chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Transduction- Virus obtains fragment of DNA from host bacteria and when it infects another bacteria it releases the fragment into the new bacteria </li></ul>
  • 19. Toxins <ul><li>Endotoxins- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produced by Gram negative bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not released until the bacteria is dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause fever, body aches, weakness and can damage blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exotoxins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by Gram positive bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced while bacteria is living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect nerve and muscle tissue </li></ul></ul>

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