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Bacteria
 

Bacteria

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    Bacteria Bacteria Presentation Transcript

    • Bacteria Kingdoms Archaea & Eubacteria
    • Two Kingdoms of Bacteria
      • Two Kingdoms
        • Archaea (Archaebacteria)- Extreme Bacteria
        • Eubacteria- True Bacteria
      • Why seperated into two kingdoms?
        • Cell wall of peptidoglycan- Eubacteria
        • Cell wall of unique lipids- Archaea
        • Different RNA base sequences
        • React differently to antibiotics
          • Eubacteria-susceptible Archaea- resistant
      • Why were they at once one kingdom (Monera)
        • Similar size and shape
        • Prokaryotic
    • Archaebacteria Types Swamps; intestines of organisms Methanogens High Pressure Barophiles Below 15 C Psychrophiles 5-20% salt Halophiles Ph9-11 Alkophile pH 1-2 Acidophile Above 60 C Thermophile 20-45 C Mesophiles Environment Archaea Type
    • Archaebacteria
    • Archaebacteria Locations Salt Lake in Kenya- The red color of the lake is caused by halophiles Heat Vent in Yellowstone the red on the rocks is thermophiles Methanogens located in swamps & intestines of organisms
    • Evolution of Archaea Archaea diverged totally separate from other bacteria and from eukaryotes
    • Eubacteria
      • Defining Characteristics
        • Prokaryotic unicellular
        • Cell Wall of Peptidoglycan
        • Most heterotrophic; some autotrophic
        • Smaller ribosomes and circular chromosomes
      • Placed into three main groups:
        • Heterotrphic (absorb nutrients or are saprobes)
        • Autotrophic-photosynthetic- Cyanobacteria
        • Autotrophic-chemosynthetic
    • Cyanobacteria Chlorophyll is not contained in chloroplasts but rather is located in the cytoplasm
    • Eubacteria Shapes Cocci Spirilla Bacilli
    • Eubacteria Arrangement Strept Staph Diplo
    • Bacteria Structure
    • Gram Positive vs Gram Negative
      • Appear Purple when stained
      • Retain the violet Gram stain
      • Thick peptidoglycan cell wall
      • Some produce endospores
      • Produce exotoxins
      • Exp: Streptococcus ; Staphalococus ; Lactobacilli; Clostridium botulinum and tetani ; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
      • Appear Pink when stained
      • Lose the violet Gram stain and pick up the pink counterstain (Safranin)
      • Thinner peptidoglycan cell wall
      • Additional Membrane outside cell wall
      • Produce endotoxins
      • Exp: E. coli ; Enteric bacteria; nitrogen-fixing bacteria; chemoautotrophs; Salmonella; Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    • Gram Positives and Negatives
    • Bacteria Respiration
      • Obligate aerobes
        • Must have oxygen in order to survive
        • M. tuberculosis
      • Faculative anaerobes
        • Flourish in conditions without oxygen but can survive with oxygen
      • Obligate anaerobes
        • Are poisoned in the presence of oxygen
        • Clostridium tetani; Clostridium botulinum; syphilis
    • Endospores
      • Produced by some bacteria when in unfavorable conditions- dormant state
      • Hard outercovering that is resistant to drying out, chemicals, and boiling.
      • When encountering favorable conditions it resumes growth and reproduction
      • Clostridium botulinum; C. tetani
    • Bacteria Reproduction
      • Binary fission - asexual method in which chromosome is copied; cell grows; cell divides w/ one chromosome copy in each cell
        • Very rapid process- 20 min!
    • Conjugation
      • Process in which one bacterium transfers all or part of its chromosome to another cell through the pili.
    • Other reproductive methods
      • Transformation- bacteria cell takes in DNA from external environment. New DNA is substituted into the chromosome
      • Transduction- Virus obtains fragment of DNA from host bacteria and when it infects another bacteria it releases the fragment into the new bacteria
    • Toxins
      • Endotoxins-
        • produced by Gram negative bacteria
        • Not released until the bacteria is dead
        • Cause fever, body aches, weakness and can damage blood vessels
      • Exotoxins
        • Produced by Gram positive bacteria
        • Produced while bacteria is living
        • Affect nerve and muscle tissue