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php app development 1

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Slides used from an introduction to PHP

Slides used from an introduction to PHP

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Transcript

  • 1. Web Scripting using PHP
  • 2. Web Scripting using PHP Server side scripting
  • 3. So what is a Server Side Scripting Language?• Programming language code embedded into a web page PERL PHP PYTHON ASP
  • 4. So what is a Server Side Scripting Language?• Programming language code embedded into a web page PERL PHP PYTHON ASP
  • 5. Different ways of scripting the Web• Programming language code embedded into a web page No scripting (plain markup) Client Side scripting Ser ver Side scripting Combination of the above (AJAX)
  • 6. No Scripting example - how it works...User on a machine somewhere Ser ver machine
  • 7. Being more specific...
  • 8. Web Browser soft ware
  • 9. Web ser versoft ware
  • 10. User types in a URL for a page with noprogramming code inside
  • 11. User types in a URL for a page with noprogramming code insideUniform Resource Locator
  • 12. Request is sent toser ver using HTTP
  • 13. Request is sent to ser ver using HTTPHypertext Transfer Protocol
  • 14. Ser ver soft warefinds the page
  • 15. Page is sent back,using HTTP
  • 16. Browser renders /displays the page
  • 17. Server Side scripting
  • 18. User types in a URL for a page withPHP code inside
  • 19. Request is sent toser ver using HTTP
  • 20. Ser ver soft warefinds the page
  • 21. Ser ver side codeis executed
  • 22. Page is sent back,using HTTP
  • 23. Browser renders /displays the page
  • 24. Server side scripting languages • Executes in the ser ver • Before the page is sent from server to browser • Ser ver side code is not visible in the client • Ser ver side code can access resources on the server side
  • 25. Browser Web ser ver Database ser ver
  • 26. How many items in stock?
  • 27. HTTP request
  • 28. Web ser verexecutes code
  • 29. Web ser ver executes codeQueriesdatabaseser ver
  • 30. Resultsentback
  • 31. HTMLgenerated
  • 32. HTTP response
  • 33. Answer displayed
  • 34. So why PHP? PERL PHP PYTHON ASP
  • 35. PHP usage ... • Source: PHP programming 2nd Ed.
  • 36. PHP compared to others ... • Source: www.securityspace.com
  • 37. Books - core syntaxProgramming PHP, Second Edition PHP in a NutshellBy Kevin Tatroe, Rasmus Lerdorf, By Paul HudsonPeter MacIntyre First Edition October 2005Second Edition April 2006** Recommended
  • 38. Books - learning / tutorial basedLearning PHP 5 Learning PHP and MySQLBy David Sklar By Michele Davis, Jon PhillipsFirst Edition June 2004 First Edition June 2006
  • 39. Other texts.. • There are other publishers / texts (trade books) • Look for books that cover PHP 5 • Open source, server side languages can rapidly develop • Features added or deprecated rapidly
  • 40. PHP development PHP 5 PHP 4 PHP 3 PHP 1 • 5 versions in 10 years
  • 41. Language basics
  • 42. Language basics • Embedding PHP in Web pages • Whitespace and Line breaks • Statements and semicolons • Comments • Literals / names • Identifiers • Keywords • Data types
  • 43. Language basics • Embedding PHP in Web pages • Whitespace and Line breaks • Statements and semicolons • Comments • Literals / names • Identifiers • Keywords • Data types Much of this material is explained in PHP programming 2nd Ed. Chap 1 & 2
  • 44. Embedding PHP in web pages Use <?php and ?> to <?php surround the php code statement; statement; statement ?>
  • 45. Embedding PHP in web pages <?php statement;statement; statement; statement; statement;statement; ?> In general whitespace doesn’t matter Use indenting and separate lines to create readable code
  • 46. The legendary Hello World program <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C/DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <title>This is the first PHP program</title> </head> <body> <p> <?php print "Hello World!"; ?> </p> </body> </html>
  • 47. The legendary Hello World program <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C/DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <title>This is the first PHP program</title> </head> <body> <p> <?php print "Hello World!"; ?> </p> </body> </html>
  • 48. The legendary Hello World program <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C/DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <title>This is the first PHP program</title> </head> <body> <p> print sends a sequence of <?php print "Hello World!"; characters to the output ?> </p> The sequence here is </body> indicated by start and </html> end quotes
  • 49. PHP can be put ‘ nywhere’.. a All the php blocks are processed <html> <?php ... ?> before the page is sent <head> <?php ... ?> <title>... <?php ... ?> ...</title> </head> <body> <p> <?php ... ?> </p> </body> </html>
  • 50. PHP can be put ‘ nywhere’.. but works in sequence a <html> <?php ... ?> Starting at the top <head> <?php ... ?> <title>... <?php ... ?> ...</title> </head> <body> <p> <?php ... ?> Working down to the bottom </p> </body> </html>
  • 51. Statements and semicolons Use ; to separate <?php statements statement; statement; statement; ?>
  • 52. All of these would work the same way...<?php statement; statement;statement ?><?phpstatement; statement;statement;?><?phpstatement;statement; This is the best way ofstatement; laying the code out?>
  • 53. CommentsMany different ways to add commentsComment Source Action // C++ Comments to EOL # Unix shell scripting Comments to EOL /* and */ C Comments out a block
  • 54. Comments <?php php statement; // A comment here php statement; # Another comment here /* A series of lines with comments ignored by the PHP processor */ php statement; ?>
  • 55. Comments <?php php statement; // A comment here php statement; # Another comment here /* A series of lines with comments ignored by the PHP processor */ php statement; ?>Everything in red is ignored by the PHP interpreter
  • 56. Language basics • Embedding PHP in Web pages • Whitespace and Line breaks • Statements and semicolons • Comments • Literals / names • Identifiers • Keywords • Data types
  • 57. Language basics • Embedding PHP in Web pages ✔ • Whitespace and Line breaks ✔ • Statements and semicolons ✔ • Comments ✔ • Literals / names • Identifiers • Keywords • Data types
  • 58. LiteralsA data value that appears directly in the program 2001 An integer 0xFE Hexadecimal number 1.4142 Float “Hello World” String ‘Hi’ String true Bool null built in ‘no value’ symbol
  • 59. IdentifiersIdentifiers (or names) in PHP must - Begin with an ASCII letter (uppercase or lowercase) or begin with the underscore character _ or any character bet ween ASCII 0x7F to 0xFF followed by any of these characters and the digits 0-9
  • 60. VariablesVariables in PHP are identifiers prefixed by $ $bill $value_count $anothervalue3 Valid $THIS_IS_NOT_A_GOOD_IDEA $_underscore $not valid Invalid $[ $3wa
  • 61. Case sensitivity - names we define are case sensitive $value Three different names $VALUE $vaLUE
  • 62. VariablesWe use variables for items of data that will changeas the program runsChoose a sensible name and have as many as youlike $total_income $bill $salary $month $total $percentage_increase
  • 63. VariablesWhen we declare a variable, a space is reservedand labelled for that item (in memory) $bill $bill
  • 64. VariablesTo give it a value, use the equals sign $bill $bill
  • 65. VariablesTo give it a value, use the equals sign $bill = 42 $bill
  • 66. VariablesTo give it a value, use the equals sign $bill = 42 42 $bill
  • 67. VariablesTo give it a value, use the equals sign $bill $bill
  • 68. VariablesTo give it a value, use the equals sign $bill = 57.98 $bill
  • 69. VariablesTo give it a value, use the equals sign $bill = 57.98 57.98 $bill
  • 70. VariablesTo give it a value, use the equals sign $bill $bill
  • 71. VariablesTo give it a value, use the equals sign $bill = “No payment” $bill
  • 72. VariablesTo give it a value, use the equals sign $bill = “No payment” “No payment” $bill
  • 73. VariablesIf a value is changed, the old value is over written $bill $bill
  • 74. VariablesIf a value is changed, the old value is over written $bill = 42; $bill
  • 75. VariablesIf a value is changed, the old value is over written $bill = 42; 42 $bill
  • 76. VariablesIf a value is changed, the old value is over written $bill = 42; 42 $bill = 58; $bill
  • 77. VariablesIf a value is changed, the old value is over written $bill = 42; 58 $bill = 58; $bill
  • 78. VariablesSometimes we use the old value to recalculate thenew value $bill $bill
  • 79. VariablesSometimes we use the old value to recalculate thenew value $bill = 42; $bill
  • 80. VariablesSometimes we use the old value to recalculate thenew value $bill = 42; 42 $bill
  • 81. VariablesSometimes we use the old value to recalculate thenew value $bill = 42; 42 $bill = $bill*2 ; $bill
  • 82. VariablesSometimes we use the old value to recalculate thenew value $bill = 42; 84 $bill = $bill*2 ; $bill
  • 83. VariablesSome languages are very strict about what kinds ofdata are stored in variables - PHP doesn’t care $bill=42; Stores an integer $bill=42; $bill=”Now its a string”; print $bull;
  • 84. VariablesSome languages are very strict about what kinds ofdata are stored in variables - PHP doesn’t care $bill=42; Stores an integer $bill=42; Over writes with a string $bill=”Now its a string”; print $bull;
  • 85. VariablesSome languages are very strict about what kinds ofdata are stored in variables - PHP doesn’t care $bill=42; Stores an integer $bill=42; Over writes with a string $bill=”Now its a string”; Whoops - made a mistake print $bull; but it still works
  • 86. VariablesSome languages are very strict about what kinds ofdata are stored in variables - PHP doesn’t care $bill=42; Stores an integer $bill=42; Over writes with a string $bill=”Now its a string”; Whoops - made a mistake print $bull; but it still works
  • 87. Keywords _CLASS_ _ Declare extends print( ) _ _FILE_ _ Default final privateReserved by _ _FUNCTION_ _ die( ) for protectedthe language _ _LINE_ _ Do foreach publicfor core _ _METHOD_ _ echo( ) function require( ) Else globalfunctionality Abstract And elseif if require_once( ) array( ) empty( ) implements return( ) As enddeclare include( ) static Break endfor include_once( ) switchAlso - can’t Case catch endforeach interface tHRow endif isset( )use a built in cfunction endswitch list( ) TRy unset( )function Class endwhile new use clonename as a Const eval( ) old_function var exception Orvariable Continue exit( ) php_user_filter while xor
  • 88. Data typesPHP provides 8 types scalar (single-value) compound integers arrays floating-point objects string booleans Two are special - resource and NULL
  • 89. IntegersWhole numbers - range depends on the C compilerthat PHP was made in (compiled in)Typically +2,147,483,647 to -2,147,483,647 Octal 0755 Hexadecimal 0xFFLarger integers get converted to floats automatically
  • 90. Floating-Point NumbersReal numbers - again range is implementation specificTypically 1.7E-308 to 1.7E+308 with 15 digits of accuracyExamples 3.14, 0.017, -7.1, 0.314E1, 17.0E-3
  • 91. StringsDelimited by either single or double quotes ‘here is a string’ “here is another string”
  • 92. Strings - single quotesYou can use single quotes to enclose double quotes $outputstring=‘He then said “Goodbye” and left’;Useful for easily printing HTML attributes $outputstring=‘<a href=”http:/www.bbc.co.uk”>BBC</a>’;
  • 93. Strings - double quotesYou can use double quotes to enclose single quotes $outputstring=”He then said ‘Goodbye’ and left”;
  • 94. OperatorsStandard arithmetic operators: +, -, *, /, % ..Concatenation operator: . $outputstring=”He then said “.$quote;Any non-string value is converted to a string beforethe concatenation.
  • 95. Operators$aBool=true;$anInt=156;$aFloat=12.56;$anotherFloat=12.2E6;$massiveFloat=12.2E-78;print "The bool printed looks like this: ".$aBool."<br />";print "The int printed looks like this: ".$anInt."<br />";print "The (smaller) float printed looks like this: ".$aFloat."<br />";print "The larger float printed looks like this: ".$anotherFloat."<br />";print "The even larger float printed looks like this: ".$massiveFloat."<br />";
  • 96. Operators$aBool=true;$anInt=156;$aFloat=12.56;$anotherFloat=12.2E6;$massiveFloat=12.2E-78;print "The bool printed looks like this: ".$aBool."<br />";print "The int printed looks like this: ".$anInt."<br />";print "The (smaller) float printed looks like this: ".$aFloat."<br />";print "The larger float printed looks like this: ".$anotherFloat."<br />";print "The even larger float printed looks like this: ".$massiveFloat."<br />";