What problems did leaders face in the late Roman Republic?
How did Rome become an empire?
What helped tie the Roman empire together during the Pax Romana?
Main Idea Governmental and social problems led to the end of the Roman Republic and the creation of a new form of government. From Republic to Empire
By the mid-100s BC, Rome had no rival anywhere in the Mediterranean world. However, the responsibilities of running their vast holdings stretched the Roman political system to its limits. Problems in the Late Republic
Revolution began in political, social institutions
Tensions grew between classes of Roman society
Gracchi brothers tried to resolve tension
Tribune Tiberius Gracchus noted mistreatment of soldier-farmers
Many reduced to poverty
Tiberius, brother Gaius tried to help soldiers
Gracchi tried to redistribute public land to farmers
Had public support, but Senate feared Gracchi trying to reduce its power
Explain How did Rome grow and change after it became an empire? Answer(s): The Roman Empire reached the limits of its territorial expansion and made developments in building, government, and culture.
Empire brought uniformity to the cities of the Mediterranean world, which were governed in imitation of Rome. The period from the beginning of August’s reign in 27 BC until the death of the last of the Good Emperors in AD 180 is often called the Pax Romana—the Roman Peace. This era was characterized by stable government, a strong legal system, widespread trade, and peace. The Pax Romana
Roman government strongest unifying force in empire
Italy imported grain, meat, raw materials from provinces
Merchants brought silks, linens, glassware, jewelry, furniture from Asia
Rome, Alexandria became commercial centers
Military and Merchant Routes
Most roads built, maintained for military purposes
Cheaper to transport grain by ship from one end of Mediterranean to other than to send it overland; most goods went by sea
Commercial activity possible because of empire’s location around Mediterranean and extensive road network
Ultimately about 50,000 miles of roads bound empire together
Opportunities for Trade
Analyze How did government, law, and trade tie the Roman people together? Answer(s): The Roman government was the strongest unifying force, maintaining order, enforcing the laws, and defending the frontiers. Roman law provided stability and, with few exceptions, the same laws applied to everyone in the empire. Trade provided opportunities for commerce between people in different parts of the empire.