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  • 1. THE GREAT WAR “World War I” A Local Conflict Goes Global 1914 - 1918
  • 2. “ MANIA ”
    • Underlying causes of WWI:
    • M ilitarism
    • A lliances
    • N ationalism
    • I mperialism
    • A narchy (international)
  • 3. Militarism
    • Glorification of War & Military
    • Build up of large reserve armies
    • Mobilization - organize resources for combat (triggers other nations mobilizing)
      • Naval Expansion – Kaiser Wilhelm II (GR) fires Bismarck and expands navy
      • wants to be equal to G.B. (most powerful)
      • G.B. feels threatened, expands, develops new battleship - Dreadnought
  • 4.
    • In 1914, European armed forces stood like this:
    • Germany: 2,200,000 soldiers, 97 warships
    • Austria-Hungary: 810,000 soldiers, 28 warships.
    • Italy: 750,000 soldiers, 36 warships
    • France: 1,125,000 soldiers, 62 warships
    • Russia: 1,200,000 soldiers, 30 warships
    • Great Britain: 711,000 soldiers, 185 warships
  • 5.
    • Another thing the countries of Europe did was to train all their young men so that if there was a war they could call, not only on the standing army , but on huge numbers of trained reservists!!!
  • 6. Alliances
    • Defense Agreements Among Nations
    • Triple Alliance - (1882) Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary - attempt to isolate France
    • Triple Entente - (1907) France, Russia, Great Britian
      • Entente : Friendly understanding between nations
  • 7. Nationalism
    • Extreme pride in one’s nation or desire to form a nation
    • French Nationalists sought revenge against Germany for loss of Alsace-Lorraine
    • Slavic Nationalism - Pan-Slavism : Unify all Slavic people under one empire
  • 8.
    • Land of Hope and Glory,
    • mother of the free...
    • God who made thee mighty,
    • make thee mightier yet.
    • Land of Hope and Glory
    • (Great Britain)
    • Germany, Germany above all,
    • over everything in the world,
    • When it steadfastly holds together,
    • offensively and defensively.
    • German National Anthem
  • 9. Imperialism
    • Domination of one country by another
    • Countries who believed that they were superior thought it was alright to conquer and rule others – particularly if they were inhabited by races they thought were inferior
  • 10. Anarchy
    • Nations of Europe pursue policies without regard for the wishes of their neighbors
      • Land freaks!!!
    • No democracies!
    • Crisis - No international organization to monitor
  • 11. Immediate Causes of WWI
    • Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
      • Austria-Hungarian
      • June 28, 1914
      • Sarajevo
      • Killed by Gavrilo Princip - member of Serbian nationalist group called the “Black Hand”
  • 12.  
  • 13. Why assassinated?
    • Ferdinand planned to give Slavs of Bosnia-Herzegovina a voice in the gov’t equal to that of Austria-Hungarians
    • This threatened the movement for a separate Slavic state
  • 14. What happens next?
    • A-H hold Serbians responsible
    • A-H seeks assurance (backup) from Germany in event of war
      • Germany issues “Blank Check” to A-H
      • Kaiser Wilhelm II gives full support to any actions A-H might take against Serbia
  • 15. Tension!!!
    • A-H issues ultimatum to Serbia
      • set of final conditions that must be accepted to avoid severe consequences
    • Demands that Serbia allow A-H officials into country to suppress all rebellious movements & conduct investigation
    • Gives Serbia 48 hours to agree or face war
    • Serbia does not agree to all parts A-H declares war on Serbia! (July 28, 1914)
  • 16. Other Countries Get Involved
    • Russia (friend of the Serbs) mobilizes troops along borders of Germany & A-H
    • Germany warns Russia to stop - they don’t!
    • Germany issues ultimatum to France – 18 hours to decide if it would support Russia – France implies it would support Russia
  • 17. Allies with Russia
  • 18. Declarations of War
    • Germany declares war on Russia
      • Aug 1, 1914
    • Germany declares war on France
      • Aug 3, 1914
    • Great Britain still hoped to remain neutral and not go to war, but…
  • 19. Germany Invades Belgium!
    • Germany demands passage across Belgium to fight France
      • (*Part of Schlieffen Plan)
    • British protest demand made by Germany upon neutral nation of Belgium
      • 1839 Treaty signed by G.B., Russia, France & Germany guaranteed Belgium’s neutrality
  • 20.
    • Germany invades Belgium anyway
    • G.B. demands they withdraw
    • Germany responds calling treaty
    • “ a scrap of paper”
    • G.B. declares war on Germany
      • Aug 4, 1914
  • 21. The Schlieffen Plan
    • Germany’s invasion of Belgium was part of this plan
    • Germany had enemies to East & West & did not want to fight a war on both fronts at the same time
    • Believed Russia would be slow to mobilize and that they could fight & defeat France (W. Front) first in 6 weeks & then fight Russia on Eastern Front
  • 22.  
  • 23.
    • developed by Germany’s Chief of General Staff Count von Schlieffen
    • Invade France in one crushing blow
      • based on the fact that France did not build any of their defense systems along the Belgium border thus leaving the backdoor to France wide open
    • Von Schlieffen calculated that it would take Russia at least six weeks to organize its large Army for an attack on Germany.
    • Schlieffen's plan involved using 90% of Germany's armed forces to attack France
  • 24. Allies vs. Central Powers
    • Allies
      • Great Britain
      • Russia
      • Italy
      • France
      • United States – April 6, 1917
    • Central Powers
      • Germany
      • Austria-Hungary
      • Turkey
      • Bulgaria
  • 25. Expectations
    • Both sides thought the war would be a quick ordeal…
    • Kaiser told his soldiers, “you’ll be home before the leaves have fallen from the trees.”
    • They underestimated the role industrialization would play in this war – development of weapons
    • Russia, because of its size was considered a “steamroller” – how untrue!
  • 26. Types of Warfare
    • War in trenches
      • poisonous gases
      • Machine guns
      • Tanks
      • No Man’s Land
    • War at Sea
      • Submarines
    • War in the Air
      • Airplanes
      • Zeppelins
    • World War I was the catalyst for more major military technological innovations than any other war in history!
  • 27. Warfare of the Great War
  • 28. War of the Sea
    • Royal Navy
    • Merchant ships
      • Cargo ships
      • Plant underwater mines
  • 29.  
  • 30. U-Boat
    • Unterseeboot – German term
    • Attacked merchant convoys bringing supplies to Allied forces from US and Canada
    • Sank three American merchant ships in 1917 – prompting US to enter war
  • 31.  
  • 32. Torpedoes
    • Torpedoes were used by submarines
    • The Germans used torpedoes to blow up ships carrying supplies from America to Britain
    • The Germans torpedoed the passenger liner Lusitania on May 7th , 1915
      • 1,195 lives are lost
      • Americans were outraged and joined the war in 1917 on the side of the allies.
  • 33.  
  • 34.
    • U-boat garage
  • 35. Convoy of merchant ships and battleships
  • 36. War of the Air
  • 37. Planes
    • Used to deliver bombs
    • Spy work
    • Later became fighter aircraft armed with machine guns, bombs and some times cannons
    • Dogfights
      • Fights between two planes in the sky
  • 38. Zeppelin
  • 39.
    • Blimp
    • Greatly used by Germans
    • Used for passenger transport and military purposes
      • Bombing, machine guns, and scouting
    • Not very successful!
      • Vulnerable to gunfire
    • Most successful as reconnaissance – lead German ships to Allied ships in Sea
  • 40.  
  • 41.  
  • 42. War on Land
    • Trenches
      • Good ones were built in a zig-zag pattern
      • Underground cities
    • Western front
      • 6,000 miles of trenches
  • 43.  
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49.  
  • 50.  
  • 51.  
  • 52.  
  • 53. Machine Guns
    • 4-6 men to work them
    • Had to be on a flat surface
    • Fire-power of 100 guns
  • 54.  
  • 55. No Man’s Land
    • Area of land between opposing trenches
    • Many men died within first days of war because of the allure of it (peering over the edge – sniper bullet)
  • 56.  
  • 57.  
  • 58.  
  • 59.  
  • 60. Tanks
    • “ Little Willie”
    • Daimler engine (Chrysler), caterpillar track, crew of 3
    • Maximum speed was 3mph
    • COULD NOT cross trenches
    • End of War – modernized tank
      • Fits 10 men
      • Revolving turret (gun)
      • 4mph
  • 61.  
  • 62.  
  • 63.  
  • 64. Chlorine
    • German army were the first to use chlorine gas in 1915
    • Chlorine gas causes a burning sensation in the throat and chest pains
    • Death is painful - you suffocate!
    • The problem with chlorine gas is that the weather must be right. If the wind is in the wrong direction it could end up killing your own troops rather than the enemy
  • 65. Mustard Gas
    • Mustard gas was the most deadly weapon used
    • Fired into the trenches in shells
    • Colorless and takes 12 hours to take effect
    • Effects include: blistering skin, vomiting, sore eyes, internal and external bleeding
    • Very painful – victims had to be tied to bed!
    • Death can take up to 5 weeks
    • Remain in soil for several more weeks
  • 66.  
  • 67.  
  • 68. Trench Problems
  • 69.  
  • 70. Lice
    • Would breed in the seams of filthy clothing (warm areas) and cause uncontrollable itching
    • Lice caused Trench Fever
      • painful disease that began suddenly with severe pain followed by high fever
      • Recovery - away from the trenches - took up to twelve weeks. 
    • Lice were not actually identified as the culprit of Trench Fever until 1918
  • 71. Rats
    • Millions of them infected trenches
    • Black and brown rats
    • Gorge themselves on human remains
      • disfigured dead bodies by eating their eyes and liver
      • could grow to the size of a cat
    • A single rat couple could produce up to 900 offspring in a year – ultimately spreading infection and contaminating food.
  • 72.  
  • 73.  
  • 74.  
  • 75.  
  • 76.  
  • 77.  
  • 78.  
  • 79.  
  • 80. Why did it take so long for America to get involved in the war?
    • America was isolationist
    • “ Why should I get involved in someone else’s problems”
  • 81. Which side should the US pick?
    • 11 million German-Americans
    • Irish-Americans hated Great Britain
    • Close cultural ties
    • Shared transatlantic cables (so censored stories)
    • Big business loaned much $ to allies
    Central Powers: Allies: US Exports to both sides:
  • 82. What did it take to get the US involved? 1. Blockades
    • Britain blockaded (stopped) all German ships going to America
    • Germany announced a submarine war around Britain
    Y-53 German Submarine 1916
  • 83. What did it take to get the US involved? 1. Blockades
    • In May, 1915 Germany told Americans to stay off of British ships
    • They could/would sink them
  • 84. What did it take to get the US involved? 1. Blockades
    • Lusitania torpedoed, sinking with 1200 passengers and crew (including 128 Americans)
    • Was eventually found to be carrying 4200 cases of ammunition
    German Propaganda Justifying Lusitania sinking
  • 85. What did it take to get the US involved? 1. Blockades
    • The US sharply criticized Germany for their action
    • Germany agreed not to sink passenger ships without warning in the future
    Note in Bottle After Lusitania Disaster
  • 86. What did it take to get the US involved? 2. Unlimited Submarine Warfare
    • 1917 Germany announced “unlimited submarine warfare” in the war zone
    Why? Otherwise their blockade would not be successful
  • 87. What did it take to get the US involved? 3. Zimmerman Note
    • US intercepted a note from Germany to Mexico,
    • It promised Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona back in return for an alliance
  • 88. What did it take to get the US involved?
    • Zimmerman Note + the sinking of 4 unarmed American ships led to a declaration of war
  • 89. Thinking Slide:
    • Should we tell the story of WWI with Germany as the “bad guy”? Explain.
  • 90. How was the war looking for the allies?
    • Russia left the war after its communist revolution in 1917
    • Made it a one front war for Germany - all its troops could concentrate on France
    Not Good...
  • 91. Convincing the American People
    • Posters - Gee!!
    • How do you think this poster helped to convince the American people that the war was a good idea?
  • 92. Convincing the American People 1. War to End All Wars Idealism: 2 Goals For War: 2. Making the World Safe for Democracy
  • 93. Convincing the American People Idealism: Fourteen Points What? President Wilson’s Plan for after the war
    • Fourteen promises, including freedom of the seas & a League of Nations to work for peace
    President Woodrow Wilson
  • 94. What did the US do to help?
    • US provided the food, money, and fresh toops needed to win the war
    American Troops March Through London Supplies:
  • 95. How did the War Affect the US? Women
    • Women filled factory jobs
    • May have led 19th Ammendment after the war (Gave women the right to vote)
    • Black soldiers still served in Segregated Units
    African Americans
    • “ Great Migration” - thousands of African Americans moved North to work in factories
  • 96. How did the War Affect the US? Enforcing Loyalty
    • Hatred of all things German
      • Ex. “Liberty Cabbage”
    • Espionage Act 1917 & Sedition Act of 1918 punished those against the war (many labor leaders)
  • 97.
  • 98. The Armistice
    • Marks the official end of WWI
    • November 11, 1918 – 11am fighting on Western Front ceases (11/11 at 11!)
  • 99. The Treaty of Versailles
    • January 1919
    • Paris, France
    • Leader present from 4 great powers
      • Woodrow Wilson (US)
        • 14 points and the League of Nations
      • Georges Clemenceau (France)
        • Impossible for Germany to wage war again
      • David Lloyd George (Britain)
        • Wanted GB to remain independent
      • Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
        • Wanted territorial rewards promised back in 1915
  • 100. Punishments on Germany
    • The German Army was limited to 100,000 men
      • Was not to possess any heavy artillery
      • The general staff was abolished
      • The navy was to be reduced.
      • No air force would be permitted, and the production of military planes was forbidden.
    • The Treaty obligated the Germans to pay reparations amounting to over £15 billion to the Allies.
  • 101. More...
    • Alsace-Lorraine was to be returned to France, and Poland regained its independence.
    • Germany was to pay for all civilian damages caused during the war. This burden, combined with payment of reparations to the Allies of great quantities of industrial goods, merchant shipping, and raw materials, was expected to prevent Germany from being able to finance any major military effort.
  • 102. Treaty Backfires
    • How do we know this?
      • WWII – Adolf Hitler!
    • The punishment was so severe, that it wiped out any chance of a democracy in Germany
      • Thus, it give opportunity for someone to rise up in a militaristic dictatorship to re-unify the people
    • WWI set us up for WWII!!!
  • 103. War Facts
    • Lasted 4 years, 3 months, and 14 days
    • Cost $282 billion for all countries involved – 20 th century cost!
    • Total soldiers – 65 million
    • 8+ million soldiers killed
      • – over 5,000/day
    • Another 21million are wounded
    • Over 6 million civilian deaths
  • 104. Casualties of Allies 5,000,000+
  • 105. Casualties of Central Powers 3,000,000+
  • 106. Final Thought
    • The war we have just been through, though it was shot through with terror, is not to be compared with the war we would have to face next time.
    • - Woodrow Wilson