Astronomy- Motion, eclipses, tides, moon

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Astronomy- Motion, eclipses, tides, moon

  1. 1. Planetary Motion, Eclipses, Tides, & Phases of the Moon
  2. 2. <ul><li>Rotation – the spinning of a body (an object) on its axis </li></ul><ul><li>Orbit – the path that a body takes as it travels around another body </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution – one complete trip around an orbit. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Johannes Kepler – ancient astronomer that studied how planets move. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Law – planets do not move in a circle; they move in an elongated circle called an ellipse . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Law – planets move faster when they are closer to the sun. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd Law – planets that are farther from the sun take longer to orbit the sun </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Pull of gravity (like a longer string) slower orbit http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/physical_science/physics/mechanics/orbit/ellipse.html Pull of gravity (like a shorter string) Faster orbit
  5. 5. <ul><li>What allows planets close to the sun to move faster and also to keep bodies (like the moon) in orbit? Gravity </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>24 hours – the time required for Earth to rotate once on its axis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It takes 23 hours & 56 minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis – the imaginary line that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth is tilted at 23.5  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth spins in which direction? Counterclockwise . Therefore the sun rises in the east and sets in the west . </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Seasons are caused by Earth’s tilt and its rotation around the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Equinox – occurs when the sun is directly above the equator. The number of daytime hours and nighttime hours are equal . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vernal equinox – March 21 st is the beginning of spring . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autumnal equinox – Sept. 23 rd is the beginning of Fall . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solstice – when the sun is the furthest from the equator. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer solstice – beginning of summer – June 22nd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter solstice – beginning of winter – Dec. 22nd </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. http://www.teslasociety.com/pictures/solar10.jpg
  9. 9. <ul><li>Solar Eclipse – when the moon comes in between the Earth and the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>The shadow of the moon falls on part of the Earth </li></ul>http://www.dkimages.com/discover/DKIMAGES/Discover/Home/Science/Astronomy-and-Space-Science/Solar-System/The-Sun/Eclipses/Eclipses-2.html
  10. 10. http://www.iayc.org/eclipse/sofi_composite_2_crop.jpg
  11. 11. <ul><li>Lunar Eclipse – when the Earth comes in between the sun and moon. </li></ul><ul><li>The shadow of the Earth falls on the moon. </li></ul>http://www.dkimages.com/discover/DKIMAGES/Discover/Home/Science/Astronomy-and-Space-Science/Solar-System/The-Planets/Earth/Moon/Eclipse/Eclipse-1.html
  12. 12. http://www.keralatips.org/2007/02/28/total-lunar-eclipse-on-march-4-visible-in-kerala
  13. 13. <ul><li>What do you know about ocean tides? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think the moon might affect the ocean tides that we have? </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s watch a Brain Pop to find out… </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.brainpop.com/science/earthsystem/tides/ </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Tide - The rise and fall of the water level in the oceans caused by the force of gravity between the Earth and the moon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Tide – when water facing the moon and water on the opposite side of the moon bulges. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Tide – happens between the 2 high tides </li></ul></ul>http://www.theboatingexchange.com/Conditions/MoonTide.htm The moon is pulling the Earth Away from the water on this side. The Moon is pulling the Water on this side.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Spring tide – both the sun and moon pull on the ocean water (High tide is more extreme.) </li></ul><ul><li>Neap tide – the sun and the moon pull opposite of each other (High tide is less extreme.) </li></ul>http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=143
  16. 16. <ul><li>Satellite – any natural or man-made object that revolves around a planet </li></ul><ul><li>The moon is a satellite of Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Earth only has one satellite. </li></ul><ul><li>Some planets have several, some have none. </li></ul><ul><li>Luna – the name of the Earth’s moon </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Rocks from the moon have been found to be 4.6 billion years old. </li></ul><ul><li>The moon has no atmosphere , so there is no wind & no weather . </li></ul><ul><li>The surface therefore remains unchanged – Neil Armstrong’s footprint is still there! </li></ul><ul><li>The moon appears to be the largest object in our night sky, but that’s only b/c it’s the closest . </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>It is only ¼ the size of Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The sun is 400 times larger than the moon even though the sun appears smaller in our sky. </li></ul><ul><li>The moon looks bright in the sky, but it does not give off its own light. The moon reflects light from the sun like a giant mirror. </li></ul><ul><li>We only see the same side of the moon b/c the moon rotates on its axis and revolves around the Earth at the same speed. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The Moon seems to change shape as different parts of the moon are lit by the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>These are called phases of the moon . </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Full Moon - when the moon's disk is light </li></ul><ul><li>Gibbous Moon - when we can see roughly ¾ of the moon's disk </li></ul><ul><li>Quarter Moon – (half moon) when we can see one half of the moon's disk (one-quarter of the entire moon's surface) </li></ul><ul><li>Crescent Moon - when we can see only a sliver of the moon's disk (the side of the moon facing us) </li></ul><ul><li>New Moon - when the moon's disk is dark (and invisible to us) </li></ul><ul><li>Waning Moon - when the moon seems to be getting smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Waxing Moon - when the moon seems to be getting bigger </li></ul>
  21. 21. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/activities/label/labelmoonphases.shtml

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