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Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.
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Grignon Energie Positive: An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet.

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The Grignon Energie Positive programme (GE+) takes place at AgroParistech’s experimental farm near Paris, in partnership with private and public companies. Its aim is to show that a both productive …

The Grignon Energie Positive programme (GE+) takes place at AgroParistech’s experimental farm near Paris, in partnership with private and public companies. Its aim is to show that a both productive and sustainable farming is possible. Its main focus is carbon emissions and fossil fuel consumption.

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  • 1. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. « La mission de l’humanité, c’est de transformer l’énergie solaire en conscience. » (Humanity’s mission is to transform solar energy into awareness.) Patrick Viveret, French philosopher
  • 2. Table of contents INTRODUCTION to the Grignon Energie Positive REDUCING the Grignon farm fossil fuel consumptions programme............................................page 1 and greenhouse gas emissions ................... page 13 Origins and context of the programme............................ page 2 Adapting the production system .................................. page 14 A multi-party project................................................. page 3 A distinct improvement in the energetic and carbon Presentation of the Grignon farm .................................. page 4 performance of milk production ................................. page 15 More mitigated results for cash crops ........................... page 16 ASSESSING the Grignon farm fossil fuel consumptions An example of innovation: Chaff harvest ...................... page 17 and greenhouse gas emissions .....................page 5 The production of renewable energy with miscanthus ....... page 18 Our sustainability ambition and goals: The “3 Ps” hat trick .. page 6 The production of renewable energy using Results of the 1st carbon and energy assessment of the farm biomethanization and photovoltaic .............................. page 19 in 2006 ................................................................. page 7 Beyond fossil fuel and greenhouse gas .......................... page 20 Results put into perspective ........................................ page 8 Precise environmental accounting ................................ page 9 INFORMING the professionals, the general public and MEASURING the Grignon farm fossil fuel consumptions the future generation ............................. page 21 and greenhouse gas emissions ................... page 10 Communicating positively towards the professionals ......... page 22 Measuring crops’ nitrous oxide emissions ........................ page 11 An innovative way of communicating to the general public ........................................................ page 23 Measuring cows’ enteric methane emissions .................... page 12
  • 3. Introduction to the Grignon Energie Positive programme Page 1
  • 4. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing Origins and context of the programme society It is time to take action, to show that a both productive and sustainable agriculture is possible. Page 2
  • 5. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing A multi-party project The Grignon Energie Positive programme (GE+) takes place at AgroParistech’s experimental farm near Paris, in partnership with private and public companies. Board of directors: Olivier Lapierre (Director of Céréopa and Professor at Céréopa, consultancy arm of AgroParisTech), Thierry Doré AgroParisTech, Europe’s leading AgroParisTech with high expertise (Professor at AgroParisTech and Institute of research, education and in economic and environmental researcher at INRA*), Bernard technology for Agriculture, Food and modelling and assessment of de Franssu (Director of the The experimental farm at Environmental Sciences. agro-food systems. Grignon Farm). Grignon, used by researchers and students to experiment with Operations team: Marion Barral new technologies in order to (Communications Project meet key issues in agriculture. Manager), Dominique Tristant (Technical Project Manager), Sophie Carton, Yves Python (Project Executives). Scientific board: Philippe Schmidely (Researcher in animal nutrition), Benoît Gabrielle (Researcher in crop production), Jean-Pierre Henry (Researcher in ecology), Thierry Bonaudo Private and public partners. (Researcher in animal production). * INRA: French institute for agronomic research Page 3
  • 6. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing Presentation of the Grignon farm The Grignon farm benefits from an exceptional scientific environment. INRA (French institute for agronomic research) researchers and AgroParisTech students LOCATION experiment all year long with innovative solutions that will 40 km South-West from Paris. 546 hectares. be part of tomorrow’s agriculture. The diversity of the Grignon farm enables the study of different productions and their complex interactions. CATTLE Consisting of three parts separated by up to 30 km, the farm offers a unique opportunity to study the 120 dairy cows > 1,2 environmental impacts of farming practices in different million L milk/year. areas. With its cows producing 10,000 litres of milk/year 500 meat ewes. and wheat yields reaching 9 tons/ha in 2008, it is a showcase for a both productive and environmentally CROPS performing agriculture using the means of ecological Cereals, fodder intensification. In addition to that, the production of crops, grassland, yoghurts, milk and cream on the farm enables the study energetic crops. of the environmental impacts of whole food chains, instead of being limited to the farm boundaries. Last but DIRECT not least, its location on the outskirts of Paris makes it a SELLING life-size educational tool for the general public and Shop on the farm. schools. PROCESSING AND EDUCATION 10 000 visitors/year: CONDITIONNING schools, students, Bottled milk, yoghurts and cream. general public, professionals. Page 4
  • 7. Assessing the Grignon farm fossil fuel consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions Page 5
  • 8. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing Our sustainability ambition and goals: The “3 P's” hat trick PerfAgroP3, a simulation tool to assess the “3 P's” at the scale of a farm PerfAgroP3 models all the different types of productions of the farm and their interactions. It enables the assessment of different technical solutions and their impacts on profit (economic margin), fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas The performance triangle emissions and food production (calories and proteins). In Grignon we believe that environmental performance must rhyme with economic performance to be legitimate. In terms of environmental performance, our objective is to reduce the farm's carbon emissions as much as possible through agronomic means and to compensate locally (on the farm and its surroundings) the emissions we cannot eliminate. We also aim at becoming a positive energy farm, that is to say a farm that produces more energy than it actually consumes. Therefore we will be able to produce energy for society. But we also think that progress towards environmental sustainability should not disengage agriculture from production. The recent hunger crisis and the world demographic growth are Example: Simulation with PerfAgroP3 of the introduction of three signals of a future where food scarcity in both developing and developed countries will be a different solutions on the Grignon farm major issue in the forthcoming decades. Therefore we believe that the first mission of agriculture should always be to produce food. Page 6
  • 9. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing Results of the 1st carbon and energy assessment of the farm in 2006 The fossil fuel consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions assessment of the farm was done in 2006, with the farm data from 2005 and the bilan Planète methodology and references. This study gave the following results: 17 millions MJ fossil fuel consumption, which is the equivalent of the average consumption of 100 persons ; 2,600 tons CO2 -eq, which corresponds to the emissions of 440 persons. Page 7
  • 10. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing Results put into perspective... These figures correspond to: The Grignon farms feeds: The fossil fuel consumption of 100 persons ; 7,500 persons (proteins*) ; The greenhouse gas emissions of 440 persons. 9,500 persons (calories*). *Calculated using FAO nutritional references. Page 8
  • 11. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing Precise environmental accounting In order to improve our assessments, we have developed the environmental performance dashboard. This original tool traces all the incoming and outgoing flows on the farm. It is made of three modules: 1 The "references" module: It is made of all the impact coefficients that we use for our assessments. They come from different scientific sources and are regularly updated. 2 The "flows" module: It contains the monthly data of the energy and matter flows of the farm. 3 The "crop management system" module: It contains all the technical information about the crop management on the farm. The outputs of the environmental performance dashboard are: Crops: MJ or kg CO2 per ton and per ha. Cowshed: MJ or kg CO2 per L of milk and per kg of meat. Sheepfold and dairy: MJ or kg CO2 per € of activity turnover or per kg of final product. Page 9
  • 12. Measuring the Grignon farm fossil fuel consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions Page 10
  • 13. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing Measuring crops' nitrous oxide emissions Due to the lack of reliable data on greenhouse gas emissions, a system enabling the measurement of crops' nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions was set up in Grignon. Experimental protocol: A hermetic chamber Three air samples are made while N2O is The concentration gradient indicates is laid on the accumulating in the chamber. the soil N2O emissions dynamic. ground. Concentration Gradient Time N2O emitted by the soil is trapped in the The samples are analysed in chamber. Its concentration grows with time. order to determine the N2O concentration. Meadow 2008 Meadow 2009 Wheat 2009 First results : Alfafa 2008 Alfafa 2009 The first results of the N2O emissions Wheat 2008 Winter barley 2009 measurements on different crops in the Maize 2008 Spring barley 2009 Grignon farm are coherent with the IPCC Switchgrass 2008 and INRA (French institute for agronomic Switchgrass 2009 research) bibliography data. Miscanthus 2008 Winter barley 2008 Miscanthus 2009 Maize 2009 Crops Forest Chambers N20 (%) in total nitrogen loss Page 11
  • 14. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing Measuring cows’ enteric methane emissions Over the last few months we have been testing equipment designed for the measurement of cows’ enteric methane emissions. This equipment is now fully operational. Coupled with a system that measures cows’ individual daily feed ingestion, it offers the opportunity to test the effect of different diets on cows’ enteric methane emissions. The method we have selected consists of the measurement of enteric CH4 emissions using a trace gas, SF6. This method was developed by an American research team and its reliability is now recognised by the scientific community. Methodology: Illustrations: 1. The animal ingests a capsule (picture 1) that emits SF6 with a continuous flow. SF6 is a greenhouse gas also referred to as "sulphur hexafluoride". Its global warming potential is 22,800 times that of CO2 when compared over a 100 year period. Once located in the cow’s rumen, the capsule remains active for 4 to 6 months. 2. A PVC vacuum tube (picture 2) is fixed around the cow’s neck. 3. The tube is then connected to a capillary tube (3a). This capillary tube reaches a filter located just above the cow’s nostrils (3b). The depression effect sucks in the gas eructed by the animal (blue arrow). After 24 hours, the air sample contained in the PVC tube is collected and is then The first cattle feed trials are not complete yet, hence the results cannot be communicated at this analysed to determine the SF6 and CH4 concentrations. stage of research. Page 12
  • 15. Reducing the Grignon farm fossil fuel consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions Page 13
  • 16. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing Adapting the production system After the initial carbon and energy assessment, different technical solutions were simulated with PerfAgro P3 (see page 6). The most efficient of them were selected and have been implemented on the farm since 2007. Introduction of more legumes in the Keeping a high production level crop rotation > to maximise the efficiency of all the > to reduce the use of fertilizers resources put into the production > to produce more forage for the cattle. system (cattle feed, electricity for the cowshed and the milking machine, etc.). Minimal soil work whenever possible > to improve carbon soil storage > to reduce the energetic cost of mechanization and more More grazing for non-productive cows specifically of soil work. > to take advantage of a low-energy feed when the cows' nutritional needs are lower. Test (3 ha) of energetic crops (switchgrass and miscanthus) Cereal chaff harvest > to produce renewable > to reduce weeding energy. (see page 16) Increase in cattle feed energetic > to facilitate the density with products like rape cake implementation of (which fat also has the ability to minimal soil work. reduce cows’ enteric methane emissions). Page 14
  • 17. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing A distinct improvement in the energetic and carbon performance of milk production The path to progress An efficiency gained through cattle feed optimization - 40% fossil fuel consumption Others -17% greenhouse gas emissions Cattle feed Effluents transfer (eq. chemical NPK) The improvement of the Grignon yogurt The peak in August 2007 and the trough in August 2008 are due to the fossil fuel and carbon profile time-lag of effluents spreading from one year to another. During the 12 months preceding August 2007, there was only one effluent Fossil fuel consumptions Consommations énergétiques Emissions de gazgaseffet de serre Greenhouse à emissions spreading whereas there were three during the 12 months preceding (MJ/yoghurt) (g.éq.CO2 //yoghurt) (g CO2 eq. yaourt) (MJ / yaourt) August 2008. Please note that effluents are counted as negative in our 2006 2008 2006 2008 environmental assessments because their impacts are attributed to the Agricultural stages* Etapes agricoles* 0,56 0,41 Agricultural stages* Etapes agricoles* 114 96 crops that use them as fertilizers. Processing Fabrication 0,62 0,62 Processing Fabrication 18 18 Packaging and Emballages et Packaging and Emballages et 0,64 0,64 41 41 servicesservices external extérieurs services services external extérieurs Total 1,82 1,67 Total 173 155 * *Item includes milk production at the Grignonàfarm and agricultural stages that are necessary to catégorie comprenant la production du lait Grignon sur place et les étapes agricoles de la poudre de produce the milk powder that is added to the yoghurts. lait incorporée au yaourt Page 15
  • 18. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing More mitigated results for cash crops Global warming index Fossil fuel consumption The global greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumptions of crops have increased over the last three (tons CO2/year) (GJoules/year) years. This is due to a very favourable winter in 2006 with good soil mineralisation and as a consequence, very little fertilizer use in 2007. Graph. 1 Number of persons Nevertheless, the ability of the farm to feed people has grown dramatically. Fossil fuel +21% fed (calories) consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions have decreased by 15 and 23% per person fed. +34% Number of persons fed (proteins) Graph. 2 Others The structure of the environmental costs of cash crops shows that fertilization is the most impacting item. Machines Nitrogen balances are carried out every year in Grignon in order to reduce the impact of fertilization. However, as Fuel mentioned previously, the availability of nitrogen for plants is very much influenced by climate. In addition to that, Effluents we try to apply nitrogen in its organic form rather than chemical form, whenever and wherever possible. But the Chemical fertilizers effects of organic nitrogen are not immediate, thus this creates a bias in our analysis because we don’t Fossil fuel Greenhouse gas immediately benefit from our practices. Environmental costs structure of cash crops Graph. 3 Page 16
  • 19. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing An example of innovation: Chaff harvest Chaff is made up of glumes, hulls, unthreshed heads and pods, short straw, leaf material and whole or cracked kernels or seeds from cereal, oilseed and pulse crops. Weed seeds are also a major component of chaff. Chaff can be used: > As combustible material for a biomass boiler ; > As cattle feed for cows and sheep (option chosen at Grignon in 2008) ; > As litter, especially for poultry. PerfAgroP3 (see page 6) was used in 2008 to evaluate the interest Hypotheses used in PerfAgroP3 for chaff of associating chaff harvest to no-tillage for cereal crops (which Average yield 0.5 to 2.5 ton/ha Use Cattle feed represent 1/3 of the total crop surface at Grignon). Here are some Differences between the chaff harvest + no tillage option compared to the initial situation results of this study. Harvesting cost +66€/ha Harvesting time +1hour/ha Herbicide -20€/ha Prices 2007/2008 Fuel price 0.8€/L Fertilizer price 214€/ton (ammo 26,5) Wheat price 175€/ton RESULTS 1 With the prices of 2008 (fuel at Economic performance € 0.8 €/L, fertilizers at 214 €/ton), the Initial situation Variations in economic margin according to Chaff harvest increase by 21% of the economic changes in fuel and fertilisers prices + no tillage Base 100: Economic margin 2007/2008 margin occurs with very few changes in the crop rotation and the same milk Environmental "Feeding" performance performance production. 3 In the 2008 context, the chaff harvesting + no tillage system 2 The more the fuel price reduces environmental impacts (4% decrease in fossil fuel consumption) increases, the more chaff harvesting and increases the number of persons fed (+ 200 persons). This is due to Initial production Chaff harvest + No tillage Initial production Chaff harvest + No tillage associated with no-tillage becomes an the fact that chaff is used as cattle feed and as a consequence less system system Fuel and fertilizer prices Prices x 2 economically interesting option. forage and more cereals can be produced on the farm. 2007/2008 Page 17
  • 20. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing The production of renewable energy with miscanthus 1 State-of-the-art knowledge (November 2008)  Crop life length: 15 to 20 years  Permanent crop rich in lignin and cellulose  Implantation: potato planter, manure spreader  Reproduction: vegetative multiplication  Fertilization: 0 to 100 kg N/ha, P and K often not necessary or specific planter  Implantation cost: 3,000 to 3,500 €/ha  Yields: 5 to 10 tons of dry matter/ha the 2d year and 12 to 20  Harvesting cost: 40 à 45 €/ton of dry matter the following years.  Calorific value: 4,700 kWh/ton of dry matter 2 PerfAgroP3 simulation results Hypotheses:  Yields: 15 ton/ha on the Grignon plateau, 10 ton/ha in the park Sensibility study:  Energetic value: 0.28 toe/ton  The ratio "miscanthus surface" / "Total crop surface" is  Price of the substituted fuel: 700 €/1000 Litres significantly influenced by the yield and selling price of miscanthus  Price of miscanthus used as combustible: 132€/ton * and by the price of wheat. The Grignon farm becomes a "positive energy farm" with 70 ha of miscanthus:  Implantation costs, paid off over 15 years, do not have an impact  The economic performance is virtually unchanged (+ 4%) on miscanthus surfaces.  The net energetic balance is positive: + 65 toe  The use of miscanthus as combustible (replacing fuel) compensates about 1,250 We can ensure good growth and good yields of miscanthus with high tons of CO2 / year implantation costs (specific material, high quality rhizomes, etc.).  The farm feeds 6,300 persons 3 Pilot Miscanthus field at Grignon  20,000 rhizomes/ha planted in May 2008 on 1,5 ha  Major damage (20 to 25% of all the rhizomes) because of birds.  Chemical weeding but no fertilization  Crop grinding in February 2009, 1st sprouts in April 2009.  June 2008: Only 10 to 30% of plants grown, probably because of hydric stress. Miscanthus et Grignon, April 2009 Page 18 * Taking into account transport and storage loss and a price of 474 € / toe (i.e. 90 $ / barrel) for miscanthus.
  • 21. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing The production of renewable energy using biomethanization and photovoltaic The biomethanization project at Grignon: Photovoltaic opportunities at Grignon: A preliminary study for the installation in Grignon of a biomethanization unit  Hypothesis: 1,000 m2 of roof usable on the farm was done in partnership with Suez.  500 m2 photovoltaic panels  Investment: 390 k€ Characteristics of the digester planned for Grignon:  Return on investment time: 14 years  10,000 tons of waste (half farm waste, half urban waste)  Production of 45,990 kWh / year (4 toe / year) = 1,3% of the total farm consumptions in 2008  Urban waste:  Compensation of 3.86 tons of CO2 / year = 0,2 % of the total farm emissions □Organic waste from supermarkets □Domestic organic waste (grass-cutting) in 2008 □ Restaurants grease Photovoltaic doesn’t seem to be very efficient in terms of energetic production □ Etc. and greenhouse gas emissions compensation. However, it doesn’t use any arable  Biogas cogeneration: 387 kW electric engine, heat will be used on the land, hence it doesn’t impact the capacity of the farm to produce food (in farm opposition to energetic crops for example). Simulation results:  Economics: 2,250 k€ investment to install the digester and the heat network  Energy: Production of 664 toe, twice more than what the farm actually used in 2008 (315 toe) □ 3 051 MWh electric energy sold □ 2 350 MWh thermal energy  Greenhouse gas: "Compensation" of 1,760 tons CO2 eq/ year which corresponds to 81% of the total greenhouse gas emissions of the farm in 2008. The future biomethanization unit in Grignon Page 19
  • 22. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing Beyond fossil fuel and greenhouse gas The Grignon Energie Positive programme, although mainly focused on the issues of energy and climate, also takes into account other environmental dimensions: water and biodiversity. Biodiversity Water quality This year a biodiversity follow-up was initiated in Grignon. We regularly use two diagnostic methods to check water quality and pollution This follow-up is done in partnership with organisations known for their risks on the farm. expertise in this domain. Our follow-up is focused on three flora and fauna taxons widely recognized as good indicators of agricultural biodiversity. Aquasite assesses risks of punctual pollution by pesticides. This tool shows that good practices are used in Grignon and that these practices have to be Avifauna, in partnership maintained because many visitors come to the farm every day. Butterflies, in with LPO1. partnership with Aqualea assesses risks of diffuse pollution by fertilizers. The Aqualea Paris Natural History methodology was used on 39% of the cultivated land on the farm. For the Museum. years 2003/2004 and 2004/2005, the analysis showed low risks of nitrate Meadow and leaching to water. field borders flora, in partnership with CBNBP2. We also use the IBEA3 methodology to assess the impacts of agricultural practices on biodiversity. The first assessment made in 2007/2008 revealed a global positive impact of the Grignon farm on biodiversity. This is partly due to the cattle diversity (coexistence on the farm of bovines and 2 breeds of ovine) and to the great variety of landscapes on the farm territory. However, some practices appear to be damaging to biodiversity and we are trying to reduce them: fertilization, deep ploughing, mowing mode and period. We will soon complete this study with indicators of soil and water biodiversity. 1 LPO: Ligue Protectrice des Oiseaux (organization for birdlife protection) Page 20 2 CBNBP: Conservatoire Botanique National du Bassin Parisien (French organization for botanical conservation in Paris region) 3 IBEA: Indice de Biodiversité des Exploitations Agricoles (Farm biodiversity indicator)
  • 23. Informing the professionals, the general public and the future generation Page 21
  • 24. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing Communicating positively towards the professionals We have created a technical watch database. It is focused on energy and climate change issues in agriculture. The database is available to the The GE+ website has an average of 3,000 public on the following URL: visits/month: http://www.agroparistech.fr/energiepositive/ http://www.agroparistech.fr/energiepositive/PMB/opac_css/ This website is enriched by a quarterly Content in July 2009: 1400 titles, 2400 authors. newsletter sent to 1,260 subscribers. Visits (Jan. to July. 09) : 18 000 visits, 84 visitors / day. This initiative gives us the opportunity to compare our performances to other projects and data available in the scientific literature. A course for AgroParisTech students about agriculture and greenhouse gas Benchmark of the energetic cost of milk emissions was created two years ago. (a) Extensive, New- Fossil fuel consumption Zealand (b) Conventional, The GE+ team very often participates in seminars and conferences. They also (MJ / L milk) Sweden (c) Organic, Sweden organise visits to the farm. From January to July, the team has participated in or has (d) Conventional intensive, organised one activity per week on average. Germany (e) Conventional extensive, Germany (f) Organic, Germany Benchmark of the energetic cost of wheat Fossil fuel consumption (MJ / ton wheat) (a) 50% of optimal pesticides use, Germany, 1997-2001 (b) Organic farming, Germany, 2002-2006 Page 22 Basset-mens C., Ledgard S., Carran A. (2005) First Life Cycle Assessment of Milk Production from New Zealand Dairy Farm Systems, Ecological Economics in Action December 11-13, 2005 Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand Deike S., Pallutt B., Christen O. (2008) Investigations on the energy efficiency of organic and integrated farming with specific emphasis on pesticide use intensity, Europ. J. Agronomy 28 . 461–470 Foster, C., Green, K., Bleda, M., Dewick, P., Evans, B., Flynn A., Mylan, J. (2006) Environmental Impacts of Food Production and Consumption, Research report completed for Defra by Manchester Business School Roger F. , Le Lan B., Kanyarushoki C., Van der Werf H., Bras A., Cadoret P., Tirard S., Seuret J.M. (2007) Systèmes bovins lait bretons : Consommations d'énergie et impacts environnementaux sur l'air, l'eau et le sol, Rencontres Recherches Ruminants (3R), 14. Paris, les 5 et 6 décembre 2007 / INRA Williams A.G., Audsley E., Sandars D.L. (2006) Determining the environmental burdens and resource use in the production of agricultural and horticultural commodities, Main Report. Defra. Research Project IS0205.
  • 25. An innovative ecological intensification project for society and the planet. Introduction Assessing Measuring Reducing Informing An innovative way of communicating to the general public Visits of the farm for schools are organised all year long. In addition to that, we develop educational tools about food, nutrition and climate change that we can use outside the farm (in schools, for special events, etc.) The miniature positive farm The game "It is good on my plate, for The "yoghurt-bike" exhibit me and for my planet!" In the yoghurt-bike exhibit, people have to The miniature positive farm was created for the Paris International Agricultural Show in 2008. It In this game, children have to create a meal pedal to produce the quantity of energy that shows the relative importance of each farm that is both nutritionally balanced and low- is necessary to produce one Grignon activity on the global greenhouse gas carbon emitting. The game exists in three yoghurt. It helps them understand how emissions and fossil fuel consumptions. A versions: board game, giant school version energy-dependant our food is. It is also an leaflet explains in detail the solutions adopted (see beneath) and card game. interesting basis for discussion about the at the Grignon farm to reduce these impacts. solutions we are testing at Grignon to reduce our fossil fuel consumptions. Page 23
  • 26. Ferme expérimentale AgroParisTech de Grignon 78850 THIVERVAL-GRIGNON Telephone: (33 1) 30 54 57 40 Fax : (33 1) 30 54 53 26 Website: http://www.agroparistech.fr/ergiepositive/ E-mail: grignonenergiepositive@agroparistech.fr Authors: Marion Barral, Sophie Carton. Have also contributed to the edition of this document: Olivier Lapierre, Dominique Tristant, Bernard de Franssu, Thierry Bonaudo, Thierry Doré, Yves Python and Philippe Schmidely. Photos: Marion Barral, Sophie Carton, Anne Dessagne, Yves Python, Anne-Lise Jacquot, Philippe Huet. The authors of this document are the only ones who can be held responsible for its content.

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