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Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 1 Baroness Thompson Research Methods PSY302Economic Stability and Dropouts July, 19 2008
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 2 Abstract Economic Hardship is prevalent across America. Urban areas struggle to findstability with work, family and future endeavors. Children dropout of school and neverreturn. The dropout rate is alarming in rural and urban areas. Teachers and parents areoverwhelmed with the violence that plagues their community. Poverty is the antecedentto ignorance among communities. Communities have to embrace all adolescents. Singleparents strive to raise families. A community can shape a Childs future. When the homesetting is flagrant children become confused. Life and the community hurt and fail aChilds future. These tragic perdictmenets are devastating. Drugs, gangs and violencebecome an adolescents alternative for survival. Crime increases and children become theantecedent to the surge in crime. Young children dropout of school and become parents.Many of these children only return to drop-off there own children. Economic instability isprevalent in America. Children suffer because of the hardship they endure.This hard shipis prevelant in areas dealing socio economic issues. Many young children succumb tocrime, violence and drugs. Their home setting is dangerous and their community isworse. There is no room for advancement. Their community has been plagued withunwanted behavior. Schools are dangerous in many urban areas. Gangs are widespreadin schools and the community. Children living in these conditions are confused andtraumatized on a daily bases. Many psychologist and others have tried to find out whyour youth are dropping out of school. .This research paper will review various articlesand journals about the dropout rate in areas dealing with poverty, crime, gangs and drugs.It is very Devastating and a prevalent topic in the 21st century. Children have to go toschool in order to become successful adults. Teachers become enforcers and parents andchildren are not responding in urban school settings. Dropout rates in urban areas havebecome an urban calamity.
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 3 Economic Stability And Dropout Rates Children living in harsh conditions are forced to take drastic measures. Theybelieve there is only one way to survive. They drop out of school and becomedelinquents. Many children are dealing with appalling situations in their homeenvironment. Some children stay in school with little to know support from homeenvironment. Urban communities are forced to deal with flagrant adults. Many adults thathave dropped out of school and have children of their own. Adolescents turn to theircommunity to raise them. These adolescents receive what their community has to offer.An alarming number of these students, however, achieve at significantly lower levelsthan their white counterparts and leave school--either through dropping out early or atgraduation--lacking the skills and knowledge required by employers, colleges, and tradeschools (Walker, White’s 1988). Urban minority children also tend to be among Americas poorest citizens. Of themany statistics that could be cited, a few from Reed and Sautters 1990 report on childrenand poverty should make clear the economic disadvantages experienced by thesechildren(Walker, Whites 1988). More than 12.6 million U.S. young people--nearly 20 percent of all children underthe age of 18 are poor. Two thirds of poor Americans are white, but the rate of poverty isconsiderably higher for minorities. Four out of nine black children are poor. Three out ofeight Hispanic children are poor. More than 56 percent of families headed by single blackwomen are poor. The poverty rate for families headed by single Hispanic women is 59.
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 4percent (Corcoran, Walker, Whites 1988). Their reports indicating that 71 percent of allblack students and over 50 percent of all Hispanic students attend schools in inner-citysettings (Corcoran, Walker, White’s 1988). Parent involvement. Research demonstrates that parent involvement ininstruction, in support of classroom and extracurricular activities, and in schoolgovernance is related to positive student learning outcomes and attitudes. Research alsoshows that such involvement is especially beneficial for many minority children, whomay otherwise feel torn between the differing norms and values represented by the homeand the school. Urban problems--in education or other areas--are outside the scope of thisreport. For present purposes, it is sufficient to note that schooling practices have largelyfailed to meet the learning needs of urban minority young people and that reversing thispattern is critically important--for these students themselves, of course, but also for thesocial and economic health of the nation (Corcoran, Walker, and Whites 1988)(KathleenCotton 1988). I also used. School Improvement Research Series (SIRS) Research YouCan Use. Fortunately, a great deal is known about the kinds of schooling practices whichare effective for educating these "at-risk" students. Educational research and evaluationefforts have identified many practices which lead to positive academic and affectiveoutcomes for these young people, and these are cited following a context-settingdiscussion of the effective schooling research. (1988 Kathleen Cotton) Methods
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 5 My research was conducted by using various key words. Dropout rates in urbanand rural areas were my basic phrases. There were various cites with adequateinformation. These cite provided basic statistics on the drop out rates in urban areas. Iwas alarmed on the statistics after review. Minorities dropping out of school have becomea prevalent epidemic. Minorities are faced with alarming circumstances. I used,APA.Com and PSYC Info cites. Also Corcoran, Walker, and Whites 1988 TopicalSynthesis #4 Educating Urban Minority Youth: Research on Effective Practices byKathleen Cotton. This cites was also used, School Improvement Research Series (SIRS)Research You Can Use. The findings reported in this summary are based on a review of96 resources, 61 of which are research documents demonstrating relationships betweeneducational practices and student outcomes. The other 35 are more general references,addressing such topics as desegregation planning, anti-racism education, programcontent, minority teachers, and the over- or under representation of minority students indifferent school programs and other categories (Walker, and Whites 1988). Of the 61 research documents, 27 are reports of studies or evaluations, 33 arereviews, and one is a metaanalysis of findings from several studies. All are concernedwith students at risk of school failure, and most of these are inner-city black or Hispanicstudents (and sometimes other minority populations as well) from low-income families.Schooling practices investigated in the research include tracking and long-term abilitygrouping, tutoring, multicultural programming, parent involvement, differentadministrative styles, retention, cooperative learning, bilingual education, anti-racismeducation, early childhood programming, presence or absence of minority schoolpersonnel, and an array of climate and instructional variables (Cotton 1988).
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 6 Outcomes areas measured include achievement in general and in particularsubject areas, student attitudes, student self-concept, dropout rates, student motivation,race relations, disciplinary infractions, employability, IQ scores, grades, English languageproficiency, incidence of special and remedial education referrals, absenteeism,detentions, and home school relations. (Walker, and Whites 1988). Many children are traumatized by, their environment. Children in urban areasdon’t have adequate health care. Children that have to live in destructive, malignenvironments need counseling. They are children in an urban war that have undiagnosedPTSD. Deprivations of Poverty When the deprivations of poverty, the easy availability of firearms and drugs onour streets, the anonymity of mass society, and the so-called toxic effects of popularculture are taken into account, the "War for Boys"--as some have termed it--may be seenmore accurately as one front in a larger "War for Children" that parents, professionals,and concerned policymakers and citizens are called upon to wage each and every day. Allchildren deserve to be treated as individuals, not labels. All children are entitled to growup in secure, protected, and nurturing surroundings. Our challenge as professionals andcaring adults is to prevent episodes of violence and suicide, to reduce school drop-outrates, misdiagnosis, and over reliance on psychotropic medications, and to eliminateentirely discrimination among all children irrespective of social class, ethnicity, race,national origin, sexual orientation, or gender. Increasingly, teachers and school
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 7professionals, and even psychologists, are looking to their unions for advocacy on behalfof students (Falconnier (2008 Jan). Discussion This part of the research reviews various aspects of a student’s successes in their school setting. This inclusion is focused on how parents can get involved in their Childs education. Children depend on their school to help them in life. School is an important aspect of his or her life. No child left behind has left many children behind. Adolescents receive the required units most of the time. Although, the exit exam keeps adolescents behind. Children have given up because of this dilemma. After researching this dilemma, I believe there is no room for advancement. In regards to the exit exam. If a child has been pushed through school because of behavior, he or she hasn’t received the adequate skills to past the exam. Special education students, have to pass the exam as well. The exit exam doesn’t exclude children that are developmentally delayed. These children won’t reach any mile stones beside basic secondary skills. Nevertheless they are required to take this test. A Childs report card motivates them. They look at their achievement and it motivates them to do better. Schools are the antecedent to each child development. Mentally, emotionally and continually Parents play the biggest part in a Childs achievement, with help from their Childs school. Student Performance/No Child left Behind How are school report cards put together and what kind of information do theyprovide?
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 8Reports on individual schools are part of the annual district report cards, also known aslocal report cards. Each school district must prepare and disseminate annual local reportcards that include information on how students in the district and in each schoolperformed on state assessments. The report cards must state student performance in termsof three levels: basic, proficient and advanced. Achievement data must be disaggregated,or broken out, by student subgroups according to: race, ethnicity, gender, Englishlanguage proficiency, migrant status, disability status and low-income status. The reportcards must also tell which schools have been identified as needing improvement(http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/dropout/ftf/info.asp).How can parents see these local report cards, which include school-by-school data? States must ensure that the local districts make these local report cards availableto the parents of students promptly and by no later than the beginning of the school year.The law requires that the information be presented in an "understandable and uniformformat, and to the extent practicable, in a language that the parents can understand."States and districts may also distribute this information to the media for publicizing; postit on the Internet; or provide it to other public agencies for dissemination(http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/dropout/ftf/info.asp). Local school districts must notify parents if their childs school has beenidentified as needing improvement, corrective action or restructuring. In this event,districts must let parents know the options available to them. Also, districts must annuallynotify parents of students in Title I schools of their "right to know" about teacherqualifications and how to exercise it.
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 9What information is provided on state report cards?Each state must produce and disseminate annual report cards that provide information onstudent achievement in the state--both overall and broken out according to the samesubgroups as those appearing on the district report cards listed above. State report cardsinclude: State assessment results by performance level (basic, proficient and advanced),including (1) two-year trend data for each subject and grade tested; and (2) a comparisonbetween annual objectives and actual performance for each student group.Percentage of each group of students not tested. Graduation rates for secondary schoolstudents and any other student achievement indicators that the state chooses. Performanceof school districts on adequate yearly progress measures, including the number andnames of schools identified as needing improvement.(http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/dropout/ftf/info.asp). Professional qualifications of teachers in the state, including the percentage ofteachers in the classroom with only emergency or provisional credentials and thepercentage of classes in the state that are not taught by highly qualified teachers,including a comparison between high- and low-income schools.What is "adequate yearly progress"? How does measuring it help to improve schools?No Child Left Behind requires each state to define adequate yearly progress for schooldistricts and schools, within the parameters set by Title I. In defining adequate yearlyprogress, each state sets the minimum levels of improvement--measurable in terms ofstudent performance--that school districts and schools must achieve within time framesspecified in the law. In general, it works like this: Each state begins by setting a "starting
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 10point" that is based on the performance of its lowest-achieving demographic group or ofthe lowest-achieving schools in the state, whichever is higher. The state then sets thebar--or level of student achievement--that a school must attain after two years in order tocontinue to show adequate yearly progress. Subsequent thresholds must be raised at leastonce every three years, until, at the end of 12 years, all students in the state are achievingat the proficient level on state assessments in reading/language arts and math(http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/dropout/ftf/info.asp).What if a school does not improve?States and local school districts will aid schools that receive Title I funds in makingmeaningful changes that will improve their performance. In the meantime, districts willoffer parents options for children in low-performing schools, including extra help tochildren from low-income families (see section on Choice and Supplemental EducationalServices).The No Child Left behind Act lays out an action plan and timetable for steps to be takenwhen a Title I school fails to improve, as follows:A Title I school that has not made adequate yearly progress, as defined by the state, fortwo consecutive school years will be identified by the district before the beginning of thenext school year as needing improvement. School officials will develop a two-year planto turn around the school. The local education agency will ensure that the school receivesneeded technical assistance as it develops and implements its improvement plan. Students
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 11must be offered the option of transferring to another public school in the district--whichmay include a public charter school--that has not been identified as needing schoolimprovement (http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/dropout/ftf/info.asp).If the school does not make adequate yearly progress for three years, the school remainsin school-improvement status, and the district must continue to offer public school choiceto all students. In addition, students from low-income families are eligible to receivesupplemental educational services, such as tutoring or remedial classes, from a state-approved provider. (http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/dropout/ftf/info.asp). If the school fails to make adequate progress for four years, the district mustimplement certain corrective actions to improve the school, such as replacing certain staffor fully implementing a new curriculum, while continuing to offer public school choiceand supplemental educational services for low-income students. If a school fails to makeadequate yearly progress for a fifth year, the school district must initiate plans forrestructuring the school. This may include reopening the school as a charter school,replacing all or most of the school staff or turning over school operations either to thestate or to a private company with a demonstrated record of effectiveness(http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/dropout/ftf/info.asp).
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 12 In addition, the law requires states to identify for improvement those localeducation agencies that fail to make adequate yearly progress for two consecutive yearsor longer and to institute corrective actions.How teachers or schools that do well are rewarded?No Child Left Behind requires states to provide state academic achievement awards toschools that close achievement gaps between groups of students or that exceed academicachievement goals. States may also use Title I funds to financially reward teachers inschools that receive academic achievement awards. In addition, states must designate asdistinguished schools those that have made the greatest gains in closing the achievementgap. (http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/dropout/ftf/info.asp. What can parents do to help their childs school succeed and meet the accountabilityrequirements? How does the law help parents become involved?No Child Left Behind supports parent involvement because research overwhelminglydemonstrates the positive effect that parent involvement has on their childrens academicachievement (Clark 1983; Comer 1980, 1988; Eccles, Arbreton, et al., 1993; Eccles-Parsons, Adler and Kaczala 1982; Epstein 1983, 1984; Marjoribanks 1979 as cited inEccles and Harold 1996). In the event a school is identified as needing improvement,corrective action or restructuring, the law requires the local education agency to notifyparents accordingly and to explain to them how they can become involved in school-improvement efforts. In any event, the law requires the same agency to provide parentswith local report cards, which include data on each individual school in the district, as
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 13described earlier. Thus, parents have up-to-date information about their childs school,which they can use in whatever manner they choose to be involved. Parents may helptheir childs school in a number of ways, including: Attending parent-teacher meetings orspecial meetings to address academic problems at the school; volunteering to serve asneeded; encouraging other parents to become involved; and learning about the schoolsspecial challenges, community resources and the No Child Left behind Act. In addition,parents should take advantage of the increased flexibility given local decision-makers byNo Child Left Behind and talk with their school board members, principals and otherstate and local education leaders about which programs they think will help their studentsthe most (http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/dropout/ftf/info.asp).In addition, the law has other specific requirements on parent involvement that includethe following:Each state education agency must support the collection and dissemination of informationon effective parent involvement practices to local education agencies and schools.The law in Title I spells out specific measures that local education agencies and schoolsreceiving Title I funds must take to ensure parent involvement in significant areas,including: overall planning at the district and school levels; written policies on parentinvolvement at both levels; annual meetings; training; coordinating parent involvementstrategies among federal education programs (i.e., Title I, Head Start and Reading First);and evaluating those strategies and revising them if needed.Schools that have school wide programs must involve parents in developing plans forsuch programs--that is, programs designed to raise the achievement of low-achieving
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 14students in high-poverty Title I schools by improving instruction throughout the entireschool (http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/dropout/ftf/info.asp).Conclusion Children living in urban areas are faced with many issues. The exit exam ismandatory in all schools. PTSD is prevalent in children living in crime rattledenvironments. Each adult in a community is accountable for their behavior. Children lookat adults to definition in their own characters. It is important took look at each childindividually. Children dropout of school for various reasons. School should be a safeproductive environment for all children. Urban areas are faced with many differentcircumstances that force children out. There are answers in this ongoing dilemma. Eachschool has to be accountable for each child. Adolescents need their children in theirschool environment. Children have to want to succeed, and role models help themachieve their endeavors.Reference pageFalconnier, Lydia; Elkin, Irene (2008 Jan)Addressing economic stress in the treatment of depression.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry: 2008 Jan Vol 78(1) 37-46.Feldman, SandraThe War for Children (2005 Dec)Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 2005 Dec Vol 36(6) 615-617APA.Com.
Economic Stability and Dropout Rates 15Corcoran, Walker, and Whites 91988) Topical Synthesis #4 Educating Urban MinorityYouth: Research on Effective Practices by Kathleen Cotton: School ImprovementResearch Series (SIRS).U.S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings Announces No Child Left Behind"Differentiated Accountability" PilotProgram Will Invite up To Ten States to Create More Nuanced Ways of EvaluatingUnderperforming Schools (http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/dropout/ftf/info.asp)