Mespotamia the first civilization
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Mespotamia the first civilization

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Mespotamia the first civilization Mespotamia the first civilization Presentation Transcript

  • MESOPOTAMIA THE FERTILE CRESCENT
  • How Does a Civilization Develop?
    • 1) Advanced Cities - center of trade for a larger area than just itself
    • 2) Specialized Workers
    • food surplus allowed for specialization
    • artisans- skilled workers who make goods by hand.
    • 3) Complex Institutions
    • i.e. government, religion, and the economy
    • religious temples served as the government, religious, and economic center
    • (problems with something like this in America?)
    • 4) Record Keeping
    • i.e. collecting taxes, passage of laws, when religious services occur
    • Sumerian scribes came up with cuneiform (wedge-shaped) beginning of written history.
    • 5) Improved Technology
  • THE FERTILE CRESCENT
    • BY ABOUT 4000 B.C PEOPLE BEGAN TO SETTLE IN A REGION CALLED THE FERTILE CRESENT
    • TWO RIVERS FORMED A FERTILE AREA ALSO CALLED MESOPOTAMIA
    • MESOPOTAMIA MEANS “THE LAND BETWEEN TWO RIVERS”
    • THE 2 RIVERS ARE THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES
    • THE MODERN COUNTRY OF IRAQ IS LOCATED IN THIS REGION
  • MSEOPOTAMIA FROM SPACE
  • The Ancient Fertile Crescent Area The Middle East: “The Cradle of Civilization”
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  • TWO RIVERS
    • THE TIGRIS RIVER IS TO THE NORTH
    • THE EUPHRATES RIVER IS TO THE SOUTH
    • THE RIVER’S SOURCE IS IN THE TAURUS MTS.
    • THE RIVERS EMPTY INTO THE PERSIAN GULF
    • THEY FLOW TO THE SOUTHEAST
  • FLOODS
    • THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVERS WOULD FLOOD EVERY YEAR.
    • THE FLOODWATERS LEFT BEHIND SOIL FOR THE FARMERS TO PLANT CROPS IN.
    • THIS SOIL IS CALLED SILT
    • FLOODS COULD ALSO WASH AWAY CROPS AND EVEN WHOLE VILLAGES !
  • IRRIGATION
    • IRRIGATION WAS USED TO CONTROL THE FLOW OF WATER FOR FARMING .
    • FARMERS NEEDED TO CONTROL THE FLOODING RIVERS
    • THEY ALSO NEEDED TO SUPPLY THEIR CROPS WITH WATER DURING THE DRY GROWING SEASON
    • IRRIGATION METHODS USED WERE: DIKES, CANALS, GATES, AND ARTIFICIAL LAKES
  • IRRGATION CANALS
  • PLOW
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  • AGRICULTURE
    • THE MOST IMPORTANT CROPS WERE WHEAT AND BARLEY
    • OTHER CROPS INCLUDED: BEANS, ONIONS, LETTUCE , DATE PALMS , AND APPLES.
    • CROPS WERE PLANTED ALONG CANAL BANKS
    • ANIMALS RAISED OR DOMESTICATED INCLUDED SHEEP , CATTLE , AND GOATS
    • CATTLE WERE USED FOR MILK , LEATHER , AND MEAT.
    • SPRING WAS THE HARVEST TIME
  • THE FIRST CITIES
    • FARMERS WERE SOON ABLE TO PRODUCE A SURPLUS OF FOOD
    • THIS ALLOWED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES
    • A GOVERNMENT IS AN ORGANIZED SYSTEM WHERE A GROUP MAKES LAWS AND DECISIONS
    • MOST CITIES FIRST DEVELOPED IN THE REGION OF SUMER
    • EACH CITY STATE WAS SELF-GOVERNING, SO IT WAS CALLED A CITY-STATE
  • SUMER
    • THE CITY-STATES IN SUMER HAD A MONARCHY STYLE OF GOVERNMENT
    • IN A MONARCHY, ONE PERSON HAS THE POWER
    • EACH CITY ALSO HAD A ZIGGURAT, A TEMPLE WITH A BUILDING AT ITS PEAK
    • THE SUMERIANS BELIEVED IN MANY GODS
    • THE BELIEF IN MANY GODS IS CALLED POLYTHEISM
    • SOME OF THEIR GODS INCLUDED; ENLIL, AND EA
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  • ZIGGURAT AT UR
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  • ECONOMY AND SOCIETY
    • SOME CITY-STATES LIKE URUK HAD UP TO 60,000 PEOPLE LIVING THERE
    • AGRICULTURE MADE THIS POSSIBLE
    • A DIVISION OF LABOR FORMED
    • THIS MEANT THAT SOME PEOPLE HAD JOBS OTHER THAN FARMING
    • SOME JOBS INCLUDED; CRAFTWORKERS, MANAGERS, AND MERCHANTS
    • THE DIVISION OF LABOR SOON LED TO DIFFERENT SOCIAL CLASSES
    • THE HIGHEST SOCIAL CLASS BELONGED TO THE KING
    • THE MIDDLE CLASS INCLUDED; MERCHANTS AND SCRIBES
    • A SCRIBE IS A PERSON IN ANCIENT TIMES THAT CAN READ AND WRITE
    • THE LOWEST CLASS HAD UNSKILLED WORKERS AND SLAVES
    • THERE WAS ALSO A SOCIAL DIVISION BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN.
  • INNOVATIONS
    • AN INNOVATION IS A NEW WAY OF DOING THINGS
    • A LAND INNOVATION WAS CALLED THE “ IKU ” OR “ACRE” TODAY
    • MEASURING WHEAT AND BARLEY LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUART
    • THE GREATEST INVENTION WAS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM OF WRITING .
    • THIS SYSTEM OF WRITING WAS CALLED CUNEIFORM
    • WRITING WAS DONE ON CLAY TABLETS
  • Hammurabi's Code
  • Mesopotamian Harp
  • Board Game from Ur
  • Metal Working Skills
  • Is Mesopotamia the 1 st Civilization?
    • Advanced Cities?
    • Specialized Workers ?
    • Complex Institutions?
    • Record Keeping?
    • 5) Improved Technology?
  •