Readability in Information Retrieval: Designing OPAC with Readability as Search Option

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  • 1. Readability in Information Retrieval: Designing OPAC with Readability as Search Option Barnali Roy Choudhury JRF, Department of Library and Information Science The University of Burdwan Burdwan- 713104 E-mail:- & Dr. ParthaSarathi Mukhopadhyay Asst. Professor, Department of Library and Information Science The University of Burdwan Burdwan- 713104
  • 3. What is Readability? Edgar Dale and Jeanne Chall [1949] define readability as “the sum total (including all the interaction) of all those elements within a given piece of printed material that effect the success group of readers have with it. The success is the extent to which they understand it, read it at an optimal speed and find it interesting.”
  • 4. What is Readability? Readability is a measurement of the ability/ease of understanding of a particular text document by reader.
  • 5. Legibility vs Readability  Legibility Readability Typeface , Syntactic complexity Lay out of pages, Semantic Difficulty Font, Clarity of text
  • 6. HISTORY 1880 L.A. Sherman established that shorter sentences and concrete terms help people to make sense of what is written. 1889 Nikolai A. Rubakin found that the main blocks were 1. strange words and 2. the use of too many long sentences. 1921 Harry D. Kitson found sentence length and word length were the most comprehensive issue of being easy to read
  • 7. Application of Readability in LIS activities • Readability has been used mainly as a practical tool to predict the difficulty of reading materials and at times to control it. • suitability of materials for intended audience/reader. • To retrieve the right/relative documents which are more effective and efficient for reader.
  • 8. Application of Readability in LIS activities • • To help librarians to facilitate right document (as their level best) to users. By a readability measurement tag or numerical representation in a document may fulfill the fourth law of LIS i.e, save the time of reader/user by retrieving documents rapidly. • Readability is helpful for academic/ scholarly communication for their research purpose or in object oriented reading. It may helpful for nonprofit organization, financial institution, insurance agencies and last but not the least children with concerned parents also.
  • 9. Popular Readability Formulae The Flesch Grade Level Readability Formula (1948) Major Parameters are: ASL = Average Sentence Length & ASW = Average number of Syllable per Word Formula: FKRA = (0.39 x ASL) + (11.8 x ASW) – 15.59 The New Dale-Chall Readability Formula (1948) Major Parameter: Raw Score = Reading Grade of a reader who can answer one-half of the test questions on the passage., PDW = Percentage of Difficult Words & ASL = Average Sentence Length in words Formula: Raw Score = 0.1579 PDW + 0.0496 ASL + 3.6365 The Gunning’s Fog Index (or FOG) Readability Formula (1952) Major parameter: ASL = Average Sentence Length, & PHW = Percentage of Hard Words Formula: Grade Level = 0.4 (ASL + PHW)
  • 10. Updated readability Formula • • Lexile Measurement ATOS (Advantage-TASA Open Standard)
  • 11. Lexile Measure Lexile Measurement: Lexile measurement is defined as “the numeric representation of an individuals reading ability or a text's readability (or difficulty) followed by 'L' (Lexile). ” Facilitate suitable and efficient interaction between readers of all ages with books, articles and other reading materials.
  • 12. Lexile Measure For Your Text For Your Test Reading assessments Getting standard/certified lexile measures for books, articles and other resources
  • 13. Lexile Measure Lexile framwork for reading Lexile reader measure Lexile Text Measure The Lexile framework measures both reader ability and text difficulty on the same scale, called the lexile scale. It runs from 0L (Lexile) to above 2000L. 0L is meant for Biginning Reader.
  • 14. Lexile measures help Readers, Teachers, Parents and Librarians.
  • 15. Variables of Lexile Formula Lexile formula is based on two axioms 1. The Semantic axioms : The more familiar the words, the easier the passage is to read. The more unfamiliar the words are harder. 2. The Syntactic axioms: The shorter the sentences, the easier the passage is to read. The larger the sentences the harder
  • 16. Lexile Formula Theoretical Logit = (9.82247*LMSL)(2.14634*MLWF)-constant where LMSL = log of the mean sentence length and MLWF = mean of the log word frequences. LMSL and MLWF are used as proxies for syntactic complexity and semantic demand. (Stenner & Burdick, 1997) The logits anchored in the equation above translate into Lexiles with the following formula: Lexile calibration = (logit + 3.3)*180 + 200
  • 17. How to get lexile measure 1. Lexile Analyzer 2. “Find a Book”
  • 18. Lexile Analyzer
  • 19. Lexile Analyzer
  • 20. “Find a Book”
  • 21. “Find a Book”
  • 22. “Find a Book”
  • 23. MARC Data Entry
  • 24. Advance Search Option
  • 25. ISBD View
  • 26. MARC View on this document
  • 27. Findings Readability may act as an important search option in the user interface (here OPAC); This option can be integrated with other search operators (Boolean, Relational and positional operators) It (readability as search option) may be very helpful for student users in retrieving documents in a given range of reading ease (e.g. Books on optics for students of class 11 and 12) Readabilty search option has all the ability to enhance the information retrieval efficiency of a library system of any type or size This search option may easily be incorporated in a library system by using open source software (here Koha 3.6.1) and open standard (here MARC 21 Bibliographic format)