Schools as moral organizations

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Schools as moral organizations

  1. 1. Teaching and Schooling As Moral Enterprises Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  2. 2. Teaching and Schooling are necessarily moral enterprises <ul><li>“ To put it bluntly, inherent in any act of teaching, however removed, are moral judgments about what kind of persons we should be.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Dwight Boyd, “The Teacher as Moral Agent…Or, Doing What Comes Necessarily,” p. 7 </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  3. 3. Schooling as a moral claim <ul><li>“ education itself is a moral claim, extended performatively through time via the activities and role of teachers.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Education…is a particular kind of moral instrument for the shaping of human persons.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Dwight Boyd, “The Teacher as Moral Agent…Or, Doing What Comes Necessarily,” pp. 12 & 17 </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  4. 4. From the PED 3102 course outline: <ul><li>“ In Ontario, teacher candidates are associate members of the Ontario Teachers Federation and subject to its standards of professional ethics during their practicum. Under the Ethical Standards for the Teaching Profession of the Ontario College of Teachers, teachers must also demonstrate care, integrity, respect and trust in all of their interactions with students, parents, other teachers, school personnel and with members of the public.” </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.oct.ca/standards/ethical_standards.aspx </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  5. 5. “ The best laid schemes o' mice an' men / Gang aft agley.&quot; Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa Pressure on educators no excuse for cheating, Ontario Premier says McGuinty reacts to reports that 10 public schools are under investigation for cheating and irregularities on standardized tests Karen Howlett St. Thomas, Ont. — Globe and Mail Update Published on Tuesday, Sep. 21, 2010 3:43PM EDT Last updated on Tuesday, Sep. 21, 2010 6:19PM EDT
  6. 6. And so the moral life of schools remains an unresolved and volatile reality and a continuing concern for educators Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  7. 7. Understanding Canadian Schools: An Organizational & A Moral Perspective <ul><li>An epistemological ethos: </li></ul><ul><li>“ people must play an active and critical role in creating their knowledge.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Jon Young & Benjamin Levin, Understanding Canadian Schools , Reader p. 13 </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  8. 8. The Value of Questioning Assumptions <ul><li>“ Because schools have the potential to be much better places, for both teachers and students, we regard it as very important for everyone involved with education to understand the way in which our schools are organized and operated so that they can ask questions about, and propose changes to, current practices.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Jon Young & Benjamin Levin, Understanding Canadian Schools , Reader p.10 </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  9. 9. Schooling: Power, Practices, and Structures <ul><li>“ no one who is to be involved in schooling can afford to ignore the power exercised through these structures and processes.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Jon Young & Benjamin Levin, Understanding Canadian Schools , Reader p. 10 </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  10. 10. Understanding What Schools Are and Can Be <ul><li>“ Rather than viewing current practice as somehow natural or obvious, we want to examine why things are the way they are, how they came to be the way they are, who benefits most from them, and how they might be otherwise.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Jon Young & Benjamin Levin, Understanding Canadian Schools , Reader p. 11 </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa Koren, New Yorker 22 March 1999
  11. 11. education and schooling – Two Very Different Words <ul><li>“ In everyday language, people slip easily from ‘education’ to ‘schooling’ as though the two words, if not synonymous, were at least mutually supportive…this blurring of concepts is not always helpful .” </li></ul><ul><li>-Benjamin Levin and Jon Young, Understanding Canadian Schools (Third Edition, 2002) , Reader p. 12 (emphasis added) </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  12. 12. Learning Out of School <ul><li>“ Indeed, the great bulk of what people know, believe, and can do is not learned in schools.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Jon Young and Benjamin Levin, Understanding Canadian Schools: An Introduction to Educational Administration , Reader p. 13 </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  13. 13. Goals of Schooling <ul><li>“ We tend to take the goals of schooling as being relatively self-evident, but they are actually quite problematic… Schools have purposes that are rarely talked about in the official statements.” </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa -Benjamin Levin and Jon Young, Understanding Canadian Schools (Third Edition, 2002) , Reader p. 13
  14. 14. <ul><li>“ This rhetoric masks the multiple functions that have been assigned to public schools since their establishment as compulsory institutions in Canadian society.” </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa -Benjamin Levin and Jon Young, Understanding Canadian Schools (Third Edition, 2002) , Reader p. 13 Rhethoric – vs. – Practice
  15. 15. Mark Holmes * : Six Functions of Canadian Schools <ul><li>Intellectual-Vocational </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Custodial </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Allocative </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa *M. Holmes (1986), Curriculum Inquiry 15(1): 7-36
  16. 16. Mary Metz on the allocative purpose of schooling… <ul><li>“ Imagine what would happen if…the goals that educators and reformers officially seek were actually accomplished. All students would become top performers. All of them would make…perfect A records throughout their schooling. Chaos would ensue…” </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  17. 17. Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa “ Colleges would not have room for all, but would have little ground on which to accept some and reject others. Employers looking for secretaries, retail salespersons, waiters, busdrivers, and factory workers would have jobs unfilled as every student considered such work beneath his or her accomplishment…”
  18. 18. <ul><li>“ As long as education is used to rank young people and sort them into occupational futures that differ substantially in the money, status, power, and intrinsic rewards they can yield, good education, or students’ success at education, must remain a scarce commodity.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Mary Metz, “Real School,” in Education Politics for a New Century , p. 85. </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  19. 19. <ul><li>What is it that Metz is trying to tell us about schools and society? Is she right? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the implications of her remarks for current school and classroom practices? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any way for classroom teachers to circumvent the educational dilemma that Metz depicts? </li></ul>3 Questions to Consider Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  20. 20. Focault’s Epistemological Conundrum <ul><li>“ People know what they do; </li></ul><ul><li>they frequently know why they do what they do; </li></ul><ul><li>but what they don’t know is what they do [their doing] does .” </li></ul><ul><li>-Michel Foucault, Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics , Dreyfus & Rabinow (Eds.), p. 187 </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  21. 21. Jean Anyon not all schools are equal <ul><li>“ the ‘hidden curriculum’ of school work is tacit preparation for relating to the process of production in a particular way.” </li></ul><ul><li>(J. Anyon, “Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work,” pp. 89-90) </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  22. 22. Schools & the reproduction of inequity <ul><li>“ In the contribution to the reproduction of unequal social relations lies a theoretical meaning, and social consequence, of classroom practice…the…complex but not readily apparent connections between everyday activity in schools and classrooms and the unequal structure of economic relationships in which we work and live.” </li></ul><ul><li>(J. Anyon, “Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work,” p. 90) </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  23. 23. Lisa Delpit: Racisms of Kindness <ul><li>“ Good liberal intentions are not enough.” </li></ul><ul><li>(L. Delpit, Other People’s Children , p. 45) </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  24. 24. From “Racism without Racists: Institutional Racism in Urban Schools” <ul><li>“ Massey, Scott, and Dornbusch found that under the pressures of teaching, and with all intentions of ‘being nice,’ teachers had essentially stopped attempting to teach black children. In their words: ‘We have shown that oppression can arise out of warmth, friendliness, and concern. Paternalism and a lack of challenging standards are creating a distorted system of evaluation in the schools.’” </li></ul><ul><li>(L. Delpit, Other People’s Children , p. 45-6) </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  25. 25. Geoffrey Canada The Harlem Children’s Zone <ul><li>http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=5914322n </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  26. 26. Willard Waller <ul><li>Ideas and Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>A Perennial Paradox and a Recurring Dilemma for Schools </li></ul><ul><li>A reading from Waller’s 1932 seminal classic The Sociology of Teaching </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  27. 27. Christopher Hodgkinson <ul><li>An examination of the moral hazards of institutional life </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations as moral primitives… </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  28. 28. <ul><li>“ This does not necessarily mean that organizations are of necessity corrupting or degrading to the moral or value life of their members, but that they can work this subtly negative influence if their primitive imperatives are allowed to impose themselves, achieve dominance, or go unexamined.” </li></ul><ul><li>-C. Hodgkinson, Educational Leadership: The Moral Art , p. 109 </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa
  29. 29. J. K. Rowling: A Reassessment of “Failure” and Developing Moral Empathy <ul><li>Harvard University </li></ul><ul><li>2008 Commencement Address </li></ul><ul><li>http://harvardmagazine.com/commencement/the-fringe-benefits-failure-the-importance-imagination </li></ul>Prespared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa

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