First: On PowerPoint torture is  not  the goal… Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottaw...
Part I: A Primer On Bureaucracy Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Intr...
Bureaucracy: Accomplishment or Evil? Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263:...
A Prolegomenon:  The connections problem… Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU ...
<ul><li>Administration, then,  may be understood as the making, sustaining, and strengthening of desired connections withi...
Weberian Bureaucracy: A Hallmark of the Technical-Rational Enterprise that is Modernism <ul><li>An Ideal Type that describ...
The bureaucratic perspective: technical correctness <ul><li>The orientation of bureaucracy is  rational  and  impersonal  ...
Characteristics of bureaucracy <ul><li>Division of labour/hierarchy of offices </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit rules </li></ul>...
Division of Labour <ul><li>Organization of teaching and schooling by age-segregated grades and subject specializations; </...
Hierarchy of Offices <ul><li>Distinctive levels of power and authority within the organization determined by putative area...
Explicit Rules <ul><li>Practice is made uniform through explicit rules and guidelines for the conduct of individuals and f...
Specialization Secured Through Training <ul><li>Scientifically (i.e.,objectively) substantiated technical knowledge as the...
Written Documentation <ul><li>Systematic records are kept of organizational activities in order to ensure that professiona...
Explicit Goals and Standards <ul><li>Explicit goals give order, purpose/orientation, and harmony to organizational project...
Part II: Bureaucracy-Making and the Metaphor of Pyramid Building Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, Un...
Pyramid Building: An  Ancient  Art?... Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 526...
… Or a Continuing Societal Preoccupation? Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU ...
pyramids can be material constructions or creations of a more subtle and elusive sort… Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Fa...
A familiar image… Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Ed...
that contains an archetypal representation of bureaucracy: Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, Universi...
Part III: Critiques of Bureaucracy Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: I...
Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administ...
Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administ...
Critiques of Bureaucracy: self-perpetuation & proliferation Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, Univers...
Critiques of Bureaucracy: client  frustration Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa ...
Critiqes of Bureaucracy: mandatory conformity Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa ...
Critiques of Bureaucracy: red tape <ul><li>The colourful term used to refer to the seemingly endless parade of paperwork t...
Critiques of Bureaucracy: the disadvantages of pyramids Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University ...
Critiques of Bureaucracy: documentation overwhelms and entraps the individual Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of ...
One last clip from…  Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to...
Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administ...
Part IV: Bureaucracy Reconsidered and, Perhaps Redeemed Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University ...
<ul><li>“ Contrary to what most people see as the source of alienation in modern life, none of this difficulty is attribut...
<ul><li>“ If it is organized so as to pinpoint responsibility for different aspects of the process of dealing with and res...
<ul><li>“ In terms of its organization chart, the Hotel Pierre is probably even more bureaucratic than the New York City H...
<ul><li>“ Many of the “sins” of bureaucracy really reveal the failure to bureaucratize sufficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>We ...
<ul><li>“ Organizations are tools.  The bureaucratic ideal assumes the uses are legitimate   – that is, in society’s inter...
<ul><li>“ Viewing organizations as tools should reduce our tendency to cry incompetence when they do not do what we think ...
<ul><li>“ Bureaucracy is not the breeder of incompetence, as we often would like to believe.  Instead, bureaucratic organi...
<ul><li>“ Critics, then, of our organizational society, whether they are the radicals of the Left emphasizing spontaneity ...
<ul><li>“ As bureaucracies satisfy, delight, pollute, and satiate us with their output of goods and services,  they also s...
Part V: Some things to think about… Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: ...
Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administ...
Why do schools tend to resist differentiation and to assume similar, and typically bureaucratic, organizational forms and ...
What happens within organizations and to administration when we move, or try to move,  from this… Prepared by Dr. Martin B...
To this…? Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educationa...
What might change in the organizational life of the school if this change were to be effected? Prepared by Dr. Martin Barl...
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Edu 5263 bureaucracy

  1. 1. First: On PowerPoint torture is not the goal… Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration Alex Gregory, The New Yorker , 9/29/2003
  2. 2. Part I: A Primer On Bureaucracy Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  3. 3. Bureaucracy: Accomplishment or Evil? Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  4. 4. A Prolegomenon: The connections problem… Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration <ul><li>Members must be sufficiently connected to each other in some way to be able to communicate with each other, understand each other, and coordinate their activities. </li></ul><ul><li>And members must be sufficiently connected to their enterprise’s purposes and values so that, either willingly or unwillingly, they will function to reflect or achieve them. </li></ul>-T. Sergiovanni, Leadership for the Schoolhouse , p. 50 <ul><li>All social enterprises must solve the connections problem if they are to function effectively. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Administration, then, may be understood as the making, sustaining, and strengthening of desired connections within organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>(Desired by whom, however, remains an important question.) </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration Danny Shanahan, The New Yorker 10/8/2001
  6. 6. Weberian Bureaucracy: A Hallmark of the Technical-Rational Enterprise that is Modernism <ul><li>An Ideal Type that describes the formal, rational-legal connections that would make organizations uniform, efficient, and equitable. </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  7. 7. The bureaucratic perspective: technical correctness <ul><li>The orientation of bureaucracy is rational and impersonal (i.e., facts over feelings), so that the exercise of power and authority ideally emphasizes persona not person, collective projects not individual plans, and collective goals not individual aspirations. </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  8. 8. Characteristics of bureaucracy <ul><li>Division of labour/hierarchy of offices </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit rules </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization secured through training </li></ul><ul><li>Written documentation; record keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit goals and standards </li></ul><ul><li>Equal treatment (no favouritism) </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational goals supersede individual desires </li></ul><ul><li>Positions and means of production belong to the organization, not to the individual </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  9. 9. Division of Labour <ul><li>Organization of teaching and schooling by age-segregated grades and subject specializations; </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferation of specialist services and areas of expertise; </li></ul><ul><li>A distinct managerial or administrative cadre. </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  10. 10. Hierarchy of Offices <ul><li>Distinctive levels of power and authority within the organization determined by putative areas of expertise; </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision “from above” as a means to ensure compliance with organizational practices, values, and goals. </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  11. 11. Explicit Rules <ul><li>Practice is made uniform through explicit rules and guidelines for the conduct of individuals and for the accomplishment of work (e.g., standardized operating procedures); </li></ul><ul><li>Defined ways of doing things shape self-definition, and group identities and interactions. </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  12. 12. Specialization Secured Through Training <ul><li>Scientifically (i.e.,objectively) substantiated technical knowledge as the basis for professional practice; </li></ul><ul><li>Training or internalization and mastery of the knowledge-base is prerequisite to organizational success and advancement. </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  13. 13. Written Documentation <ul><li>Systematic records are kept of organizational activities in order to ensure that professional performance and individual achievement are effectively monitored and managed; </li></ul><ul><li>Each organizational member inscribes her own history of accomplishment and failure. </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  14. 14. Explicit Goals and Standards <ul><li>Explicit goals give order, purpose/orientation, and harmony to organizational projects and to individual work; </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit standards ensure fairness in work and managerial evaluation. </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  15. 15. Part II: Bureaucracy-Making and the Metaphor of Pyramid Building Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  16. 16. Pyramid Building: An Ancient Art?... Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  17. 17. … Or a Continuing Societal Preoccupation? Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  18. 18. pyramids can be material constructions or creations of a more subtle and elusive sort… Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  19. 19. A familiar image… Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  20. 20. that contains an archetypal representation of bureaucracy: Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  21. 21. Part III: Critiques of Bureaucracy Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration Frank Cotham, The New Yorker, 3/17/1997 “ It’s always cozy in here. We’re insulated by layers of bureaucracy.”
  22. 22. Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration from Terry Gilliam’s dystopian film Brazil
  23. 23. Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  24. 24. Critiques of Bureaucracy: self-perpetuation & proliferation Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  25. 25. Critiques of Bureaucracy: client frustration Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  26. 26. Critiqes of Bureaucracy: mandatory conformity Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration Landscape with Figures , George Tooker, 1965-66
  27. 27. Critiques of Bureaucracy: red tape <ul><li>The colourful term used to refer to the seemingly endless parade of paperwork that accompanies many official matters got its start in jolly old England. It seems that thick legal documents were bound or tied with red cloth tape. So when someone spoke of cutting through the red tape, they meant it in a very literal sense . </li></ul><ul><li>[http://ask.yahoo.com/20030901.html] </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  28. 28. Critiques of Bureaucracy: the disadvantages of pyramids Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  29. 29. Critiques of Bureaucracy: documentation overwhelms and entraps the individual Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  30. 30. One last clip from… Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  31. 31. Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  32. 32. Part IV: Bureaucracy Reconsidered and, Perhaps Redeemed Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  33. 33. <ul><li>“ Contrary to what most people see as the source of alienation in modern life, none of this difficulty is attributable simply to bureaucratization and specialization of function. A bureaucracy need not be a vast, impersonal organization. A classic French restaurant, with its hierarchical organization, strictly defined jobs and precisely delimited territory, is an ideal-type of bureaucracy, but it does respond precisely to guests who know good cuisine and demand it…” </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  34. 34. <ul><li>“ If it is organized so as to pinpoint responsibility for different aspects of the process of dealing with and responding to clients, a bureaucracy can bring far more resources to bear on its response than an individual could…” </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  35. 35. <ul><li>“ In terms of its organization chart, the Hotel Pierre is probably even more bureaucratic than the New York City House of Detention. This is one reason – though probably not the most important one – that it is more responsive to the wishes and needs of its inmates.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Edgar Z. Friedenberg, The Disposal of Liberty and Other Industrial Wastes , p. 22 (emphasis added) </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  36. 36. <ul><li>“ Many of the “sins” of bureaucracy really reveal the failure to bureaucratize sufficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>We have constructed a society where the satisfaction of our wants as consumers largely depends on restricting the employees who do the producing. Bureaucracy cannot be faulted for society’s demands.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Charles Perrow, Why Bureaucracy , p. 5 </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  37. 37. <ul><li>“ Organizations are tools. The bureaucratic ideal assumes the uses are legitimate – that is, in society’s interests. In doing so it disguises some of the purposes to which people put organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>organizations are tools for shaping the world as one wishes it to be shaped . They provide the means for imposing one’s own definition of the proper affairs of humankind on others.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Charles Perrow, Why Bureaucracy , p. 11 (emphasis added) </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  38. 38. <ul><li>“ Viewing organizations as tools should reduce our tendency to cry incompetence when they do not do what we think they should . . . a tool view alerts us to the possibility that what we see as incompetent performance or policy really reflects what some leaders wanted all along…” </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  39. 39. <ul><li>“ Bureaucracy is not the breeder of incompetence, as we often would like to believe. Instead, bureaucratic organization allows leaders to achieve goals, some of which are unannounced and costly for the rest of us and are only attributed to incompetence.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Charles Perrow, Complex Organizations , p. 13 [emphasis in original] </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  40. 40. <ul><li>“ Critics, then, of our organizational society, whether they are the radicals of the Left emphasizing spontaneity and freedom, the New Right demanding their own form of radical decentralization, or the liberals in between speaking of the inability of organizations to be responsive to community values, had best turn to the key issue of who controls the varied forms of power generated by organizations , rather than flail away at the windmills of bureaucracy.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Charles Perrow, Why Bureaucracy , p. 47 (emphasis added) </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  41. 41. <ul><li>“ As bureaucracies satisfy, delight, pollute, and satiate us with their output of goods and services, they also shape our ideas, our very way of conceiving of ourselves, control our life chances, and even define our humanity . </li></ul><ul><li>-Charles Perrow, Complex Organizations , p. 5 (emphasis added) </li></ul>Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  42. 42. Part V: Some things to think about… Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  43. 43. Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration Schools Where are schools on the organizational continuum? bureaucratic organization (e.g., corporation) professional organization (e.g., partnership)
  44. 44. Why do schools tend to resist differentiation and to assume similar, and typically bureaucratic, organizational forms and features? Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  45. 45. What happens within organizations and to administration when we move, or try to move, from this… Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
  46. 46. To this…? Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration Or to this?
  47. 47. What might change in the organizational life of the school if this change were to be effected? Prepared by Dr. Martin Barlosky, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa EDU 5263: Introduction to Educational Administration
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