What is TEXT all about? non-verbal actions (waving, pokinText is any piece of g out one‘scommunication that It can include: tongue)has meaning. visuals (pictures or images), sounds
Non-verbal Action1 2 3 4 5 Keeping our finger cross (photo 1) is used in Australia, USA, England and Sweden to mean that the person is hoping for the good luck. On the contrary, in Greece and Turkey it means the breaking of a friendship, in parts of Italy it means ―O.K.‖, and in Indonesia it has no meaning at all.
Non-verbal Action1 2 3 4 5 To call a person using this gesture is not rude in United States, photo 2, holding out our hand, palm up, moving only our index finger, but in Cambodia, and Vietnam this gesture is used to call an animal. In Indonesia, to call a person with the same gesture is humiliating.
Non-verbal Action1 2 3 4 5 Gesture no 3 caused a serious misunderstanding in America. In 1953, when the Soviet Leader, Nikita Khrushchev, was visiting the United States he used this gestures to show friendship. Unfortunately, Americans understood it to mean the opposite: that the Soviet Union would defeat the United States.
Non-verbal Action1 2 3 4 5 Photo 4 means great , perfect, acceptable, O.K. It means zero in Belgium, France and Tunisia. In Turkey, Brazil, Greece and Malta, it has an obscene meaning whilst in Tunisia, it is used as a threat.
Non-verbal Action1 2 3 4 5 Finally, number 5 usually means defeat or no good or bad news to American.
Visual1 2 3 4 Visual texts no 1, 2, 3 mean ―No Smoking‖, ―For Female‖, and ―For Male‖. Visual text no 4 means ―For people with a disability‖.
Text can be communicated using any medium thatincludes any language. On paper (printed) By voice (spoken) On film Electronically or as multimedia
Composing a good piece of textrequires us to make the rightchoices about: forms language features structuresThese choices will reflectour purpose and context.
A text may includemore than one mode tocommunicate meaning.Speaking and listeningWriting and readingRepresenting and viewing
COMPARE THE FOLLOWING TEXTS.Well, you go up to the, um, parkand turn, let‘s see, rightyes, right, then follow the road allthe way down to the lights, thenyou turn left and keep going untilyou see, um, a servicestation, then you turn left thereand the school is just up the hill.
COMPARE THE FOLLOWING TEXTS.To get to the school, follow thisdirections. First, travel northtowards the park. At thepark, turn right. Follow this roadto the lights, then turn left. At theservice station, turn left andproceed up the hill.
Communicative Purposes of Texts1. Presenting information about a subject2. Retelling past events.3. Describing a particular person, place or thing.4. Giving instruction or providing directions for making something, doing something or getting somewhere.5. Telling a story to amuse the readers or the listeners. Inviting Giving Information Expressing ideas Ordering Complaining
Complete the following tableFragments of Communicative The position of FoT in theTexts (FoT) Purposes whole text (beginning, middle, end) Why is it so?1.1. To instruct Beginning – I know thatOK, we’ll turn on the someone how when cooking youoven first to do generally turn on the oven something to start with so that it‘s at the right temperature.1.2 To give End – taken from a textIn conclusion, bikes conclusion employee inductive logicalshould only be reasoning – obtainingridden on the general laws fromfootpath. particular facts or examples.
Complete the following tableFragments of Communicative The position of FoT in theTexts (FoT) Purposes whole text (beginning, middle, end) Why is it so?1.3 To give an Beginning – the time setting isA long, long time orientation about usually written at the beginningago… the time, when it the story. happened1.4 To retell past Middle – when we retell series ofAfter we visited the events events, we put them in anight market, we chronologically. chronological order and we retellwent home. those events after telling the orientation.1.5 To show a proven End – It is a kind of a conclusion.This leads to water cause and effectpollution. relationship
Identify the type and the communicative Function of the following textI like to eat out and I go to a restaurant for dinner at least twice amonth. I go with my friends or my family. Our favorite restaurantis an Indian restaurant in Cleveland Street in Surry Hills. It is notvery big but it is always busy. There are only a few tables in therestaurant and there is a white tablecloth on each table. There isalso a vase with FACTUAL DESCRIPTIONare plants in A lovely flowers on each table. There To describe a particular placethe corners. The place is very clean and well lighted so thecustomer can have a nice talk while enjoying their meal.Traditional Indian music can be heard softly from the roomspeakers. We usually order hot curries and eat them with rice. ItsChai tea is a winner! The food is delicious but the price isaffordable. In addition, the service is quick and friendly. Wealways have a pleasant evening at this restaurant.
Identify the type and the communicative Function of the following text The Eiffel Tower is an iron tower built on the Champ de Marsbeside the Seine River in Paris. The tower has become a global icon ofFrance and is one of the most recognizable structures in the world. Named after its designer, engineer Gustave Eiffel, the EiffelTower is the tallest structures in Paris tallest building in Paris Morethan 200,000,000 people have visited the tower since its construction A FACTUAL DESCRIPTION (?)in 1889, including 6,719,200 in 2006, making it the most visited paidmonument To describe a particular place the in the world. Including the 24 m (79 ft) antenna,structure is 325 m (1,063 ft) high (since 2000), which is equivalent toabout 81 levels in a conventional building. When the tower was completed in 1889 it was the worldstallest tower — a title it retained until 1930 when New York CitysChrysler Building (319 m — 1,047 ft tall) was completed. The tower isnow the fifth-tallest structure in France and the tallest structure inParis, with the second-tallest being the Tour Montparnasse (210 m — 689 ft), although that will soon be surpassed by Tour AXA(225.11 m — 738.36 ft)
Identify the type and the communicative Function of the following text The Lion was in a bad mood. That morning his wife, the Lioness, had told himthat his breath smelled. He was worried. Then, the Lion called his three counsellors -the Sheep, the Wolf and the Fox. First he called the Sheep. Tell me, Sheep, growled the Lion, do you think mybreath smells? The Sheep thought the Lion wanted to know the truth. So she bowedlow before the Lion and said, Your Majesty, your breath smells terrible. In fact, itsmells so bad that it is making me feel quite ill. This was not what the Lion had wanted to hear. Roaring angrily, and calling A NARRATIVEthe Sheep a fool, he pounced on her and bit her head off. Next he called the Wolf. Tell me, Wolf, growled the Lion sharpening his To tell a story to amuse theclaws, do you think my breath smells? The Wolf had seen the dead Sheep on theway, and he had no plans to end up the same way. He bowed low before the Lion and readers or the listenerssaid, Your Majesty! How can you ask me that? Your breath smells as sweet as theflowers in spring, as fresh as the... He could not finish what he was going to say. Liar! roared the Lion, andripped him to pieces. At last the Lion called the Fox. The Fox came warily; she had seen the deadSheep and the dead Wolf on the way. Tell me, Fox, growled the Lion, sharpening his claws and yawning widely sothat the Fox could see his long sharp teeth, do you think my breath smells? The Fox coughed and sneezed and blew her nose, and then clearing her throatnoisily, said in a hoarse whisper, Your Majesty, forgive me. I have such a nasty coldthat I cannot smell a thing!‘
Identify the type and the communicative Function of the following text Our bodies are made of flesh and bones. Anytime any part is injured wefeel pain. So we try to avoid injury as much as we can. Usually it takes a painfullesson to teach us to avoid injury. The following was a particularly painful one. I, like any young child, love to run around as quickly as I can. It is fun.However, there is danger of falling down which can result in painful injuries. One day while playing "catching" with some friends I happened to rundown a hill. I found that running down a hill was easy and I could go very fast. At A RECOUNTthe spur of the moment I decided to see how fast I could go. So I ran with all mymight. To retell past events Alas, I ran too fast for my legs to keep up. One moment I was running, thenext I fell sprawling onto the tarmac road. The shock was horrible as I scrapedalong the hard surface of the road. The pain was intense as I lay on the road writhing. My hands, legs andface were bleeding from the many parts where my skin had been scraped off.When my friends came to help me they were horrified to see me in such a bloodymess. Anyhow they summoned help and I was taken to the hospital. There theycleaned and dressed my wounds. All the time I felt as though I was on fire. I suffered for two weeks thereafter every time they changed thebandages. It was terrible. I learned my lesson. It is foolish to run down a hill.
Identify the type and the communicative Function of the following text A PROCEDURE To give instructions: provide directions for making something, doing something or getting somewhere
Identify the type and the communicative Function of the following text A rocket looks like a long tube. Most rockets have fins on theback end to help them fly straight. Rockets that carry fireworks can be short, only a few incheslong. They are usually made of cardboard. Rockets that go into space are huge. They are made mostly ofmetal. A REPORT Rockets burn fuel.information about a be used as To present Many different chemicals can subjectrocket fuel. The burning fuel makes hot gases. The gases blowout of the bottom end of the rocket. The hot gases shootingdownward make the rocket go upward. People use rockets to carry things through air and space.Different kinds of rockets carry different things.
Language Structures and Text Understanding Clause is a group of words which forms agrammatical unit and which contain a subject and a finite verb. A clause forms a sentence or part of a sentence and often functiopns as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
Language Structures and Text Understanding TEXT PARAGRAPH SENTENCE CLAUSE
Language Structures and Text Understanding It all happened when I was walking home from school. Two PARAGRAPH kids from my class decided to pick on me. They started yelling stupid names like pigface, etc. I didn’t mind this. I also didn’t mind Kelly punching me in the shoulder. What I did mind was that Kelly kept me occupied while Matthew (better known as Roberts) rode my bike around the cul-de-sac of the street. PARAGRAPH This was harmless. But, still riding, he kicked off my bag andTEXT jumped off the bike leaving it to fall. This made me sore. I gave in to my temper. When Matthew saw this he took off. So it was me and David Kelly to battle it out. I chased him around and around the street. When I finally caught up to him I threw punches galore. PARAGRAPH Most of them missed. Kelly managed to escape and run home. I think I was the victor, but if I was, I don’t think it was worth it.
Language Structures and Text Understanding It all happened when I was walking home from SENT SENT SENT SENT SENT 1 school. Two kids from my class decided to pick on me. 2PARAGRAPH They started yelling stupid names like pigface, 3 etc. I didn‘t mind this. 4 I also didn‘t mind Kelly punching me in the 5 shoulder. What I did mind was that Kelly kept me occupied while SENT Matthew (better known as Roberts) rode my bike around 6 the cul-de-sac of the street.
Language Structures and Text Understanding CLAUSE It all happened SENT SENT SENT SENT SENT 1 CLAUSE when I was walking home from school Two kids from my class decided to pick on me CLAUSE 2 They started yelling stupid names like pigface, etc.SENTENCE CLAUSE 3 I didn‘t mind this. CLAUSE 4 I also didn‘t mind Kelly punching me in the CLAUSE shoulder. 5 CLAUSE What I did mind (was) SENT CLAUSE that Kelly kept me occupied 6 while Matthew (better known as Roberts) rode my CLAUSE bike around the cul-de-sac of the street.
Language Structures and Text UnderstandingWe may extend a group of words to add moreinformation.Naming ‗who‘ or ‗what‘ Naming the Naming ‗where‘ ‗action‘The frog jumped into the pond.That green spotted tree jumped quickly into the dirty pond.frog
Language Structures and Text Understanding We may extend a group of words to add more information.The lion tells the sheep to enter the cave.The wicked and tricky lion tells the poor and frightenedsheep to enter the very dangerous cave.Jack found a bird.Jack who lived close to the bush found a very weak birdlying on the damp ground.
Language Structures and Text Understanding Label the group of words in the following sentences using who, what, the action, and where, when or how.Gold was discovered in Ballarat in 1815.what the action where whenWhen the tower was completed in 1889, it was the worlds tallesttower.Roaring angrily, and calling the Sheep a fool, he pounced on her andbit her head off.Traditional Indian music can be heard softly from the room speakers.
Language as representations of experiences Kinds of Examples Notes verbsAction verbs Fasten your belt. The verb shows an I ran too fast. action involving More than 200,000,000 people have people or things and visited the tower. expresses an event. We will fly to Bandung on Tuesday. The frog was croaking loudly.Saying verbs Miko announced his engagement. The verb expresses The robbery was reported to the what people or police. things said. The manual doesn‘t tell me anything.
Language as representations of experiences Kinds of Examples Notes verbsMental and I love to run around as quickly as I The verb expressesemotion can. feeling, thought, andverbs The little turtle felt tired and lonely. understanding. “I’m safe here,” thought the boy. I want a cup of tea.Relating Gloria is the loudest girl in class. Describing,verbs The tower has an interesting Grouping, structure. Defining, The process seems complicated. Showing a The wall of the eye consists of three relationship between layers. two things
Label the kinds of verbs in following text.Dear Mum and Dad,We arrived in Bunaken on Sunday and are staying in a smallhotel next to the marina. It has a great pool and lovely tropicalgardens. Yesterday, we snorkeled near the outer reef. I tooksome photos of the fish with my underwater camera. Tropicalfish are amazing. Some are rainbow colored and others havefluorescent stripes. Then I noticed two reef sharks near thepontoon and called the diving instructor. She said that theywere harmless, but I still felt scared. I loathe sharks!Love,Dinar.
Understanding a participant of an eventClauses with action verbsThe spider caught the tiny green fly.doer action verb done toThe shed was flattened by strong winds.done to action verb doerClauses with saying verbsThe treasurer promised an end to inflation.sayer saying verb what is saidThe instructions were clearly to the children.what is said explained receiver saying verb
Understanding a participant of an eventClauses with sensing verbsThe children heard a strange noise.senser mental and emotion what is sensed verbThe thunder and scared the dog.lightning mental and emotion senserwhat is sensed verbClauses with relating verbsDolphins have a powerful snout.entity relating verb descriptionHelen Keller was a famous author andentity relating verb lecturer. description
Adverbial Clauses give detailed information about time, place, manner, with whom, etc.Meaning ExamplePlace Spoon the mixture into the muffin tray.•Where?Time Last weekend, we built a tree house.•When?Extent She jogged for eight kilometers.•How far? We had been driving for three hours.•How long? I practice the piano every day.•How often?Manner We traveled to Cirebon by bus.•How? Close the door quietly.•By what means? Cut the cake with a knife.
Adverbial Clauses give detailed information about time, place, manner, with whom, etc.Meaning Example The park is closed due to extreme fireCause danger.•Why? Those fish will die as a result of lead poisoning.Accompaniment Play this game with three other people.•With whom? The children went to the movie with their parents.Contingency Use the exit in the event of an emergency.Under what conditions? We had fun, despite the strong winds.Despite what?
Adverbial Clauses give detailed information about time, place, manner, with whom, etc.Meaning ExampleRole He came as a clown.•What as?Angle According to expert, the water level has•According to whom? fallen.Matter I’m worried about the storm.•What about? He questioned the boy about the robbery.
Interpersonal negotiation involvesresponding to the Mood area. Negotiateinterpersonally means using and manipulatingSubject and Finite which also means using thecorrect tense, aspects, agreement etc.“She goes to Sanata Dharma Uni.”“Does she?”
Logicosemantic negotiation involvesresponding to the area outside the Mood. Itmeans that the response uses the sameMood, but negotiates whatever it is outsidethe Mood or the Residue area. “She goes to Sanata Dharma Uni.” “Sanata Dharma Uni? Where about is it?”