ikh311-07

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ikh311-07

  1. 1. Sistem Operasi IKH311Masukan Luaran (Input/Output)
  2. 2. Prinsip I/O 2
  3. 3. Device Controllers I/O devices have components: ● mechanical component ● electronic component The electronic component is the device controller ● may be able to handle multiple devices Controllers tasks ● convert serial bit stream to block of bytes ● perform error correction as necessary ● make available to main memory
  4. 4. Principles of I/O Software Goals of I/O Software (1) Device independence ● programs can access any I/O device ● without specifying device in advance – (floppy, hard drive, or CD-ROM) Uniform naming ● name of a file or device a string or an integer ● not depending on
  5. 5. Memory-Mapped I/O
  6. 6. Memory-Mapped I/O
  7. 7. Direct Memory Access (DMA)
  8. 8. Interrupt
  9. 9. Not Recently Used Page Replacement Algorithm Each page has Reference bit, Modified bit  bits are set when page is referenced, modified Pages are classified  not referenced, not modified  not referenced, modified
  10. 10. Device-Independent I/O Software (1) Uniform interfacing for device drivers Buffering Error reporting Allocating and releasing dedicate devices Providing a deice-independent block sizeFunctions of the device-independent I/O software 10
  11. 11. FIFO Page Replacement Algorithm Maintain a linked list of all pages  in order they came into memory Page at beginning of list replaced Disadvantage  page in memory the longest may be often used
  12. 12. Device-Independent I/O Software (3)(a) Unbuffered input(b) Buffering in user space(c) Buffering in the kernel followed by copying to user space(d) Double buffering in the kernel 12
  13. 13. Device-Independent I/O Software (4) Networking may involve many copies 13
  14. 14. Disks Disk Hardware (1)Disk parameters for the original IBM PC floppy disk 14 and a Western Digital WD 18300 hard disk
  15. 15. Disk Hardware (2) Physical geometry of a disk with two zones A possible virtual geometry for this disk 15
  16. 16. Disk Hardware (3) Raid levels 0 through 2 Backup and parity drives are shaded 16
  17. 17. Disk Hardware (4) Raid levels 3 through 5 Backup and parity drives are shaded 17
  18. 18. Disk Hardware (5)Recording structure of a CD or CD-ROM 18
  19. 19. Disk Hardware (6)Logical data layout on a CD-ROM 19
  20. 20. Disk Hardware (7) Cross section of a CD-R disk and laser ● not to scale Silver CD-ROM has similar structure ● without dye layer ● with pitted aluminum layer instead of gold 20
  21. 21. Disk Hardware (8)A double sided, dual layer DVD disk 21
  22. 22. Disk Formatting (1) A disk sector 22
  23. 23. Disk Formatting (2)An illustration of cylinder skew 23
  24. 24. Disk Formatting (3)  No interleaving  Single interleaving  Double interleaving 24
  25. 25. Disk Arm Scheduling Algorithms (1) • Time required to read or write a disk block determined by 3 factors 1. Seek time 2. Rotational delay 3. Actual transfer time • Seek time dominates • Error checking is done by controllers 25
  26. 26. Disk Arm Scheduling Algorithms (2) Initial Pending position requestsShortest Seek First (SSF) disk scheduling algorithm 26
  27. 27. Disk Arm Scheduling Algorithms (3)The elevator algorithm for scheduling disk requests 27
  28. 28. Error Handling A disk track with a bad sector Substituting a spare for the bad sector Shifting all the sectors to bypass the bad one 28
  29. 29. Stable StorageAnalysis of the influence of crashes on stable writes 29
  30. 30. Pustaka Avi Silberschatz, "Operating System Concepts" http://codex.cs.yale.edu/avi/os- book/OS8/os8j/index.html Andrew Tanenbaum, "Modern Operating Systems" http://www.cs.vu.nl/~ast/books/mos2/ Harvey Deitel, "Operating Systems" http://cs.nyu.edu/~yap/classes/os/resources/origin_of _PV.html tjerdastangkas.blogspot.com/search/label/ikh311

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