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- 1. CHAPTER 14CHAPTER 14 THE COST OFTHE COST OF CAPITAL FORCAPITAL FOR FOREIGNFOREIGN INVESTMENTSINVESTMENTS
- 2. CHAPTER OVERVIEW:CHAPTER OVERVIEW: I.I. THE COST OF EQUITY CAPITALTHE COST OF EQUITY CAPITAL II.II. THE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COSTTHE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGNOF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSPROJECTS III.III. THE ALL-EQUITY COST OFTHE ALL-EQUITY COST OF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSCAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTS IV.IV. DISCOUNT RATESDISCOUNT RATES V.V. ESTABLISHING A WORLDWIDEESTABLISHING A WORLDWIDE CAPITAL STRUCTURECAPITAL STRUCTURE
- 3. I. THE COST OF EQUITYI. THE COST OF EQUITY CAPITALCAPITAL A.A. DefinitionDefinition 1. the minimum (required) rate of1. the minimum (required) rate of returnreturn necessary to induce investors to buynecessary to induce investors to buy or hold the firm’s stock.or hold the firm’s stock. 2. used to value future equity cash2. used to value future equity cash flowsflows 3. determines common stock price3. determines common stock price
- 4. THE COST OF EQUITYTHE COST OF EQUITY CAPITALCAPITAL B.B. Capital Asset Pricing ModelCapital Asset Pricing Model rrii = r= rff ++ ΒΒii ( r( rmm - r- rff )) where rwhere rii = the equity required rate= the equity required rate rrff = the risk free return rate= the risk free return rate ΒΒii= Cov(r= Cov(rmm, r, rii)/)/ σσ22 rrmm wherewhere
- 5. THE COST OF EQUITYTHE COST OF EQUITY CAPITALCAPITAL Cov(rCov(rmm, r, rii) is the covariance between asset) is the covariance between asset and market returns andand market returns and σσ22 rrmm , the variance, the variance of market returns.of market returns.
- 6. II.II. THE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COSTTHE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSOF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTS II.II.THE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OFTHE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSCAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTS A.A. Weighted Average Cost of CapitalWeighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC = k(WACC = k00)) kk00 = (1-L) k= (1-L) kee + L i+ L idd (1 - t)(1 - t) where L = the parent’s debt ratiowhere L = the parent’s debt ratio iidd (1 - t) = the after-tax debt cost(1 - t) = the after-tax debt cost kkee = the equity cost of capital= the equity cost of capital
- 7. THE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OFTHE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSCAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTS kk00 is used as the discount rate in theis used as the discount rate in the calculation of Net Present Value.calculation of Net Present Value. 2.2. Two CaveatsTwo Caveats a. Weights must be a proportion usinga. Weights must be a proportion using market, not book value.market, not book value. b. Calculating WACC, weights must beb. Calculating WACC, weights must be marginal reflecting future debtmarginal reflecting future debt structure.structure.
- 8. THE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OFTHE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSCAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTS B.B. Costing Various Sources of FundsCosting Various Sources of Funds 1.1. Components of a New Investment (I)Components of a New Investment (I) I = P + EI = P + E ff + D+ D ff wherewhere I = require subsidiaryI = require subsidiary financingfinancing P = dollars by parentP = dollars by parent EE ff = subsidiary’s retained= subsidiary’s retained earningsearnings DD = dollars from debt= dollars from debt
- 9. THE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OFTHE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSCAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTS 2. First compute each component2. First compute each component a.a. Parent’s company funds (kParent’s company funds (k00)) required rate equal to the marginalrequired rate equal to the marginal cost of capitalcost of capital b.b. Retained Earnings (kRetained Earnings (kss)) a function of dividends,a function of dividends, withholding taxes, tax deferral,withholding taxes, tax deferral, and transfer costs.and transfer costs. kk = k= k (1-T)(1-T)
- 10. THE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OFTHE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSCAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTS c. Local Currency Debt (rc. Local Currency Debt (rff)) after-tax dollar cost of borrowingafter-tax dollar cost of borrowing locallylocally
- 11. THE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OFTHE WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSCAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTS C. Computing WACC(kC. Computing WACC(k11)) kk11 = k= k00 - a(k- a(kee --kkss) - b[ i) - b[ idd(1-t) - i(1-t) - iff ]]
- 12. III.III. THE ALL-EQUITY COST OFTHE ALL-EQUITY COST OF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSCAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTS III.III. THE ALL-EQUITY COST OFTHE ALL-EQUITY COST OF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSCAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTS A.A. WACC sometimes awkwardWACC sometimes awkward 1. To go from the parent to the project1. To go from the parent to the project 2. Solution: Use all equity discount2. Solution: Use all equity discount raterate 3. To calculate:3. To calculate: kk** = r= rff ++ ΒΒ** ( r( rmm - r- rff ))
- 13. THE ALL-EQUITY COST OFTHE ALL-EQUITY COST OF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSCAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTS 4.4. ΒΒ** is the all-equity beta associated withis the all-equity beta associated with the unleveraged cash flows.the unleveraged cash flows.
- 14. THE ALL-EQUITY COST OFTHE ALL-EQUITY COST OF CAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSCAPITAL FOR FOREIGN PROJECTS 5. Unlevering beta obtained by5. Unlevering beta obtained by where Bwhere B** = the firm’s stock price beta= the firm’s stock price beta D/E = the debt to equity ratioD/E = the debt to equity ratio t = the firm’s marginal taxt = the firm’s marginal tax EDt e /)1(1 * −+ = β β
- 15. IV.IV. DISCOUNT RATES FORDISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSFOREIGN PROJECTS IV.IV. DISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGNDISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSPROJECTS A.A. Systematic RiskSystematic Risk 1. Not diversifiable1. Not diversifiable 2. Foreign projects in non-2. Foreign projects in non- synchronous economies should besynchronous economies should be less correlated with domesticless correlated with domestic markets.markets.
- 16. DISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGNDISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSPROJECTS 3. Paradox: LDCs have greater political3. Paradox: LDCs have greater political risk but offer higher probability ofrisk but offer higher probability of diversification benefits.diversification benefits.
- 17. DISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGNDISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSPROJECTS B.B. Key Issues in Estimating ForeignKey Issues in Estimating Foreign Project BetasProject Betas -find firms publicly traded that share-find firms publicly traded that share similar risk characteristicssimilar risk characteristics -use the average beta as a proxy-use the average beta as a proxy
- 18. DISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGNDISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSPROJECTS 1.1. Three Issues:Three Issues: a.a. Should proxies be U.S. or localShould proxies be U.S. or local companies?companies? b.b. Which is the relevant baseWhich is the relevant base portfolio to use?portfolio to use? c.c. Should the market risk premium beShould the market risk premium be based on U.S. or local market?based on U.S. or local market?
- 19. DISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGNDISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSPROJECTS 2.2. Proxy CompaniesProxy Companies a. Most desirable to use locala. Most desirable to use local firmsfirms b. Alternative:b. Alternative: find a proxy industry in thefind a proxy industry in the local marketlocal market
- 20. DISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGNDISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSPROJECTS 3.3. Relevant Base (Market) PortfolioRelevant Base (Market) Portfolio a. If capital markets are globallya. If capital markets are globally integrated, choose world mkt.integrated, choose world mkt. b. If not, domestic portfolio is bestb. If not, domestic portfolio is best
- 21. DISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGNDISCOUNT RATES FOR FOREIGN PROJECTSPROJECTS 4.4. Relevant Market Risk PremiumRelevant Market Risk Premium a. Use the U.S. portfolioa. Use the U.S. portfolio b. Foreign project: should haveb. Foreign project: should have no higher than domestic riskno higher than domestic risk and cost of capital.and cost of capital.
- 22. V.V. ESTABLISHING AWORLDESTABLISHING AWORLD WIDE CAPITAL STRUCTUREWIDE CAPITAL STRUCTURE V.V. ESTABLISHING A WORLDWIDEESTABLISHING A WORLDWIDE CAPITAL STRUCTURECAPITAL STRUCTURE A.A. MNC Advantage:MNC Advantage: uses more debt due touses more debt due to diversificationdiversification
- 23. ESTABLISHING AWORLD WIDEESTABLISHING AWORLD WIDE CAPITAL STRUCTURECAPITAL STRUCTURE B.B. What is proper capital structure?What is proper capital structure? 1.1. Borrowing in local currency helpsBorrowing in local currency helps to reduce exchange rate riskto reduce exchange rate risk 2.2. Allow subsidiary to exceed parentAllow subsidiary to exceed parent capitalization norm if local mkt.capitalization norm if local mkt. has lower costs.has lower costs.

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