EU-AFRICA BUSINESS FORUM
Follow-up report on
Roundtable n° 10: Social Entrepreneurship
Developed by: Max Bulakovskiy
April...
2
EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. BACKGROUND INF...
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EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
“Over the past century, researchers...
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EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
1.1 Ratio...
5
EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
1.2 Definition
There are various de...
6
EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
1.3 Why Social Entrepreneurship?
So...
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EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
1.4 Social Entrepreneurship in the ...
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EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
1.5 Social Entrepreneurship in Afri...
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EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
2. ROUNDTABLE
2.1 Roundtable Focus
...
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EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
2.3 Building blocks
The building b...
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EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
2.4 Roundtable Contributors
Chair:...
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EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
3. FINDINGS
3.1 Roundtable Finding...
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EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
3.2 Roundtable Examples / Best Pra...
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EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
to create over 50 ventures and has...
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EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
4. RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1 Roundtable ...
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EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship
April 2014
4.2 Five Concrete Actions
The foll...
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EU-AFRICA BUSINESS FORUM - report on Roundtable n° 10: Social Entrepreneurship

  1. 1. EU-AFRICA BUSINESS FORUM Follow-up report on Roundtable n° 10: Social Entrepreneurship Developed by: Max Bulakovskiy April 2014 Brussels, Belgium
  2. 2. 2 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION................................................................................................... 3 1.1 Rationale ......................................................................................................................................... 4 1.2 Definition.......................................................................................................................................... 5 1.3 Why Social Entrepreneurship? .................................................................................................... 6 1.4 Social Entrepreneurship in the EU .............................................................................................. 7 1.5 Social Entrepreneurship in Africa ................................................................................................ 8 2. ROUNDTABLE ................................................................................................................................. 9 2.1 Roundtable Focus.......................................................................................................................... 9 2.2 Target Audience............................................................................................................................. 9 2.3 Building blocks.............................................................................................................................. 10 2.4 Roundtable Contributors............................................................................................................. 11 3. FINDINGS ....................................................................................................................................... 12 3.1 Roundtable Findings.................................................................................................................... 12 3.2 Roundtable Examples/ Best Practice Cases........................................................................... 13 4. RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................................................................. 15 4.1 Roundtable recommendations................................................................................................... 15 4.2 Five Concrete Actions ................................................................................................................. 16
  3. 3. 3 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 “Over the past century, researchers have studied business entrepreneurs extensively… In contrast, social entrepreneurs have received little attention. Historically, they have been cast as humanitarians or saints, and stories of their work have been passed down more in the form of children's tales than case studies. While the stories may inspire, they fail to make social entrepreneurs' methods comprehensible. One can analyze an entrepreneur, but how does one analyze a saint?” David Bornstein, “How to Change the World: Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas”, p. 90; Oxford University Press, Inc. New York, 2004.
  4. 4. 4 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1.1 Rationale Societal challenges (migration of millions of people from one country to another, urban population, job creation and youth employment, health issues, ethical production and consumption, ecological issues etc) are making it difficult for the public authorities and businesses face them. But they are also source of innovation and pushing entrepreneurs develop new concepts tapping into the unmet societal needs acting in an entrepreneurial manner and through new collaboration models. Absent social security systems and mechanisms in Africa have resulted in source of an inspiration and innovation giving birth to numerous success stories working with the human capital, developing new tools to boost health systems and creating mechanisms ensuring ethical production. New smart-phone apps are helping disabled people move around more easily; innovative social enterprises are creating new jobs for young people and vulnerable groups; transformative educational programmes are changing the learning journey of hundreds of young people and ICT-enabled tools are helping people create entirely new forms of collaborative and consumptive economies in the field of transportation, recycling, or culture. At the same time, the practices of our social ventures [social enterprises] admittedly constitute but a small niche of economic activity. To illustrate, in the 49 countries that the GEM initiative surveys, on average no more than 1.8% of the population is engaged in early stage social entrepreneurial activity (GEM, 2010). So why one should consider them seriously? The fact is that societal markets as health, greening, migration-related, poverty etc are currently growing markets world-wide, and are growing faster many other industries! What is particularly interesting, is that social ventures represent a unique source of know-how in these areas, and though they are still modest in terms of input to GDP (around 1% on average per country), they hold unique knowledge in these areas and can spark change, innovation and bring a change to society at a much larger scale through collaboration with public or private sector actors.
  5. 5. 5 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 1.2 Definition There are various definitions that can relate to social entrepreneurs. Some of them are only focused on non-profit organisations while others allow organisations making a profit. Below we provide examples of two most commonly used definitions for social entrepreneur: Social entrepreneurs are individuals with innovative solutions to society’s most pressing social problems. They are ambitious and persistent, tackling major social issues and offering new ideas for wide-scale change. They solve the problem by: 1) Changing the system 2) Spreading the solution, and 3) Persuading entire societies to move in different directions (ASHOKA) Social enterprises is “any private activity conducted in the public interest, organised with an entrepreneurial strategy, but whose main purpose is not the maximisation of profit but the attainment of certain economic and social goals, and which has the capacity for bringing innovative solutions to the problems of social exclusion and unemployment” (OECD). A social entrepreneur recognizes a social problem and uses entrepreneurial principles to organize, create and manage a venture to achieve social change (a social venture). While a business entrepreneur typically measures performance in profit and return, a social entrepreneur focuses on creating social capital. (Wikipedia) Social entrepreneurship is the process of pursuing innovative solutions to social problems. Variety of research studies concluded by LSE, IESE, SELUSI and those social entrepreneurs are generally:  Mission-driven: the primary goal is to create social value (impact) by mitigating a social problem or market failure and/or meeting a social need or challenge  Market-oriented: pursue goals in an entrepreneurial manner, generating own revenues to sustain themselves  Collaborative: Social ventures behave very collaboratively when it comes to innovation – both in terms of having contributed to the development of another organization’s innovation.
  6. 6. 6 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 1.3 Why Social Entrepreneurship? Social entrepreneurs aim to have an impact on society rather than only generating profits for owners and shareholders. For example, they provide jobs for disadvantaged groups, promoting their social inclusion and increasing solidarity in the economy. But they face enormous challenges and an uneven playing field. A recent EU-funded study, SELUSI1 looked at 550 social enterprises across five EU Member States which allows us to make conclusions, and especially see the reason for their failures. The study has concluded that 75% of all ventures that the study tracked are active precisely in those areas of direct relevance to EU’s ambitions towards inclusive, smart and sustainable growth (EU2020). On average across all countries, we observe a remarkably high share - 43% to be precise - of social enterprises being run by women. It also concluded that social enterprises can be an inspiration for innovation compares to large corporations and public administrations; for example in UK, social ventures are almost 30% more innovative compared to the mainstream businesses and almost 50% compared to public administration. These factors make social entrepreneurs an interesting partner / stakeholder for variety of public and private entities, giving them an important role and ensuring successful outcomes of projects/ initiatives. Furthermore, supporting social enterprise creation and development may allow public policies to meet employment and other social, ecological and economic challenges in a more efficient and effective way than if they rely on the public or private sectors alone, therefore improving the spending of public money. 1 www.selusi.eu
  7. 7. 7 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 1.4 Social Entrepreneurship in the EU Over the last years concept of social entrepreneurship has been gaining thousands of people across the EU. The recent financial and ethical crisis in Europe has pushed for more and more people interested in the concept and associating it with their values. In many counties like Spain, Greece or Italy for many it has become the only way to maintain their economic activity, get delivering a meaningful sense and providing support to their communities and stakeholders. The business magazines, press, and social media have been highlighting numerous examples of social enterprises, or entrepreneurs pursuing social or environmental goals and the movement of social entrepreneurship is currently seen as a new trend for many of the youth. Building on it there is a growing number of funds available focused on social impact investing, and this includes public money, but also public-private partnerships and even purely private initiatives - addressing the growing need for availability of equity finance to support social enterprises. The European Commission has already done a lot to catalyse social investment (look at the creation of the European Investment Fund’s social investment facility) and the UK’s creation of Big Society Capital, for example have an important on-going role. The new business infrastructure has started appearing, promoting examples of collaborative creations, developing incubators specialised on providing support in creation of hybrid business models pursuing social impact measurement combined with profit development models (Examples include Impact HUB network, NESsT, OKSIGEN Lab, ASHOKA, La Ruche etc). On the institutional level over the last years, the European Commission has adopted a number of measures to promote the awareness and especially support creation of social enterprises across the EU. In 2011, in the context of the EU 2020 strategy, the EC presented the Social Business Initiative, an action plan to enhance the framework for social entrepreneurship by improving access to finance, increasing the visibility of the sector and raising awareness of the needs of social entrepreneurs among policy makers. In January 2014 the European Commission, the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) and the City of Strasbourg hosted a large European interactive event on social entrepreneurship and the social economy. The event was joined by the three European Commissioners - Vice-president Antonio Tajani and Commissioners Michel Barnier and László Andor. The event confirmed that the Governments and public bodies have started to recognise the power of social entrepreneurship and have adopted a call for action described in the Strasbourg Declaration2 affirming the view that social enterprises should play a bigger role in the future of Europe and have identified concrete actions to unlock their potential for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. 2 http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/conferences/2014/0116-social-entrepreneurs/docs/strasbourg- declaration_en.pdf
  8. 8. 8 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 1.5 Social Entrepreneurship in Africa Social entrepreneurship as a concept till recently was not often referred to by policymakers and researchers in many of the African countries; however this does not mean to say that these countries do not have social entrepreneurship, quite on the opposite African continent has a rich tradition embodying social and societal values in many business ventures. As elsewhere in the world the concept of social entrepreneurship is a growing segment of the African economy3 and it is key in filling gaps in public service delivery and significantly contributes to solving the societal issues. There are some informal initiatives appearing trying to build on the latter (ex: ASHOKA Africa, the African Social Entrepreneurs Network (ASEN) etc). Another proof for the growing interest is the number of the impact investment funds which have been established in order to support social ventures in Africa. The recent study presented to the European Parliament in April 2014, through highlights that some barriers on its development remain, including weak legal frameworks and inadequate policies, weak governance and poorly developed managerial practices among other issues. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) report on Social Entrepreneurship (2009) highlighted that specifically in Africa, “the higher the level of a region’s pure commercial entrepreneurship, the more significant is the level of overlap between social and commercial entrepreneurship, supporting the notion that entrepreneurial economies tend to offer a more favourable setting for undertaking socially innovative initiatives that depart from the traditional third sector.” Though report limits to only four countries in Africa where data was available. The desk research revealed that there is lack of constructive data on Africa, but a number of recent publications have clearly indicated that there is a growing appetite for the following needs:  Capacity building programmes to build the skills of the African practitioners;  Awareness creation through regular regional panels for practitioners;  Developing infrastructure (financial and business services) specifically focused on social enterprises have specific features which create complex needs demanding diversified solutions. While it is desirable that business support agencies for conventional business deal with social enterprises and support them, there is also a need for specialised support agencies (Daniele et al., 2009).  Encourage creation and development of networks; Support services are often provided by organisations targeting the upgrading of networks of social enterprise and systems at national and local levels. Thus membership organisations for social enterprises can be seen as support structures which are emerging along with the rise of social enterprise (Leś and Kolin, 2012; Nyssens, 2012).  Supporting systemic actions by creating bridges with international organisations and initiatives and especially linking social enterprises and entrepreneurs internationally. 3 An Exploratory Report on the potential of social economy in Africa, March 2014
  9. 9. 9 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 2. ROUNDTABLE 2.1 Roundtable Focus Building on the arguments highlighting the growing importance of social entrepreneurship the fifth EU-AFRICA BUSINESS FORUM held in Brussels hosted the first Roundtable focused on Social Entrepreneurship. The Roundtable brought together high-level practitioners that came from diverse backgrounds, including successful social entrepreneurs and representatives of the leading networks bringing social entrepreneurs together. The Roundtable focused on key issues relevant to unlocking Africa’s potential of social entrepreneurship:  Who are “Social Entrepreneurs” and what their distinctive features are?  What are the current trends related to Africa and how has social entrepreneurship evolved over the last few years?  Practical examples highlighting successes of social enterprises and solutions they are bringing through applying new technologies, focusing on human capital, creating collaboration models with businesses etc.  Businesses and how they get involved in solving social issues.  Existing support structures and the major barriers for development of social entrepreneurship in Africa 2.2 Target Audience The roundtable addressed organisations:  providing start-up and business development services for social enterprises;  social finance actors;  NGO´s;  businesses;  donor community;  public sector organisations working in Africa. The auditorium was fully occupied with over 50 participants at the roundtable.
  10. 10. 10 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 2.3 Building blocks The building blocks of the roundtable were devoted to spreading information on exemplary cases and reflecting how these could be spread. As the time allocated to the roundtable was 90 minutes, it was used in the following way:  Chair to introduce the roundtable (background, relevance, issues, framework around Social Entrepreneurship) Presentation of co-chairs. Presenting the tissue of social entrepreneurship in Africa.) Bill Carter  Presenting new opportunities technology brings and how it can solve social issues within the health area, and what is the potential for spreading this to other countries, example of mPedigree. Bright Simons (Ghana)  Presenting available infrastructure for social entrepreneurship and capacity building in Africa based on the example of Jokkolabs . Karim Sy (Senegal)  Panel discussion on their experience with social enterprises, what it means to them and what is their structure, impact, focus and how it can be applied to development (to be moderated by Chair and co-Chairs) : o Barka Foundation, Poland o SkilledAfrikans, Senegal o MoSera, Ethiopia o Ferrero Social Enterprises, Italy o Pearl Gold AG, Germany  Discussion between the roundtable participants, and with the panellists  Closing of the Roundtable by the Chair
  11. 11. 11 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 2.4 Roundtable Contributors Chair: Mr Bill Carter, Vice-President for Africa at Ashoka. Ashoka is an association of the world’s leading social entrepreneurs—with system changing solutions for the world’s most urgent social problems. www.ashoka.org Co-Chair: Mr Bright Simons, President of mPedigree Network, Ghana, Ashoka fellow. mPedigree is an organisation noted for its work against counterfeit medicines and the production of software, that enable the verification of certain products in some countries. http://mpedigree.net/mpedigreenet/ Co-Chair: Mr Karim Sy, Founder of Jokkolabs, Senegal, Ashoka fellow. Inspired by the global open source movement and Africa’s traditional emphasis on interdependence, Karim is providing the online and offline meeting space where young African entrepreneurs can collaborate and support each other establishing new businesses to focus on societal challenges. http://jokkolabs.net/?lang=en Ms Barbara Sadowska, is Vice president of Barka Foundation, Ashoka fellow, Schwab Social Entrepreneur. For twenty years Barka has been working in Poland with excluded and vulnerable persons. www.barka.org.pl and the website for the Barka Africa partnership is www.inise.org Mr Emmanuel Henao, whose passion for tackling the new human capital development needs in Africa led him to cofound SkilledAfricans.com. Since 2012, he became an active member of Jokkolabs. http://www.skilledafricans.com/ Mr Osvalso Lingua, is Vice Secretary General for Ferrero Social Enterprises. Ferrero Social Enterprises are fully-fledged “businesses” set out to make a profit, but also operating with a “social” spirit, since they are designed to create jobs and combat the serious consequences of unemployment in the less advantaged areas of emerging countries. http://www.ferrerocareers.com/english/ferrero-social-programs/social- initiatives.php Mr Lutz Hartmann, is CEO of Pearl Gold AG. Pearl Gold AG is holding company which invests in high potential gold mine projects in West Africa. What is particular about it is that it also invests in numerous local businesses created around the mine with the aim to develop local economy supporting start-ups focused among others on health and educational services to local communities. http://www.pearlgoldag.com/en/ Mr Sergio Carnevale, is the co-founder of MoSera start-up. MoSera is a mobile-based solution that tackles bridging the gap between employers and job seekers and improve issues in employment. https://angel.co/mosera Mr Max Bulakovskiy, is a development practitioner and the Coordinator of FP7 BENISI programme focused on identification and scaling of over 300 social innovations across Europe (www.benisi.eu). He is part of the OKSIGEN Lab for Social Entrepreneurship in Brussels. www.oksigenlab.eu
  12. 12. 12 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 3. FINDINGS 3.1 Roundtable Findings  Social enterprises seem to be particularly well placed to target systemic problems and societal issues in the areas where businesses or public sector cannot find response. They tend to work looking at a holistic approach involving not just a single solution but an eco- system approach, ensuring an impact on each of the players in the value chain.  There are numerous successful social entrepreneurs and networks linking them already existing in both Africa and the EU, but common infrastructure for helping to start up, scaling is still lacking. (Strasbourg Declaration, 2014, Ashoka data)  Targeted empowering and capacity-building efforts implemented by the practitioners (already existing social enterprises and change-makers) are needed at African, national and regional levels to assist social enterprises (both potential donors and users of business know-how and practices) in getting "ready to scale" and "ready to replicate and adapt".
  13. 13. 13 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 3.2 Roundtable Examples / Best Practice Cases Ashoka (www.ashoka.org) is a global association of the world’s leading social entrepreneurs — with system changing solutions for the world’s most urgent social problems. Ashoka finds and supports the best social innovations, mobilizes thousands of people to create change, and enables businesses, the media, policymakers, and social entrepreneurs to collaboratively create global impact. Ashoka launched its Africa program in 1990 with the election of the first Fellow in Zimbabwe. Since establishing its Southern African program, Ashoka Africa expanded to West Africa in 1992 and opened its East Africa office in 2001. Ashoka believes that building a critical mass of leading social entrepreneurs with ground-breaking ideas is an important step toward creating a vibrant, prosperous African continent. It functions through providing a number of support services to the leading social entrepreneurs and is very well placed to connect African and European changemakers. The mPedigree Network (http://mpedigree.net/) is the global leader in the use of mobile and web technologies in securing products against faking, counterfeiting and diversion. Many thousands of lives are lost because of bad quality fake drugs in Africa. mPedigree tackles the issue of counterfight drugs which are alarmingly more and more difficult to identify through a mobile and web technology. It is unique as it brings together drug manufacturers (who pay for the service and protection of their brand), telecom operators, regulators and pharmasists. Any person through using a 10-digit non-duplicable code through a free SMS can verify if the drug is original. mPedigree shows tremendous success scaling to numerous countries and partnering with more than two-dozen telecom operators, Fortune 500 technology companies, and regulatory agencies in several countries. Bright Simons describes mPedigree as ‘the building of an infrastructure of trust’ with the potential to ‘totally transform the health care system of Africa’. Jokkolabs (http://jokkolabs.net) Jokkolabs is a network of spaces across countries in Africa and elsewhere for young entrepreneurs and technologists to work, receive clients, share ideas, build stuff, influence each other and make things happen. Jokkolabs was inspired by the global open source movement and Africa’s traditional emphasis on interdependence, Jokkolabs ensures that young African entrepreneurs have the necessary infrastructure to collaborate on-line of in physical spaces —rather than compete—to create new businesses and help solve some of their countries’ toughest problems. Jokkolabs creates the ecosystem linking to the necessary players and encourages peer-to-peer learning, co-creation and development of a team spirit. Beyond the collaborative brainstorming process, Jokkoworkers are able to rent office space at Jokkolabs, share back end office needs, and even staff, as is beneficial. Jokkolabs helped
  14. 14. 14 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 to create over 50 ventures and has spread its model from Dakar to Bamako, Ouagadougou, Nanterre, Saint-Louis, Abidjan and Paris! Skilled Africans (http://www.skilledafricans.com/) is a young and dynamic organisation focused on building the necessary skills of the young African population. By 2040 demographic evolution will result in the volume of labour available in Africa being the most important in the world, surpassing China and India. Key stakeholder groups central to Africa’s economic growth and development can be increasingly hear say that Africa’s richness is no longer primarily in its natural resources, but in its human resources. In 2010, the two founders of SkilledAfricans realized that online professional networks available on the web didn't fully address the needs of the Africans and have created the first African professional social network. SkilledAfricans meets the demands of professionals, students and African entrepreneurs by providing them with an access to an open and free online business network, but also guiding them through the most important skills for employability. Barka Foundation (www.barka.org.pl) for Mutual Help was established as a response to increasing social problems during transformation years. Barbara and Tomasz Sadowski wanted to create conditions in which the “forgotten and unwanted” could have a chance for personal growth and social development. This mission influenced the creation of an alternative system of support, which gathers people from the weakest groups, giving them possibilities to rebuild their lives, upgrade vocational skills and find their way in the new socioeconomic reality. Among its many projects, Barka has developed vocational schools for the unemployed, numerous social and economic enterprises, a program of accessible housing and self-sufficient communities in the countryside.Barka Foundation has scaled up its approach to UK, Netherlands, Ireland, Canada and since 2002 to Africa through its Barka-Africa partnership - INISE ( www.inise.org)
  15. 15. 15 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 4. RECOMMENDATIONS 4.1 Roundtable recommendations The Roundtable has identified the following general recommendations:  Ensure political commitment to ensure enabling environment for creation and development of social enterprises.  Ensure an eco-system boosting cooperation between social enterprises, across borders, regions and continents.  Need for development and promotion of funding mechanisms to ensure start-up and scaling-up of social enterprises, this includes among others: social impact investment, crowdfunding, involving diaspora communities in Europe etc.  Further research on the impact of Social Entrepreneurship on the economy.  Donors and especially private sector can play a greater role in supporting the infrastructure and creating collaboration partnerships with social entrepreneurs, as it can create sustainable long-lasting win-win partnerships.  Create awareness about social entrepreneurship, integrating it into the curriculum and ensuring youth is aware of it as a way for them to get active in a labour market and create jobs.
  16. 16. 16 EU- Africa Business Forum (2014) - Roundtable 10: Social Entrepreneurship April 2014 4.2 Five Concrete Actions The following five concrete actions were identified as the most urgent: 1. Create a Social Entrepreneurs Working Group consisting of the most successful, reputable and ethical social entrepreneurs in the world to provide advice to the EU Commissioners and member Heads of State on ways to foster creative and practical citizen led solutions to social problems. This should involve practitioners (social entrepreneurs) which might be appointed for the fixed-term non-renewable advisor appointments. 2. Develop common infrastructure: creation of an EU-Africa network of incubators/ accelerators focused on social enterprises. (This might for example ensure creation of a network embedding some 20-25 existing incubators/accelerators encouraging them to cooperate to build common tools; methodologies and encourage cooperation and peer-to–peer learning.) Initiatives to be embedded inside secondary and tertiary institutions across the Africa and the EU. This could be an opportunity to exploit and transfer the experience and expertise of incubators of the European Union that have managed to develop new social economy structures and new business models for social enterprises in the transformation period from state controlled economies to social market economies. 3. Feasibility study on the highest-impact ideas that social entrepreneurship can tackle and supporting their scaling. This can be done based on “Change Nations” event that took place in Ireland bringing social entrepreneurs from variety of areas and linking them to the investors. Europe-Africa “Change Nations” could bring social entrepreneurs from Africa and Europe would offer solutions across the entire range of countries to interested investors - from South Africa in the south to Sweden in the north and include the countries of Eastern Europe. 4. Creation of funds:  Matching fund for accelerating investments for social entrepreneurs working across the EU-Africa  Seed Social Impact fund especially focused on provision of initial investment / grants for prototyping for social entrepreneurs  Small farmer carbon fund for awards for carbon sequestration by creating value chains that create sustainable ways of enhancing organic content of soil. 5. Creation of an on-line portal collecting data on social enterprises across Africa (similar to Social Innovation Europe https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/socialinnovationeurope/home), where it would be possible for investors, social entrepreneurs or individuals interested in the subject identify interesting examples.

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