Participatory development – should it be saved

470 views
318 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
470
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
23
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Participatory development – should it be saved

  1. 1. Independent study project in Development Studies Date: 19/04/2013 Title Participatory Development – should it be saved? Written by: Aleksandra Ciurlik Student no: 299890 Supervisor: Michael Jennings Word count: 9,538
  2. 2. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 Abstract The mainstream development institutions, such as the World Bank, have been propagating participatory development practices for more than twenty years now. Nevertheless, one of the most important publications on the subject 'Participation: the New Tyranny' presents a radical view that these practices conceal and reinforce oppressions and injustices in their various manifestations. Despite the fact that this argumentation indicated many significant issues related to the subject of participation, in my opinion contradictions of the book are significant enough to question conclusions it draws. Despite the fact that many scholars extended the debate started by 'The New Tyranny', little was written about the weaknesses of this book in a way that it could change the development discourse in a meaningful way. The aim of this essay was to show that participatory development can play a positive role not only in benefiting the recipients of various projects, but also in improving development practices in general. This was achieved through analysing different manifestations of participation, examining the way various agencies perceive success and the motives of choosing participatory practices. The Barka Foundation was presented as the organization that managed to develop and implement groundbreaking participatory programmes. 193 words 2
  3. 3. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 Table of Contents List of abbreviations used…...........................................................................................4 Section I – Introduction...................................................................................................5 Section II – Methodology................................................................................................7 Section III – Summary of leading literature on participation Spreading of participatory ideas ...................................................................................9 Participation as tyranny..............................................................................................10 Transformational role of participation.........................................................................11 Case studies...............................................................................................................13 Section IV – Barka: history and activities...................................................................15 Section V – What does participation mean?................................................................17 Section VI – What does define success?.......................................................................23 Section VII – Why participation?.................................................................................27 Section VIII – Conclusions............................................................................................31 Bibliography...................................................................................................................34 3
  4. 4. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 List of abbreviations used GPAF: Global Poverty Action Fund INISE: International Network for Innovative Social Entrepreneurship KCA: Kenya Community Association KBCL: full name unknown, national fertilizer manufacturing cooperative KRCS: the Kenya Red Cross Society KRIBP: the Kribhco Indo-British Farming Project MDGs: Millennium Development Goals ODA: Overseas Development Administration PD: Participatory Development PGR: Państwowe Gospodarstwo Rolne (communist State Agricultural farm) PRA: Participatory Rural Appraisal SHG: Self Help Group WB: World Bank 4
  5. 5. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 Section I – Introduction The Barka Foundation has been active in Poland for more than twenty years now. The organization's focus is placed on work with the people on the margin of the society. During the last five years, Barka's programmes have spread into many countries of the European Union. My interest in the organization's work began once it started working on international development programmes in cooperation with the North West African Forum. I became particularly interested in what this Polish foundation could offer to the citizens of various African countries, so I decided to approach it. Every time I visited Barka, whether it was in Poland or England, I had a chance to speak to its leaders – ex homeless and alcoholics who received help from the organization and now are a part of it. And every time I spoke with any of them, I would hear a similar story. I've been through a lot in my life and I took part in the programmes of different organizations. I went through rehab many times – mainly in the winter, just to get a shelter – and then I came back to drinking again. The moment I was sent to Barka, I was planning to escape as soon as possible. But then I liked it and I've stayed till today. No other organization does anything as meaningful as Barka. 1 It made me wonder whether Barka was really so unique and if it was – why would that be? This made me start an ethnographic research about the organization and the most striking thing I could notice while observing its work is how close its workers were to the recipients of their projects. Every recipient of the projects was treated individually and many of them were directly involved with Barka's work. Participation, I thought, was the reason of the organization's success. However, the literature on participation that I encountered was not as optimistic about it as I was. Hence my attempt to analyse it closely. 1 Informant 1. 12/09/2012 5
  6. 6. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 Development theorists and practitioner have written quite a lot on PD. One of the most significant works that every scholar writing on participation referred to is 'Participation: the New Tyranny' edited by Cooke and Kothari. One of the most striking sentences I came across while reading this book was any meaningful attempt to save participatory development requires a sincere of the possibility that it should not be save2. Since the book was publish, scholars have referred to it in many ways. Some of them, such as Hickey and Mohan or Williams attempted to extend the debate on participation by indicating transformational potential of participation. However, while reading 'The New Tyranny' I came across several contradictions of presented arguments that have not been pointed by the other scholars and that could change completely the discourse presented throughout the book. This is why the aim of this research will be to analyse and question the arguments of 'The New Tyranny', and in this way I will show that PD actually should be saved. The case study of Barka will be presented along my critique not just in order to facilitate my argumentation, but to see whether the organization's projects have overcome the obstacles related to implementation of participatory approaches. After presenting the methodology used throughout the research in Section II, Section III of this work will describe the main theoretical contributions to the subject of participation. This will lay the foundations for further parts of the research, as the analysis of theory will be based on comparing it with the case studies. Section IV will focus briefly on the activities of Barka as to show the complexity of the programmes led by the organization and place its further analysis in broader context. The key points of this work will be made in sections from V to VII. These sections will at the same time point the contradictions of the argumentation presented by 'The New Tyranny', analyse the work of Barka and provide the answer to the research question. First, Section V will analyse the different forms that 2 Cooke, Bill; Kothari, Uma, 'The Case for Participation as Tyranny' in Cooke, Bill; Kothari, Uma. 'Participation: the New Tyranny?'. Zed Books, 2001. p.15 6
  7. 7. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 participation might take in order to point at the problems of treating this idea as a fixed concept. Section VI will then analyse the argument presented in 'The New Tyranny' about the problem of defining success in order to show that this points also to the limitations of the analysis presented in Cooke and Kothari's book. Next section will focus of the causal relations between PD and the dubious practices of development agencies. This will show that focusing on participation as the agent legitimizing doubtful practices may not lead to the solution of the core of the problems. Section II – Methodology Written sources that I used could be divided into two categories. First, the books and journal articles analysing theoretical assumptions of the concept of participation. Second, materials describing the work of Barka. This consisted mainly of books published by Barka, reports written by outside observers or Barka's workers, official documents and power point presentations relevant to the work of the organization that were passed to me by its workers. I also watched the movies made about or by Barka. One of the case studies that this research analyses in detail is David Mosse's description of a development programme in rural India as a contribution to 'Participation: the New Tyranny'. Despite the fact that I use this case as a base for analysis of the argument representing this particular book, my study often refers to Mosse's article in 'A Moral Critique of Development' 3 as the description put in this publication is more detailed and explanatory. The other, more important part of my work, was conducting ethnographic research. Due to several difficulties, mainly time limitations, I could not spend as much time with Barka as I wanted. Still, I managed to visit the Social Integration Centre in Poznań. I attended the meetings of Barka UK 3 Quarles van Ufford, Philip; Kumar Giri, Ananta. 'A Moral Critique of Development: in Search of Global Responsibilities'. Routledge, 2003 7
  8. 8. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 in their office. I also went to the meeting at the Polish Embassy where three of the organizations working with the homeless of London, including Barka UK, were presenting their work. I went to the fund raising party together with the representatives of Barka. I also conducted interviews with Tomasz Sadowski – the founder of Barka, Ewa Sadowska - Chief Executive of Barka UK and Baiba Dhidha Mjidho - Chairman of Kenya Community Association (organization based in Liverpool and working with Barka on the Kanini Kaseo Project). This allowed me to have many conversations with the workers and leaders of Barka, and to have an insight into the way the organization worked. I think that a general problem about conducting a research described by Melissa Parker is very relevant. In her text about female circumcision, she describes the publications of academics who have explicitly stated their thoughts and feelings in their 'scientific' articles. 4 As a way of dealing with issue, she described her story and involvement in the topic she had researched in order to show the readers of her work in which ways her feelings might have influenced her analysis. Even though my work does not consider such an emotional subject, I still think it is relevant to state the researcher's (in this case – my) personal perspective towards the subject as, whether one admits it or not, it might affect the way in which the research is conducted, thus the results.. For me conducting a research about Barka was a unique experience. The amount of help received from every single person I interacted with was immense. I received not only what I asked for (time, documents, opinions) but also a great amount of personal involvement. Even though I visited the offices of Barka both in Poznań and in London, all of the interviews took place at the homes of the interviewed. Each time I was welcomed warmly, given food and a lot of attention. When I went to Liverpool, I was hosted by the Chairman of Kenya Community Association and his wife who sheltered me for one night in their living room. With both Ewa Sadowska and Baiba Dhidha Mjidho, I have been in constant email contact as they have been informing me about the news and sending any papers I requested. I am aware that they made this 4 Parker, Melissa. ‘Rethinking Female Circumcision’. Africa, 65(4), pp.506-523, 1995, p. 516 8
  9. 9. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 research so much easier for me and I feel grateful for all these gestures. This is also why I consciously made a decision of writing this text in first person. I find it more honest to write in this way as I do not want to make an impression that it was a highly objective being, not just a human, who wrote this analysis. Then I leave it to the readers to decide how trustworthy it is. Section III – Summary of leading literature on participation Spreading of participatory ideas The idea of participation got popularized among the development theorists and practitioners after publishing of Paulo Freire's 'Pedagogy of the Oppressed' in the late 1960s. In his book, Brazilian educator, focused on the interaction between action and reflection that constitutes the process of 'conscientization'. He criticized paternalistic attitues towards students and what he called the 'banking' concept of education, based on the premise that knowledge is a fixed entity. Freire, on the contrary, claimed that learners should be treated as co-creators of knowledge. 5 He stated that Attempting to liberate the oppressed without their reflective participation in the act of liberation is to treat them as objects which must be saved from a burning building; it is to lead them into a populist pitfall and transform them into masses which can be manipulated.6 In the late 1980s and early 1990s these ideas were translated into models of development practice. The emphasis then was put on participation in setting development projects, theoretically aimed at empowering the indigenous people, capturing their knowledge and ensuring the sustainability and efficiency of the interventions. 7 Robert Chambers, a WB scholar, was one of the leading promoters of PD. He contributed significantly to the development 5 Dagron, Alfonso Gumucio; Tufte, Thomas. 'Communication for Social Change Anthology: Historical and Contemporary Readings.' CFSC Consortium, INC, 2006 6 Freire, Paulo. 'Pedagogy of the Opressed: 30th Anniversary Edition', Continuum International Publish Group, 2000, p. 65 7 Carpentier, Nico. Media and Participation: A Side of Ideological-democratic Struggle'. Intellect Books, 2011 9
  10. 10. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 of the idea of PRA that describes a growing family of approaches and methods to enable local people to share, enhance and analyse their knowledge of life and conditions, to plan and to act. (…) In PRA it [information] is more shared and owned by the local people. 8 According to Chambers, PRA was supposed to mean a move away from 'top down' development projects and institutions towards the power structures that will be led by a series of personal, proffessional and institutional change. In order to facilitate these goals, several tools were developed, such as mapping and modeling, transect walks, matrix scoring, seasonal calendars, trend and change analysis, well being and wealth ranking and grouping, and analytical diagraming.9 Chambers' publications, promoted by WB, contributed towards the wide spread of development programmes based on the PRA models. However, the critics of these models emerged along with their popularization. Participation as tyranny One of the most significant publications criticizing PD was 'Participation: the New Tyranny?' edited by by Bill Cooke and Uma Kothari. Authors of the book defined tyranny as illegitimate and/or unjust exercise of power10 and moved on describing how PD facilitates it. Eleven chapters of the book written by different authors come together to conclude that processes of participation [such as] sharing knowledge, negotiating power relationships, political activism and so on – can both conceal and reinforce oppressions and injustices in their various manifestations.11 The authors stress the limitations of the previous criticism of participatory approaches that had focused mainly on technical limitations of the method or on the workings of the practitioner. Cooke and Kothari, however, claim that there are more overarching and fundamental problems with participatory approaches to 8 Chambers, Robert. 'The Origins and Practice of Participatory Rural Apprisal.' World Development, Vol. 22, No 7, 1994, p. 953 9 Ibid. p. 953 10 Cooke, Bill; Kothari, Uma. Op. Cit. p. 4 11 Ibid. p. 13 10
  11. 11. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 development than those reflected in earlier critiques, such as naivety of assumptions about the authenticity of motivations, behaviour in participatory processes and about the complexities of power and power relations. Kothari suggests that development programmes based on participation draw marginalised individuals and groups into the processes of development in the way that tie them to structures of power so that they are not able to question them. 12 This goes along with Majid Rahnema's view that compared participation to a 'Trojan horse' claiming that the rapid growth in use of participatory approaches meant that it was serving important economic, institutional and legitimating functions for a mainstream vision of development, compatible with a liberalization agenda. 13 The debate on PD, however, did not finish with this book as more authors continued to explore the topic of participation. Transformational role of participation Samuel Hickey and Giles Mohan in the publication 'Participation: From Tyranny to Transformation?', responded to Cooke and Kothari's work, claiming that there are good reasons for remaining optimistic concerning the potential of participatory approaches to development and governance to effect genuine transformations at range of levels.14 This book does not reject the criticism presented by the other scholars, but notes that, in some cases, the issues of power and politics have been addressed, for example through the radical political projects on the bases of promoting citizenship. According to the authors, both critics and proponents of participation need a greater level of honesty and clarity as to what form of participation is being debated. They also call for greater conceptual and theoretical coherence on participation and more considered claims regarding its 12 Kothari, Uma. 'Power, Knowledge and Social Control in Participatory Development' in Cooke, Bill; Kothari, Uma. 'Participation: the New Tyranny?'. Zed Books, 2001 13 Rahnema, Majid. 'Participation'. in Sachs, Wolfgang. The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power. Zed Books, 1992 14 Hickey, Samuel; Mohan, Giles. 'Participation: From Tyranny to Transformation? Exploring New Approaches to Participation in Development '. Zed Books, 2004. p. 20 11
  12. 12. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 potential to transform the power relations that underpin exclusion and subordination. Another analysis that acknowledged the arguments of Cooke and Kothari, but sees the potential for positive transformation is Glyn Williams' 'Evaluating Participatory Development: Tyranny, Power and (Re)Politicisation'.15 It states that incorporating participation into the mainstream practices moved it away from its initial roots in NGO practice. Moreover, the author of the publication claims that participatory development might have contributed to the bureaucratic non-state power of 'NGO governmentality' acting to discipline smaller NGOs across South, thus limiting the range of valid projects, actors and activities within the NGO sector. Enlisting and demonstrating popular participation in development programmes has become an end in itself, a crucial measure of scheme success and a key condition of donor approval. 16 On the other hand, he argues that the denial of experts' agency acts against the important aspects of the development process from public scrutiny. He also criticized the metaphor of 'Trojan Horse' used by Majid Rahnema, claiming that there is a 'two-way traffic' that refashions and reproduces the spaces of political action. For him, using participation to spread an intelligible debate on the nature of political rights would be a step in a good direction as Actually existing participation, for all its short- comings, provides a range of opportunities through which state power can be actively called to account.17 Despite the fact that these two publications contributed significantly to the discourse on participation, I still find that not enough attention has been drawn towards the limitations of 'The New Tyranny'. This is why, the three sections of my essay will explore the contradictions of this book, drawing mainly on the argumentation presented by two contributors to 'The New Tyranny' – David Mosse and John Hailey. 15 Williams, Glyn. 'Evaluating Participatory Development: Tyranny, Power and (Re)Politicisation'. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2004 16 Williams, Glyn. Op. Cit. p. 563 17 Ibid. p. 573 12
  13. 13. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 Case studies I have decided to narrow the focus of my research mainly to the works of Mosse and Hailey as the projects they describe share many similarities with the activities conducted by the Barka foundation. This will allow me to combine the critique of 'The New Tyranny' with the analysis of the case study I am particularly interested in. In this way, I might omit some points about the book edited by Cooke and Kothari. However, my argumentation will question crucial assumptions stated in that book. The article 'People's Knowledge. Participation and Patronage: Operations and Representations in Rural Development.'18 by David Mosse describes the KRIBP project, conducted in India for which the author had been a social development consultant over several years. In his work, he criticized participatory approaches for their contradictory role as he claimed that they actually have been compatible with top-down planning systems and have not questioned the prevailing institutional practices of development. One of his arguments states that the projects can clearly influence the way in which people construct their needs. By describing the case study, he concludes that the villagers' needs were shaped by perceptions of what the agency could deliver. Moreover, he states that the pressure to get things done was another obstacle preventing meaningful participation from taking place. Mosse described how participatory planning was more of a marketed 'commodity', distributed with a corporate image of the agency behind the project, than anything else. Moreover, it enabled the project organization to extend its client-focused networks of patronage in the region. The author criticized the project for displaying its concern with people's participation, yet having little impact on rural livelihoods. 18 Mosse, David 1. 'People's Knowledge, Participation and Patronage: Operations and Representations in Rural Development' in Cooke, Bill; Kothari, Uma. 'Participation: the New Tyranny?'. Zed Books, 2001 13
  14. 14. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 I also decided to present John Hailey's article 'Beyond the Formulaic: Process and Practice in South Asian NGOs'19 because of the three reasons. First, it is the only article in Cooke and Kothari's book that describes effective work of the NGOs. Second, despite the fact that it shows potential directions in which participatory approaches could move, this article, together with its main conclusions, seems to be almost completely ignored in most of works on participation that I came across. Third, already mentioned, the case studies presented in the article have got a lot in common with the work of Barka. A very interesting thing is that non of the case studies presented by Hailey referred to the use the PRA techniques as these NGOs did not base their work on a set of formal tools or participative techniques. Hailey claimed that informal, non-formulaic, personal interactions are a key element of participative decision-making.The scholar also stressed the importance that values such as respect, trust and friendship played while developing the relations between the project staff and its recipients. The understanding of, and responsiveness to, the needs of local communities is, according to Hailey, the cause of the organizations' success. The theories and arguments presented in this section will be analysed throughout Sections V to VII. Before that, however, Section VI will describe organization studied by me in order to place further analysis in a broader context Section IV – Barka: history and activities The Barka foundation was created in Poland as a response to increasing social problems of the transformation system. Barbara and Tomasz Sadowscy wanted to create environments and social structures that would enable the 'forgotten and unwanted' members of the Polish society to develop 19 Hailey, John. 'Beyond the formulaic: Process and Practice in South Asian NGOs' in Cooke, Bill; Kothari, Uma. 'Participation: the New Tyranny?'. Zed Books, 2001 14
  15. 15. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 personally and socially. This lead to the creation of alternative system of help, that focuses on members the marginalised groups, enabling them to rebuild their personality, educates them in various ways and helps them to find their way in the new socio-economic system.20 In late 1980s two psychologist set up the first house of Barka in the abandoned school building in Władysławowo and started living with 25 people finding themselves in very difficult life situations. These included people living prisons, reformatories, prostitutes and alcoholics This first community became a platform for development of the movement of mutual help not only for the needing ones but also for informal groups of citizens and NGOs from Poland and abroad. Its main goal has been to deliver living spaces, workplaces and education for people marginalised by the neoliberal system. Since then economically independent and self-sufficient communities have been created all over Poland, promoting the model of an economy of inclusion.21 Activities of Barka develop along two paraller schemes. First one aims at the rehabilitation of people rejected by the society. Second focuses on implementation of developed models of rehabilitation and social entrepreneurship through building local partnerships and through the education of local leaders to engage in creating local activities and markets. 22 Barka has developed programmes and structures that would serve as platform for self development of the disadvantaged members of the society (rural communities, homeless, disabled, addicts, illiterate and many others). These structures involved the Social Integration Centres (for those being long term unemployed), 20 Sadowska, Barbara. 'New Beginning. Social Market Economy.' Fundacja Pomocy Wzajemnej Barka, 2010 21 'Oblicza szczęścia' http://barka.org.pl/node/23 22 World Habitat Award, Building Partnerships to Eradicate Poverty http://www.worldhabitatawards.org/winners-and-finalists/project-details.cfm?lang=00&theProjectID=18AD7EF215C5-F4C0-993FDB14AEC692EF 15
  16. 16. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 Social Economy Centres (for those not eligible for Social Integration Centres), co-operatives, social enterprises, eco-farms and programme of house building.23 The report from 2009 stated that the system of accessible housing provided 750 people with housing. 24 Until then 25 successful social enterprises had been created (35 more were being in the process of creation at that point). 8 Social Integration Cetres have been created. Two PGRs were renovated and transformed into ecological farms. On top of that, the organization runs the street paper. The structures of Barka are also based on partnerships with Public Centres of Social Help, NGOs, training institutions, housing co-operatives, district job centres, commercial companies, committees of housing estates and parishes. The founders of Barka have also had a chance to play a key role in introducing acts that support development of civil society and social enterpreneurship in Poland. In 2006 Barka Poland was contacted by the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham in association with Housing Justice UNLEASH and The Simon Community. This resulted in the organization coming to London in order to run the programmes of working with the Eastern European homeless25. Since then Barka's actions have then spread into other countries of the European Union such as Germany, Netherlands or France. Barka's unconventional programmes have attracted the attention of various charities and NGOs worldwide. Recently, several African organisations aiming at introducing such models of community driven developments in their own countries, have approached the Polish foundation. The INISE programme has been set up by Barka as a response to interest from such countries as Ghana, Ethiopia, Kenya or Uganda26. 23 Sadowska, Barbara. Op. Cit. 24 World Habitat Award, Op. Cit. 25 Barka UK, About http://www.barkauk.org/news/about/ 26 INISE, Board of Trustees http://inise.org/?page_id=188 16
  17. 17. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 At the moment, the activities of the African programmes are at the beginning phase. In this research, I will focus particularly on the actions carried out in Kenya, particularly on self – help programme being implemented in assistance of KCA in Kanini Kaseo village, in Kenya. This projects started as a response to the Horn of Africa Drought 2009-2011. One of the main aims of this programmes is to achieve food security in the region abolish the dependency of villagers on food aid. The project carried out by Barka and KCA is based on assumptions of PD as these are the members of local SHG that are claimed to be in charge of designing and implementing the activities. 27 The nature of this undertaking is quite different to the works carried out by Barka in Europe. This is why the next sections of this research will refer to the activities of the organization on both continents to show how the assumptions of the PD might vary. I will start with presenting different understandings of the concept of participation. Section V – What does participation mean? A simple way to describe participation is to say that to participate means to take part, to become involved, and there is little more to it than that.28 However, in practice there is definitely a lot more to it than that and this is what I will show in this section. So far, the debate about PD focused mainly on the PRA model developed by Chambers. The problem with Cooke and Kothari's book is that it focuses mainly on criticising these models and draws the conclusion that participation – not just PRA – should not be saved. I agree with the point stated in 'From Tyranny to Transformation' that greater conceptual and theoretical coherence on participation is very often missing in the debate29. In this section I will not try to develop a universal definition of participation, but will show the different forms that 27 Dhidha Mjidho, Baiba 1. 'Kanini Kaseo. Hope and Vision for Africa'. Kenya Community Association, 2012 28 Richardson, Ann. 'Participation'. Routledge, 1983. p.8 29 Hickey, Samuel; Mohan, Giles.Op. Cit. 17
  18. 18. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 participation might take basing on the WB's assumptions, Mosse's and Hailey's arguments, and on the experience of the work of Barka. According to the WB scholars there are four forms that PD might take. First, passive participation, is when the recipients of the projects are only being informed about the decisions that had already taken place without having any influence on them. Second, participation by consultation, is an extractive process when recipients provides the answers to the questions prepared by the outside institutions. Next, participation by collaboration, does not make much impact on the aims of the projects, however, it requires recipients' active involvement in the decision-making process about how to achieve the goals. The last one, empowerment participation, takes place when the recipients are capable and willing to initiate the processes and take part in the analysis which leads to joint decision making.30 It can be already seen that participation might be implemented in many ways – each of them resulting in different levels of engagement from the recipients. I will now move to present the critique of these methods. One of Mosse's main argument is that the creators of the KRIBP were designing it mainly in the way that it would fit the ODA requirements. On the other hand the recipients of the project were not making the same choices as they would without the influence of the KBCL. 31 And these are the main obstacles preventing a meaningful participation from taking place. Mosse claims that the way participation should work is that the villagers would be the ones to make decisions on what they need and how to run the projects without and the role of the outside agency would be narrowed to the implementation of recipients' ideas. At the same time, he also states that the presence of the outside agencies will inevitably influence the way in which the programme functions. This is, he concludes, a 30 Mefalopulos, Paolo. Tufte, Thomas. 'Participatory Communication: A Practical Guide.' The World Bank, 2009 31 Mosse, David 2. 'The making and marketing of participatory development' in Quarles van Ufford, Philip; Kumar Giri, Ananta. 'A Moral Critique of Development: in Search of Global Responsibilities'. Routledge, 2003 18
  19. 19. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 contradiction impossible to overcome.32 Hailey, on the other hand, describes the work of the NGOs he claims to be successful and pointing on the development of personal relations, friendship and trust between the NGO workers and the recipients of the projects resulting in the efficient mode of decision making. On top of that, the scholar prepared a set of the characteristics of all the successful NGOs: a fundamental belief in participative development, an ethos of close collaboration with local communities, and a clear vision based on a strongly held, well articulated set of values. Their work is based on the conviction that the poor and uneducated can take control of their lives with some outside encouragement, assistance and support. As a result, NGOs bring to local communities new technologies, new organizational capacities, and management competencies compatible with local experiences and preferences. Their staff demonstrate a willingness to experiment and learn, to listen and discuss, and also to initiate and inspire.33 Hailey claims that the participation discourse should be shifted from formulaic approaches towards the focus on personal interactions. I points to the conclusion that participation, if understood and implemented in ways differed than ones prescribed by PRA, might actually be a concept worth saving. The way in which Barka's programmes work depends on the problems being dealt with. The actions of Barka within the European countries focus mainly on the work with the long term unemployed and the problems related to their condition, such as homelessness, alcoholism etc. In the movie from 1994 Tomasz Sadowski describes that their aim was to create family relations with the people as, according to him, A person who found himself on the margin of social life does not necessarily need a hat or to be well informed, but mainly social support.34 I had a chance to observe 32 Mosse, David 2. Op. Cit. 33 Hailey, John. Op. Cit. p. 95 34 'Oblicza Szczęścia'. Op. Cit. Translated by me. 19
  20. 20. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 Barka's work in Poland and in London. Indeed, development of personal involvement was a particularly visible during my encounters with the organization. For example, during the meetings of Barka UK it was evident that the destiny of every single homeless that the workers of Barka had encountered was the main concern of the organization. Ewa Sadowska, the Chief Executive of Barka UK kept inquiring about cases of the individual persons, knowing their names and stories. Having a chance to see the way Barka works, it appeared to me that a very important factor was the focus of the founders of the organization on increasing self-esteem of every single individual by making them realize their potential. Barka developed various methods as a way to achieve this goal. This includes not only the educational programmes and workshops. A very important role in the work of Barka within European countries is played by the leaders. Leaders are the ex homeless, very often alcoholics, who have been helped by barka. Right now they work with Barka, patrolling the streets, looking for the homeless, trying to persuade them to take part in Barka's programmes and mentoring them once they agree to cooperate. My informal conversations with different leaders showed me that they were aware that their knowledge of the realities of being homeless together with their testimony of their own recovery thanks to Barka's programmes was a very important part of building trust between the organization and the homeless. It was evident the awareness of being useful and appreciated, and that they could meaningfully participate in helping others, was the core of the process of their retrieval. It can be seen that Barka shows many of the characteristics that Hailey pointed to be shared by the NGOs he claimed to be successful. At the same time, Barka does base its work on participatory assumptions making its programs highly efficient. As it was described earlier in this section, according to WB the empowerment participation takes place when the recipients of projects have influence on the decisions made by development agency. 20
  21. 21. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 The case of Barka, however, shows how to go beyond this theory. It is not only that the recipients of the organization influence the way the programmes are run. Very often they run the programmes themselves. For example, the recipients of Barka have turned the PGRs into ecological farms that they now administer. The important aspect of Barka's work is breaking the passive attitudes of the beneficiaries. As it was acknowledged by the chairman of Kenya Community Association, the system developed by Barka makes it possible to develop programs, in which people do not wait for free lunch, but contribute to build and develop mutual interactions.35 This is one of the reasons why the KCA decided to create partnership with Barka and work together on the projects in Kenya. According to the statement prepared by the Kanini Kaseo SHG, this organization wrote several proposals to different donors which had not been supported before the KCA decided to engage with the project and work on achieving the food security in the area.36 I spoke with Baiba Dhidha Mjidho about the process of decision making in the programme. Potentially it is INISE that is going to take the decisions about the programmes. However, the organization allows the SGH to try the solutions that they think are best for them. As I was told during the interview Unless you are able to understand and appreciate what people are doing, you won't develop trust and you will not succeed with what you want to do.37 I was quite pleased to hear these words from the chairman of the KCA, especially as I had not told him that participation was the main theme of my research. It is the SHG that defines what the goals are and what is needed to achieve them, KCA provides funds for and assistance in implementing the ideas.38 At the time of the interview, trenches had been dug, the irrigation system had been developed and the output of the crops had increased. At the same time, members of the SHG noticed the problem of high evaporation and made a decision about building a green house. Baiba Dhidha 35 Dhidha Mjidho, Baiba 2. 'Human Enterprise Triumph – Barka Foundation'. Kenya Community Association. p. 9 36 Kanini Kaseo Kyunyu Self Help Group. 'Statement on Thursday 9th February 2012' 37 Dhidha Mjidho, Baiba. 2/03/2013 38 This can also refer to Williams' argument about NGO governmentality as it seems lik KCA together with Barka do not restrict small local organizations, but assist them in their initiatives. 21
  22. 22. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 Mjidho described Kanini Kaseo as a living laboratory where they allow the recipients of the funds make their own decisions and even make the mistakes. Moreover, Between April and 2012, the founders of Barka, accompanied by Baiba Dhidha Mjidho, went for a study visit to Kenya. Then the discussions with urban and rural communities, diplomats, government officials, intellectuals, bankers and and the marginalized people in the slums of Nairobi took place.39 This section showed that participation is not a fixed concept. Different people understand it in different ways and various agencies implement it in various ways. The case of Barka presents the example of projects going beyond the theory of participation that not only shifts the decision making processes towards the recipients. It shows that the factors that come together to build participatory programmes can extend towards acknowledging and developing potential of every single individual, and even allowing people to run the programmes. This particularly shows the problem of the argumentation used within 'The New Tyranny'. The book dwells mainly on the limitations of PRA, not acknowledging the fact that participation might be incorporated into development programmes in different ways. It is understandable to criticise a particular model, but rejecting the whole concept on the basis of the problems related to a single manifestation of it should not be acceptable. The case of Kanini Kaseo project undermines Mosse's idea of participation being unimplementable. There are, however, some problems related to the Kanini Kaseo project. This section pointed only to the fact that participation can take place even at the form that Mosse claimed was impossible to implement. The next section, on the other hand, will examine the idea of the projects' success and how the situation might change in the long run. 39 Dhidha Mjidho, Baiba 1. Op. Cit. 22
  23. 23. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 Section VI – What does define success? Another problem pointed by Mosse is how different agencies define success. I find this argument extremely relevant as the judgement about PD is very often based on what one perceives as the most desirable outcome of a project. The scholar pointed to the fact that the participation provided a strong basis for defining the programme success. On the other hand, from the point of view of the agency and its PR For policy to succeed it is necessary it seems that it is not implemented, but that enough people firmly believe that it is.40 These arguments, in my opinion, are not very relevant when to comes to discussing participation as they could definitely be used in relation to many different development approaches, not just the participatory ones.41 Hailey states that understanding of, and responsiveness to, the needs of the local communities are the factors that led to the success of the described NGOs. The limitation of his analysis is that he did not describe what defines a successful development project. This is a serious limitation of his argument as he tells the readers what are the right ways to run a project, without stating what the outcomes of the projects are. In his conclusion in 'The making and marketing of participatory development', Mosse states that meaningful engagements between staff and villagers still produced important local benefits even under conditions of severe drought.42 This shows that using PRA actually led to the interaction between the staff and villagers and that it did bring benefits to the people. One of Chambers' claim, however, was that that using PRA models would lead to challenging top-down development processes. Cooke and Kothari remained within the same discourse by defining the success of the projects by the criterion 40 Mosse, David 2. Op. Cit. p. 70 41 This matter will be explored more in the next section. 42 Mosse, David 2. Op. Cit. 23
  24. 24. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 developed by Chambers. For them local benefits produced by the implementation of the PRA models were not enough to describe the project as successful as long as it did not challenge the existing power relations. Another theoretical goal of KRIBP, imposed by the donor agenda, was to make the villagers self reliant. This too could be used as measure of the programme's success. The villagers, however, did not become independent from the organization as the agency behind the project – KBCL - was a leading national commercial organization involved in the production and marketing of agro inputs and it was its interest that the recipients of KRIBP remained dependent on the products produced by the company.43 Mosse, however, wrote as well that disincentives to innovate or to challenge prevailing preconceptions were shared by both – staff and villagers 44. This shows another contradiction of his argument. If participation is supposed to be about decision making – this shows that it was also a decision of the local people to maintain the existing power relations for their own benefit. Mosse pointed to the fact that the local knowledge is not a fixed factor and that it can be manipulated by the outside agencies for their profits. Kothari, in her chapter on power, based on Foucauldian approach to the understanding of power states that By not recognizing that knowledge is produced out of power relations in society and through practitioners' acceptance of 'local knowledge' as some kind of objective truth, participatory methodologies are in danger of reifying these inequalities and of affirming the agenda of elites and other more powerful actors. 45 My question, however, is whether the fact that the recipients of development programmes may choose not to challenge the existing power relations is enough to entirely condemn the concept of PD. As Foucault also stated the point is not that everything is bad, but that everything is dangerous, which is not exactly the same as bad. 46 The challenge is to find the balance between the limitations and benefits of a discussed project. 43 44 45 46 Mosse, David 1. Op. Cit. Mosse , David 2. Op. Cit. Kothari, Uma. Op. Cit. p. 145 Kelly, Michael. 'Critique and Power: Recasting the Foucault/Habermas Debate'. MIT Press, 1994, p. 22 24
  25. 25. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 It is not straight forward to analyse the case of Barka in relation to the concept of power as the relations between the founders, workers and recipients of the programmes are quite complex. The founders of the organization do have a potential power and control over their beneficiaries, particularly the ones who become members of the organization and run various programmes. The fact that this power is not abused, however, makes the relations even more meaningful. When it comes to the idea of self sufficiency, some of the recipients of Barka's programmes, mainly the educational ones, manage to get into the employment sector and become independent. Others stay with Barka on the long term basis. One could state that they never became autonomous as they remained permanently within the structures of the organization. However, if this is status at which everyone benefits, why should that be considered as something wrong? Basing on my conversations with the workers of Barka I concluded that for them the success lies in helping the individuals to get out of homelessness, get over their addictions and live meaningful lives. In order to achieve these goals, the founders of Barka did question the prevailing development schemes and created a system of help in which participation has played and still plays an important role. When it comes to the case study of Kanini Kaseo, according to the presentation prepared by KCA, so far the tools supplied to the SHG improved the capacity of farming, rations of food boosted productivity, water retention increased crop yields and, all in all, the output of farming doubled.47 Still, the state of self sufficiency, which is one of the goal listed in the Kanini Kaseo project, has not yet been achieved.48 One of the agencies involved in the project is Twiga Chemicals - the company engaging in the supply and distribution of explosives, agrochemicals, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals49. It is highly probable that the goals of the company are parallel to the ones of KBCL. So far the company has donated three bucket drip irrigation kits and declared the willingness to 47 Kenya Community Association, 'Kanini Kaseo' 48 Barka Foundation, 'Projekt MSZ Fundacja Barka Kenia 1' 49 Twiga Chemicals – About http://www.twigachemicals.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2&Itemid=23 25
  26. 26. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 provide trainings on pesticides and crop storage. 50 In the long term, the dependency on the company's products might be created just as it was described in Mosse's article. Only the time will show whether it happens or not. Even if it does, one needs to take into consideration the origins of the project. So far, strongly affected by drought, the people of Kanini Kaseo were dependent on food aid delivered by the World Vision organization51. It has been the decision and desire of the inhabitants of Kanini Kaseo to improve their agricultural capacity so that they would no longer be dependent on food aid. They developed a programme and the KCA was the first organization to respond to their initiative. As it is shown above, the villagers of Kanini Kaseo have already benefited from the programme. Again, one needs to balance between the benefits gained and potential limitations of the introduced project. This section showed another contradiction of the rhetoric of 'The New Tyranny'. The argument presented in the book is that the development projects influence the recipients' decision about what they need most. However, what is not acknowledged is that by stating that the success of a programme depends on whether it alters existing power relation, another point of view (convergent with the assumptions developed by the creators of the PRA!) might be imposed on the recipients of development projects. My question is whether it would not be more appropriate to define success of any development programme on the basis of to what extent it actually benefits the people? This could change the whole discourse in favour of saving PD, as even the PRA models did benefit the recipients of the KRIBP. Another problem presented in this (and the previous) section is how the motives of the agencies assisting the projects affect its outcomes. It will be the aim of the next section to explore the extent to which participation might facilitate the dubious work of certain institutions. 50 Kenya Community Association, 'Kanini Kaseo' 51 Dhidha Mjidho, Baiba 1. Op. Cit. 26
  27. 27. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 Section VII – Why participation? The issues related to the influence that the outside agencies, such as donor agendas or commercial companies, might have on development programmes were briefly mentioned as a part of arguments presented in the previous sections. This section will analyse the reasons for which participatory approaches were chosen by different agencies. The topic will be explored even more in terms of the causal relations between these agencies and participatory approaches in order to show further limitations of the argument used in 'The New Tyranny' that so far have been omitted. A very important, argument presented by Mosse is one about the influence of donors – in this case ODA – on shaping the development projects. As funding of the project presented by the scholar was dependent on how much it fitted the donor's requirements, its design followed these requisites too. At the time when the project started, participation was the policy recommended by the WB, thus focusing on participatory approaches in the project design was one of the main conditions to get the funds. On the other hand, as the donors were putting pressure on the timely implementation of development programmes, at some point project staff started taking on more of activities. This made villagers retreat from temporary planning and decision-making to the more familiar role of passive beneficiary or low status project employees52. However, once DIFiD's (formerly ODA) India program realigned towards the funding of state-wide government programmes, sectoral reforms and donorgovernment partnerships, KRIBP unable to articulate this policy, lost its support and had to come to an end.53 This points to the fact that one of the main reasons participatory approaches were used in the project was that otherwise the chances of gaining the funds would be close to zero. At the same time, donor's attitude of putting time pressure made it difficult for the project to allow villagers to participate 52 Mosse, David 1. Op. Cit. 53 Mosse, David. 2. Op. Cit. 27
  28. 28. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 in decision making process. One more problem raised by Mosse is that of the motives of particular agencies taking part in development projects. According to him, the involvement of KBCL changed the project in order to facilitate the expansionary practices of the company. He described the process of breading, testing and popularising seeds by scientists and farmers jointly, which then out-performed both local and officially recommended varieties in poor soil and low input conditions. For Mosse, however, this programme had little to do with participation as he described it as a sophisticated form of market research54. One interpretation of why participation was chosen could go along with Rahnema's view that the promotion of participatory approaches served economic, institutional and legitimating functions for a mainstream vision of development, compatible with a liberalization agenda. 55 However, one needs to bear in mind that participation itself was not the cause of the way in which the international system of development worked. Would it not be more logical to focus the critique on the way in which the international development agencies work instead of on the concept they promote? If one criticizes the concept promoted by donors, it can be replaced by another one, but it will not change the way development functions. This shows another limitation of the argument presented by Kothari. One could argue that her argumentation focuses too much on the idea of participation, forgetting that it is just a part of wider system that should be questioned. This would mean that her work does not challenge the existing power relations in a meaningful way. Hailey, in his article did not mention the source of funding of the NGOs he described. This is another factor preventing the full analysis of the topic. However, he clearly stressed that non of the 54 Mosse, David 2. Op. Cit. 55 Rahnema, Majid. Op. Cit. 28
  29. 29. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 presented case studies referred to PRA techniques, which means that they did not have to implement them in order to get funds. Similarly, Barka receives funds for its work mainly from the local councils, local trusts and European Union56. As these institutions work in different ways than DIFiD, not much pressure is placed on Barka to implement participatory techniques in European countries. During one of our meetings, Ewa Sadowska told me that other organizations working with homeless in London were showing the signs of anxiety when it comes to the way Barka UK operates, and the significant role played by 'not trained' leaders of Barka who turned out to be more efficient than 'well qualified' staff these organizations. This, she said, could be a fear of the workers of other organizations of loosing their jobs if this model became generally acknowledged.57 When it comes the activities in Kenya, so far they have been funded with £ 3,200 collected by the KCA during the Africa History Month for the response to the Horn of Africa Drought 2009-2011.58 The members of KCA could choose from different options to spend the money, one of them being donating them to the World Vision or the KRCS. However, they decided to spend the money on the project initiated by the Kanini Kaseo SHG as it shows more potential to create long term benefits to its recipients.59 The fact that the project in Kanini Kaseo was started with the funds that had already been collected shows the willingness of the organization to encourage participation for reasons different than just getting the funds. However, the funds raised by the KCA are not sufficient to keep the project going in the long term or to implement more complex programmes. This is why the organization applied for the funds to GPAF, appointed by DIFiD. Despite the fact that GPAF acknowledged the project for being participatory, the funds were not given to Barka UK due to little reference of the project to MDGs and the claim that the project did not seem achievable within 12 months period. 60 56 Sadowski, Tomasz. 'Wielkopolskie Centrum Ekonomii Solidarności'. Fundacja Pomocy Wzajemnej Barka, 2012 57 Sadowska, Ewa. 12/09/2012 58 Dhidha Mjidho, Baiba 1. Op. Cit. 59 Dhidha Mjidho, Baiba. 2/03/2013 60 DFID as Fund Menager for the Global Poverty Action Fund, 'Detailed Feedback on the Concept Note', 19 February 2013 29
  30. 30. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 This shows that the main focus of DIFiD has changed again. Participation does not play the crucial role anymore, so the argument of using it in order to get the funds in not as relevant as at the time when 'The New Tyranny' was written. If one wanted to follow the rhetoric of Cooke and Kothari, the arguments about legitimising the power relations and using the slogans as a way of marketing could shift from the concept of participation towards MDGs. During my interview with Tomasz Sadowski, I was asking him about the practices of gaining people's trust. Among many explanations, he said that often it takes years to build trust.61 The donor agenda, however, expects the goals of the project to be achieved within one year period. This is another point, questioning more the validity of DIFiD's methods than of participation itself. So far the Kanini Kaseo project has managed to give the power of decision making to SHG. The reasons for it include not only the belief of Barka and KCA in the efficiency of PD but also the fact that the funding for it came from the source controlled by KCA. It is difficult to predict in which direction this programme will evolve at the point when other institutions such as DIFiD or Commercial Companies get involved. However it only reinforces the point that the critique presented by 'The New Tyranny' should have been addressed more towards the development institutions than towards PD itself. In his articles, Mosse indicates two main reasons for participatory approaches to be chosen in project. First one was to meet the donor's requirements in order to get the funds. Second, for the marketing purposes serving KBCL. My point, however, is that any concept, no matter how noble, could be turned into a tool for achieving dubious means. Moreover, organizations discussed by Hailey together with Barka did implement meaningful ways of engaging with their recipients even though it was not a requirement imposed by any outside institution. Basing on the analysis of the case studies, it seems that if imposed, participation (and probably any other approach) is more likely to serve superficial role. On top of that, the anxiety shown by other organization not willing to employ 'not 61 Sadowski, Tomasz. 15/03/2013 30
  31. 31. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 qualified' workers shows that many NGOs themselves fear the meaningful participation as it might question the relevance of their work. This shows that saving participation and enforcing modes of implementation developed by Barka might significantly change development processes. Section VIII – Conclusions Should PD be saved? The answer to this question depends highly on how we understand the word participation and what we consider to be a successful project. The arguments presented in this research, however, show significant limitations of the discourse of 'The New Tyranny'. Firstly, authors and contributors to the book did not acknowledged the fact that participation might take different forms. By focusing solely on PRA, they rejected the whole concept of participation. By doing this, they remained within the discourse reinforced by Chambers. This is particularly evident when it comes to analysing power relations. Chambers', partially basing on Freire's work, assumed that participatory approaches would lead to the shift in existing power structures and self reliance of the project recipients. Again, by simply referencing to the assumptions of the creator of PRA, 'The New Tyranny' did not recognise other roles that participation might play and other benefits that it might bring. Another limitation of the Cooke and Kothari's work is that they blamed participation for legitimising the 'tyrannical' practices of development and commercial agencies without taking into consideration that other concepts (such as MDGs) can serve the same purpose. The sole critique of participation can lead to the shift of the trading idea, but not to change in the behaviour of the aforementioned agencies. Thus, 'The New Tyranny', despite all the appearances, has not meaningfully contributed to the discourse in a way that could lead to a shift in existing power relations. However, this does not mean that all of the points stated in the book were not relevant. Cooke and Kothari's description demonstrate significant problems related to the implementation of PD. It definitely shows that the use of 31
  32. 32. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 participatory approaches is not a panacea. However, conclusions drawn in 'The New Tyranny' are definitely too extreme in relation to what is presented through the case studies. It has been shown that PRAs are not what Chambers claimed them to be. They can be easily manipulated in order to serve different interests, they do not produce meaningful shifts in power relations and not necessarily they lead to the self reliance of the 'participants'. Nevertheless, Mosse's article showed that they might bring significant benefits to the recipients. The case studies presented by Hailey and the way that Barka works showed possible directions in which participatory approaches should head. Developing personal relations and having individual approach towards each of the recipients can definitely be a part of a successful development project. I agree with Hailey that formulaic approaches are not as meaningful in building understanding than creating friendship and trust, and the case of Barka is a good example of that. These factors are rarely studied as it is probably impossible, to measure and control levels of trust or friendship. This work, however, shows that more attention should be focused on the role of these values in development (and not only development) programmes. The case of Barka has not only shown that participation can be a very important part of a project. This organization has moved beyond the theory of participation at the time that this idea has not even fully entered mainstreams of development theories. The fact that the recipients of Barka bear very responsible roles, such as running the farms or mentoring the new recipients, indicates how meaningful forms PD might take and other organizations should probably take inspirations from these kind of practices. This could lead to significant changes in power relations. The Kanini Kaseo project has already brought significant changes in the lives of the villagers through the means of implementing PD. There is a great potential in this project to be revealed on condition that Barka and KCA manage to achieve balance between the influence of donors, other institutions and and the wishes of the villagers. On top of that, complexity of Barka's programmes presented in Section 32
  33. 33. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 IV shows that participation is not the only area in which the innovative thinking should be implemented in order for the organizations' work to succeed. I think other ideas developed by this organization are as worth analysing as their approach towards PD. But this could be a aubject of another research. 33
  34. 34. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 Bibliography Textbooks Carpentier, Nico. 'Media and Participation: A Side of Ideological-democratic Struggle'. Intellect Books, 2011 Dagron, Alfonso Gumucio; Tufte, Thomas. 'Communication for Social Change Anthology: Historical and Contemporary Readings.' CFSC Consortium, INC, 2006 Freire, Paulo. 'Pedagogy of the Opressed: 30th Anniversary Edition', Continuum International Publish Group, 2000 Hickey, Samuel; Mohan, Giles. 'Participation: From Tyranny to Transformation? Exploring New Approaches to Participation in Development '. Zed Books, 2004 Kelly, Michael. 'Critique and Power: Recasting the Foucault/Habermas Debate'. MIT Press, 1994 Mefalopulos, Paolo. Tufte, Thomas. 'Participatory Communication: A Practical Guide.' The World Bank, 2009 Richardson, Ann. 'Participation'. Routledge, 1983 Sadowska, Barbara. 'New Beginning. Social Market Economy.' Fundacja Pomocy Wzajemnej Barka, 2010 Sadowski, Tomasz. 'Rozwój. O tym jak integracja środowisk lokalnych oraz uspołecznienie gospodarki budują nową jakość.' Fundacja Pomocy Wzajemnej Barka, 2012 Sadowski, Tomasz. 'Wielkopolskie Centrum Ekonomii Solidarności'. Fundacja Pomocy Wzajemnej Barka, 2012 34
  35. 35. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 Articles in Textbooks Cooke, Bill; Kothari, Uma, 'The Case for Participation as Tyranny' in Cooke, Bill; Kothari, Uma. 'Participation: the New Tyranny?'. Zed Books, 2001 Hailey, John. 'Beyond the formulaic: Process and Practice in South Asian NGOs' in Cooke, Bill; Kothari, Uma. 'Participation: the New Tyranny?'. Zed Books, 2001 Kothari, Uma. 'Power, Knowledge and Social Control in Participatory Development' in Cooke, Bill; Kothari, Uma. 'Participation: the New Tyranny?'. Zed Books, 2001 Mosse, David 1. 'People's Knowledge, Participation and Patronage: Operations and Representations in Rural Development' in Cooke, Bill; Kothari, Uma. 'Participation: the New Tyranny?'. Zed Books, 2001 Mosse, David 2. 'The making and marketing of participatory development' in Quarles van Ufford, Philip; Kumar Giri, Ananta. 'A Moral Critique of Development: in Search of Global Responsibilities'. Routledge, 2003 Rahnema, Majid. 'Participation'. in Sachs, Wolfgang. The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power. Zed Books, 1992 Articles in Journals Chambers, Robert. 'The Origins and Practice of Participatory Rural Apprisal.' World Development, Vol. 22, No 7, 1994 Parker, Melissa. ‘Rethinking Female Circumcision’. Africa, 65(4), 1995 Williams, Glyn. 'Evaluating Participatory Development: Tyranny, Power and (Re)Politicisation'. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2004 Websites Barka UK, About http://www.barkauk.org/news/about/ INISE, Board of Trustees http://inise.org/?page_id=188 Twiga Chemicals – About http://www.twigachemicals.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2&Itemid=23 World Habitat Award, Building Partnerships to Eradicate Poverty http://www.worldhabitatawards.org/winners-and-finalists/project-details.cfm? lang=00&theProjectID=18AD7EF2-15C5-F4C0-993FDB14AEC692EF 35
  36. 36. Aleksandra Ciurlik BA African Studies and Development Studies 299890 Reports Barka Foundation, 'Projekt MSZ Fundacja Barka Kenia 1' Dhidha Mjidho, Baiba 1. 'Kanini Kaseo. Hope and Vision for Africa'. Kenya Community Association, 2012 Dhidha Mjidho, Baiba 2. 'Human Enterprise Triumph – Barka Foundation'. Kenya Community Association DFID as Fund Menager for the Global Poverty Action Fund, 'Detailed Feedback on the Concept Note', 19 February 2013 Kanini Kaseo Kyunyu Self Help Group. 'Statement on Thursday 9th February 2012' PowerPoint Presentation Kenya Community Association, 'Kanini Kaseo' Movie 'Oblicza Szczęścia' http://barka.org.pl/node/23 Personally Conducted Infotmal Interviews Dhidha Mjidho, Baiba. 2-3/03/2013 Informant 1. 12/09/2012 Sadowska, Ewa. 12/09/2012 Sadowski, Tomasz. 15/03/2013 36

×