OudOud is a pear-shaped stringed instrument commonly used in Middle Eastern music. The modernoud and the European lute both descend from a common ancestor via diverging evolutionary paths.The oud is readily distinguished by its lack of frets and smaller neck.The ancient Turkic peoples had a similar instrument called the kopuz. This instrument was thought tohave magical powers and was brought to wars and used in military bands. This is noted in theGöktürk monument inscriptions, the military band was later used by other Turkic states armies andlater by Europeans. According to musicologist Çinuçen Tanrıkorur todays oud was derived from thekopuz by Turks near Central Asia and additional strings were added by them. Others trace theoud to an early version of the Iranian barbat.Todays oud is totally different from the old prototypes and the Turkish oud is different from theArabic oud in playing style and shape. The Turkish oud is derived from modifying the Arabic oud:its development has been attributed to Manolis Venios, a well known Greek luthier who lived inConstantinople (Istanbul) in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In Greece andArmenia musicians use the Turkish ouds and tunings.KudumKudüm is one of the most fundamental rhythm instruments in classical Turkish music. The personplaying it is called kudümzen. It is among ney, rebap, and halile as one of the four maininstruments in Mevlevi music. It consists of a pair of small, hemispherical drums. Traditionally kudümwas played in religious ceremonies; in a secular context, like in mehter music, its slightly biggercousin nakkare is played.The drums are some 28-30 cm. in diameter and about 16 cm high, growing narrower toward thebottom like a half-sphere. They are made of beaten copper, and resemble two bowls, one largerthan the other. The difference in the thickness of the skin in the two bowls create a difference inpitch: the high-pitched drum (tek) is placed on the left, the other (düm) on the right. The tek, withits thinner skin, is slightly smaller than the düm. The tension in the skin can be adjusted to tunethe instrument according to the makam of the music being played. Camels skin is usually preferred,although sometimes cattle or llama is also used. The kudüm is played with two wooden sticks madeof soft wood known as zahme.