TURKISH MUSICAL COMPOSERS Dede EfendiHammamizade İsmail Dede Efendi (1778-1846) was a composer of Turkish classical music. He was born on 9January 1778, in Istanbul, Şehzadebaşı. He started studying music with Mehmed Emin Efendi, at the age ofeight. He attended rituals at Yenikapı Mevlevihanesi, a place of Mevlevi gathering. He studied with Ali NutkiDede and learned to play ney, in Yenikapı Mevlevihanesi. He became "Dede" in 1799. Dede Efendis music waswell appreciated by Sultan Selim III and then he performed his works at the palace. He had composed hundredsof songs and mevlevi rituals. In 1846 he pilgrimaged to Mecca, but in Mina contracted cholera and died. Hisgrave is now in Mecca.Dede Efendi gave lessons in Turkish music to Hamparsum Limonciyan who developed the Hamparsum notation,the dominant notation for Turkish music.One of the greatest Turkish composers, he has created masterpieces in all forms and modes of Turkish music.He has also developed the composite musical modes of "sultanî yegâh", "nev-eser", "saba-buselik", "hicaz-buselik" and "araban kürdî". His greatest works are the seven Mevlevi pieces for Samah. More than two hundredof his compositions are available today. Haci Arif Bey(1831-1885) was a Turkish composer from Istanbul, most known for his compositions in the şarkı form, the mostcommon secular form in Turkish classical music. He was a very prolific composer, who on some days, composedmore than 6-7 songs.He was born in the Eyüp district of Istanbul. He was taught by the famous Dede Efendi. After SultanAbdülmecid I became aware of his beautiful voice, he was admitted to the Muzika-yi Humayun, which was theImperial Military Music School in the Ottoman Empire. Due to his closeness to the Sultan, he was responsible forteaching music to the women in the harem. He fell in love with one of the concubines, Çeşm-i Dilber, and hadtwo children with her. He composed several songs after she left him for a merchant. His next wife from theharem also met with a tragic death from tuberculosis, also a cause for several songs by Arif Bey. He waselected the head singer in the palace, and married a third time with Nigârnik Hanım, and stayed with her untilhis death.Toward the end of his life, Haci Arif Bey had a fall out with the emperor Abdul Hamid II at the time, and wasjailed for about 50 days. While there, he composed several songs, which were later appreciated by AbdulHamid II, and he was forgiven. He taught at the Imperial Music School for the rest of his life.