Posters Evidence-Based Management, AOM Philadelphia 2014

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Evidence-Based Management
Reports on Innovations in Practice, Consulting and Teaching
Presentation Posters
AOM Philadelphia 2014

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Posters Evidence-Based Management, AOM Philadelphia 2014

  1. 1. Faculty reactions (and resistance) to the teaching of Evidence Based Management Neil D. Walshe – School of Management, University of San Francisco & Rob B. Briner – School of Management, University of Bath Overview This poster examines faculty reactions and resistance to the inclusion of a dedicated graduate class on Evidence-Based Management (EBMgt) at a US School of Management. The aim of this poster is to outline the origins and consequences of such a resistance in order to better understand why EBMgt is perceived in a negative light by many management faculty. It is hoped that by fostering a better understating of the barriers towards adoption of an EBMgt curriculum, proponents of evidence-based practice can better facilitate its inclusion in management curricula. Class Content and Structure Origins of Faculty Reactions and Resistance EBMgt students contacted their future professors asking what evidence base they would be drawing upon in their forthcoming class and to what extent support and source materials would be provided. EBMgt students also contacted past professors asking them for clarification, confirmation and provision of evidence from past classes which supported the conclusions drawn. The EBMgt instructors were contacted by faculty who expressed concern at the volume of inquiries relating to the “evidence” behind their specific classes was being questioned Conclusions Students of EBMgt appear to be empowered to question professors, current and past, about their views and commitment to evidence in the classroom. Educators, be they supporters of evidence-based practice or not, are gatekeepers to academic curricula. Their influence should not be discounted. There appears to be the potential for faculty to be fearful of both “evidence” and “evidence based management”. The principle basis for these fears appear to stem from a belief that EBMgt: • Is a threat to the idea of academic freedom • Is purely academic issue that has little or no relevance to students involved in the practice of management • is the enemy of innovation, creativity and the process of intellectual interpretation (for students). • Is difficult to do, time consuming and outside of the traditional academic role. Implications The field of Evidence-Based Management may need to pay greater attention towards the specific education of faculty in management schools. Efforts may need to be directed towards informing educators on: (a) The specific motivations and goals of Evidence-Based Management (b) The potential benefits (and limitations!) of an evidence-based practice within the field of management education. (c) The extent to which evidence-based practice is present not just in other fields of practice but in other academic disciplines (e.g. it is not “new”) •Faculty reactions (and resistance) to teaching EBMgt Faculty Survey Rationale for Resistance Faculty resistence to the inclusion of EBMgt in the curriculum were driven by the following perceptions: • “EBMgt is an academic construct which has no relevance or practicality to graduate student populations (MBA/ExecMBA)” • “That faculty already do use “evidence” in the way of “research” • “EBMgt is a fad and has little evidence behind it” • “That EBMgt / EBP is too new a concept to include in curriculum” • “That the inference of EBMgt is that everything else is not evidence based” • “It is too difficult to produce sources for eveything we teach” • “EBMgt is limiting the scope for me as an instructor to apply my experience to theory and research” • “Management is art, not science. Evidence is about black and white, true and false. That's not how management education operates. You can't teach that” • “EBMgt ignores instructor experience and intuition in the classroom. It leaves the professor outside the door. People want a classroom to be a place where experiences are shared, not just facts” • “Cal, Stanford or LSE aren't doing it so why should we?” The 2 unit elective class (24 contact hours) taught the principles of evidence-based practice and introduced students to the construct of evidence-based management. Spread across 6 consecutive weeks, the class asked students to engage in a systematic review process and produce a critically appraised topic (CAT) on a topic of their choice. Since the class was taken principally by second year students, many explored topics which they had already covered in previous classes or which had specific relevance to their existing or anticipated occupational sphere. Faculty were surveyed anonymously (13 responded) around their concerns and with the inclusion of EBMgt and the subsequent student demands. Open ended questions included: To what extent are you aware of EBMgt? Do you think EBMgt should be part of the Management curriculum? Why? What benefits or concerns do you have with the inclusion of EBMgt in the Management curriculum?
  2. 2. Do They Have What It Takes? The competencies of Flemish HR Professionals for Evidence-Based Practice. !"#$%&'()*(+#,#-%&%,./(0123#$%3412#/(5,$(!6-67.(589:(!(;#<%,(=2<>?/(@1%,.(A,2B%<72.'(!(CD$<2"(E%3-1%/(@1%,.(A,2B%<72.'(!(F<%$%<2>(!,7%%3/(@1%,.(A,2B%<72.'(( Z,.<)$6"I),( ( "! G1%<%(27(#(<%H%?2B%("#33(#&),-(#"#$%&2"7(#,$(4<#"II),%<7(.1#.( <%J6%7.7(KL(4<)*%772),#37(.)($%B%3)4(")&4%.%,"2%7(*)<(6I32M2,-( 7"2%,IN"(>,)O3%$-%(2,(.1%2<(4<#"I"%(2,()<$%<(.)("3)7%(.1%( <%7%#<"1P4<#"I"%(-#4Q(( "! AI32M#I),()*(.1%(R%7.(#B#23#R3%(7"2%,IN"(%B2$%,"%/(),%()*(.1%(*)6<( >%'(#"IB2I%7()*(#,(%B2$%,"%PR#7%$(4<#"II),%</(<%J62<%7(.1%( 7'7.%&#I"(#,$(S6$2"2)67(2$%,IN"#I),/(%B#36#I),/(2,.%<4<%.#I),( #,$(#4432"#I),()*(<%3%B#,.(<%7%#<"1(*)<(.1%(J6%7I),(#.(2776%Q(( "! G)($#.%/(O%($)(,).(1#B%(B#32$(>,)O3%$-%(#R)6.(.1%($%-<%%(.)( O12"1(KL(4<)*%772),#37(4)77%77(.1%(,%"%77#<'(>,)O3%$-%(#,$( 7>2337(.)("),763.(7"2%,IN"(%B2$%,"%Q(G).(N33(.127(-#4/(O%(1#B%( "),$6".%$(#(76<B%'(#&),-(TU(F3%&271(VWXY(KL(4<)*%772),#37Q(( L%7%#<"1(`6%7I),7( ( 9Q! =)(VF3%&271Y(KL(4<)*%772),#37(4)77%77(.1%(,%"%77#<'( ")&4%.%,"2%7(*)<(<%7%#<"1(6I32M#I),(2,(4<#"I"%[( 5Q! !<%(.1%7%(")&4%.%,"2%7(*)<(<%7%#<"1(6I32M#I),(4<%$2".%$(R'(),%7( V9Y(%$6"#I),(3%B%3/(V5Y(.%,6<%(2,(.1%(KL(N%3$/(V]Y(4%<"%2B%$(I&%( 4<%776<%/(V:Y(.%#&("32&#.%/(V^Y("<2I"#3()42,2),(71#<2,-/(V_Y(,%%$(*)<( "3)76<%/(#,$(VTY(,%%$(*)<(")-,2I),[(( f#&43%(#,$(4<)"%$6<%( ( "! G1%(),32,%(J6%7I),,#2<%(O#7(7%,.(.)(#("),B%,2%,"%(7#&43%()*(KL( 4<)*%772),#37/(#44<)#"1%$(B2#(B#<2)67(7)"2#3(#,$(KLP<%3#.%$(&%$2#/( %Q-Q(a2,>%$Z,/(KL(+#-#M2,%Q(TU(KL(4<)*%772),#37(4#<I"24#.%$(2,()6<( 7.6$'(VL%74),7%(<#.%(")63$(,).(R%("#3"63#.%$YQ(U5b(O%<%(*%&#3%Q( G1%(#B%<#-%(#-%(O#7(]T(#,$(_^b(1#$(#(&#7.%<7($%-<%%Q(( "! G)(&%#76<%()6<("<2.%<2),(O%(67%$(#((=6."1(B%<72),()*(.1%(!$#4.%$( F<%7,)(G%7.(V+"(C367>%'(c(W271)4/(588dY/(O12"1(O#7(#$#4.%$(.)( .1%(&#,#-%&%,.P"),.%?.(R'(.1%(C%,.%<(*)<(XB2$%,"%PR#7%$( +#,#-%&%,.Q(G1%(F<%7,)(G%7.(#77%77%7(*)6<(7.%47()*(.1%(<%7%#<"1( 6I32M#I),(4<)"%7e(V9Y(!7>2,-/(V5Y(!"J62<2,-/(V]Y(!,#3'72,-(#,$(V:Y( !443'2,-Q((( L%763.7( ( !"!#$%&'(%)'*%&+,-)%&-.&/$%&01'2/%1&3)%+.-&#%+/4&5%'+6)7.*&,-52%/%.,7%+& 8-)&)%+%'),$&69:7;'9-.&7.&'&5'.'*%5%./&,-./%</4&='+&>?4>!&-6/&-8&!@A& BCD&E&F?4?AG"&H.:I&/$)%%&)%+2-.1%./+&+,-)%1&JA&-)&5-)%&-6/&-8&!@A"&K& )%+2-.1%./+&+,-)%1&A"&& & 5Q! g,3'(%$6"#I),(3%B%3(hi(j(Q:5k(.V_TY(j(]Q_9k(4(j(Q889l(#,$(,%%$(*)<("3)76<%( hi(j(PQ]^k(.V_TY(j(P]Q5]k(4(mQ89l(O%<%(72-,2N"#,.(4<%$2".)<7()*(")&4%.%,"2%7( *)<(<%7%#<"1(6I32M#I),(V7")<%7(),(.1%(!$#4.%$(F<%7,)(G%7.YQ(!33(B#<2#R3%7( 2,"36$%$(2,(.127(7.6$'(%?43#2,%$(.)-%.1%<(]db(VF(j(:Q5U/(4(j(m/889Y()*(.1%( B#<2#,"%(2,(")&4%.%,"2%7(*)<(<%7%#<"1(6I32M#I),Q(( =27"6772),( ( 9Q! F3%&271(KL(4<)*%772),#37($)(,).(7%%&(.)(1#B%(.1%(,%"%77#<'(>,)O3%$-%( #,$(7>2337(*)<(<%7%#<"1(6I32M#I),(O2.12,(%B2$%,"%PR#7%$(4<#"I"%Q(f)&%( <%74),$%,.7(,).%$(.1#.(.1%(.%7.(O#7(.))($2n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o( ")6<7%/(R6.(71)63$(R%(2,.%-<#.%$(.1<)6-1)6.(.1%("6<<2"636&Q((( !"#$%&'%()%*+&',--.&/01-%./%&2+% -3245%'0.1,4%&/%0%3,-3%67.87% 0--,--,-%8&9*,3,/8.,-%'&+% +,-,0+87%2:1.;0:&/%6.37./%% ,<.4,/8,=>0-,4%*+08:8,”
  3. 3. Do They Have What It Takes? The Competencies of Dutch Bachelor Students for Evidence-Based Practice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`"2%,.3'(#,$(%a%"J@%3'(*)<(6"2%,JL"(%@2$%,"%( "! .1%(#C232.'(.)(2,.%<4<%.(#,$("<2J"#33'(#44<#26%(#(47C3261%$(6.7$'( b,)I3%$-%(.%6.%$(C'(.1%(!]H(2,"37$%6( •! #,(7,$%<6.#,$2,-()*(.1%(12%<#<"1'()*(%@2$%,"%(#,$(4).%,J#3( &%.1)$)3)-2"#3(C2#6%6(2,(6.7$'($%62-,6( •! M,)I3%$-%()*(<%6%#<"1($#.#C#6%6(#,$().1%<(6)7<"%6()*(2,*)<&#J),(.)( 76%(I1%,(6%#<"12,-( •! M%'I)<$6(#,$(32&2.6(.)(76%(I1%,(6%#<"12,-( •! 7,$%<6.#,$2,-()*(#44<)4<2#.%,%66()*(6.7$'($%62-,6( E#&43%(^(4<)"%$7<%( ( "! !,(),32,%(R7%6J),,#2<%(I#6(6%,.(.)(#("),@%,2%,"%(6#&43%()*(5/8c9( 6.7$%,.6(*<)&(62F(G7."1(?,2@%<62J%6(#,$(=762,%66(E"1))36( "! H1%(<%64),6%(<#.%(I#6(8Wd(S%+e(YZZXN( V%673.6( ( "! +)6.(6.7$%,.6(#<%(&)<%()<(3%66(*#&232#<(I2.1(.1%(.%<&(%@2$%,"%U C#6%$(&#,#-%&%,.(SZ8dXN( "! +)6.(6.7$%,.6(1#@%(#(4)62J@%(#f.7$%(.)I#<$6(;=+-.(Sg9dX/(),3'(#( 6&#33(&2,)<2.'(1#6(#(,%-#J@%(#f.7$%(SYdXN(( "! +)6.(6.7$%,.6(SghdX(#<%(,).(*#&232#<(I2.1(S#,$(.176($),i.(76%X(),32,%( <%6%#<"1($#.#C#6%6N( "! 1%,(#6M%$(I12"1("1#<#".%<26J"6()*(#(6.7$'(.1%'(I)73$("),62$%<(.)( $%.%<&2,%(2.6(2,.%<,#3(@#32$2.'/(hYd(I#6(,).(#C3%(.)(4<)@2$%(#,'( #,6I%</(:5d(4<)@2$%$(#,(2,")<<%".()<(2,67`"2%,.(#,6I%</(#,$(),3'( Zd(4<)@2$%$(#(S&)<%()<(3%66X(")<<%".(#,6I%<N( "! 1%,(#6M%$(I12"1(<%6%#<"1($%62-,(I)73$(C%(.1%(&)6.(#44<)4<2#.%(.)( #66%66(.1%(%F26.%,"%()<(6.<%,-.1()*(#("#76%U#,$U%a%".(<%3#J),6124/( ),3'(5Wd(I#6(#C3%(.)(4<)@2$%$(.1%(")<<%".(#,6I%<N( "! 1%,(#6M%$(#C)7.(.1%(#44<)4<2#.%,%66()*(#(<%6%#<"1($%62-,(-2@%,(#( 64%"2L"(<%6%#<"1(R7%6J),/(),3'(59(6.7$%,.6(SYdX(I%<%(#C3%(.)( 4<)@2$%(.1%(")<<%".(#,6I%<(.)(#33(:(R7%6J),6N( +)6.(6.7$%,.6(#<%(,).(*#&232#<(I2.1(S#,$( .176($),i.(76%X(),32,%(<%6%#<"1($#.#C#6%6N( ( + ;)<#=#)-++ >13+ ?%@)<#=#)-+ :13+ E.7$%,.6(#<%(7,#C3%(.)($%.%<&2,%(.1%( 2,.%<,#3(@#32$2.'()*(#(6.7$'( /0+#$!)+ 123+ 83+ 4%&0--!&5+ 673+ +)6.(6.7$%,.6($),i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
  4. 4. Attitudes and Barriers To Evidence-Based Management: An International Survey ( !"#$%&'()*(+#,#-%&%,./(0123#$%3412#/(56.(!7-76.(895:(!(;<2"(=#<%,$6/(!&6.%<$#&(><%%(?,2@%<62.'(!(A)61(B233#,7%@#/(C3#<%&),.(D<#$7#.%(?,2@%<62.'(!(E)F(=<2,%</(=#.1(?,2@%<62.'(G"1))3()*(+#,#-%&%,.(!(G.%@%,(.%,(H#@%/(!&6.%<$#&(><%%(?,2@%<62.'(( I,.<)$7"J),( "! A substantial body of research indicates that attitudes and perceptions guide future behavior. "! In addition, strong positive associations between attitudes, perceived barriers, and the uptake of evidence-based practice (EBP) was consistently found in a large number of studies. "! In fields where EBP is well established, there are systematic reviews available on practitioners’ attitudes and perceived personal and organizational barriers to the use of research findings. "! In our field, such studies are not available. To fill this gap, we have conducted a survey among more than 1,500 managers in Belgium, the Netherlands, and the US. E%6%#<"1(K7%6J),6( 1. What evidence sources do managers consult in their daily practice? 2.! What are managers’ attitudes towards the relevance and applicability of research findings? 3.! What do managers perceive to be barriers to the use of research findings? 4.! What are managers’ attitudes towards evidence-based management (EBMgt)? 5.! Are managers’ attitudes towards EBMgt associated with age, level of education, level of experience, attention given to scientific research in their formal education, or experience with conducting scientific research? K7%6J),,#2<%(L%@%3)4&%,.( "! We used the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (Funk et al, 1991) and the McColl Questionnaire (McColl et al, 1998) as a basis for our own questionnaire. Additional questions were adapted from Rynes et al (2002). "! A set of demographic questions was included to gather information on job characteristics, educational background, and work experience. "! A pilot study, intended to examine face validity and to enable refinement of questions as necessary, was undertaken with a convenience sample of 74 Dutch interim managers. As a result, several questions were reworded for greater clarity. G#&43%(#,$(0<)"%$7<%( "! The questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 30,000 US managers and a convenience sample of 2,972 Belgian and Dutch ones. "! The response rate for the American sample was 3% (n = 924). The over-all response rate for the Dutch-Belgian sample was 30% (n = 875). Managers/consultants who have had a previous career in academia were excluded. This resulted in a final sample size of 1,566.( +)6.(&#,#-%<6(#<%(2,.%<%6.%$(2,( 6"2%,JM"(<%6%#<"1( !"#$$% ()*.!"#% ,0'% ()*+"#$$% &/'% ,0'% +)6.(&#,#-%<6(*%%3(.1#.(<%6%#<"1( M,$2,-6(#<%()*(4<#"J"#3(<%3%@#,"%( !"#$$% ()*.!"#% ,&'% ()*+"#$$% &&'% ,-'% +)6.(&#,#-%<6(*%%3(.1#.(F'(762,-(;=0( .1%'("#,(2&4<)@%(.1%2<(N)<O( !"#$$% 1/'% /'% ()*.!"#% ,,'% E%673.6( 1.! Most managers were interested in research findings (54%) and felt that the topics investigated were of practical relevance (55%). 2.! The most important barriers to the use of scientific evidence were lack of time (60%), lack of understanding of scientific research (56%), and the unreadability of academic writing (42%). 3.! Most managers had positive attitudes towards EBMgt (66%). A large majority (75%) felt that using EBMgt could improve the quality of their work. In addition, 63% agreed that in formal education more attention should be paid to EBMgt. 4.! We did not find significant or relevant correlations between either age, level of education, level of experience, attention given to scientific research in their formal education, or experience with conducting scientific research. I&432"#J),6( 1.! EBMgt is welcomed by managers. This positive attitude can be used as leverage to improve the uptake of EBMgt. 2.! Lack of time is perceived as the greatest barrier to EBMgt. This implies that the role of senior management in terms of promoting an organizational culture that inspires and facilitates practitioners to dedicate time to consult scientific research is essential. 3.! Lack of understanding and the unreadability of scientific research are barriers that lie at the educational level. This stresses the importance of teaching management students how to read and critically appraise research findings. 4.! However, both lack of time and lack of understanding are barriers that should be addressed not only at the users’ level, but, first and foremost, at the suppliers’ level: producing pre-appraised evidence in the form of systematic reviews, rapid evidence assessments, or other types of evidence summaries written in clear, accessible English. P)4(Q(F#<<2%<6(.)(;=+-.(#6(4%<"%2@%$( F'(&#,#-%<6(( R#"O()*(J&%( R#"O()*(7,$%<6.#,$2,-( )*(6"2%,JM"(<%6%#<"1( ?,<%#$#F232.'()*( #"#$%&2"(N<2J,-( ( /,'% 2-'% &2'%
  5. 5. Critically Appraised Topic (CAT) on the effectiveness of leadership training Academy of Management, Philadelphia, Cedric Velghe (Gent University) Barbara Janssen (Amsterdam Free University) 1. Background A Dutch academic hospital is reviewing its current training provision by exploring whether and how to provide leadership training for their managers and physician executives at all managerial levels. The hospital approached the Center for Evidence Based Management (CEBMa) to undertake a review of the best available evidence about how leadership can be trained to support their decision-making and commissioned this Critically Apprised Topic (CAT). 2. Ask: what will the review answer? Question “To what extent will leadership training improve the effectiveness of the leaders (e.g. managers, head nurses, physician executives) of the academic hospital? In addition, what are the characteristics of effective leadership training programs? PICOC Population: Health care managers, physicians, nurses Intervention: Leadership training program Comparision: No training Outcome: Training effectiveness, leadership performance, leadership effectiveness Context: Health care sector, university hospital, Dutch 4. Acquire: search strategy (II) Search filters 1.! Scholarly journals, peer-reviewed 2.! Published in the period 1995 to 2013 3.! Articles in English A search was conducted using combinations of different search terms, such as ‘leadership’, ‘training’, ‘course’ and ‘hospital’. We conducted 51 different search queries and screened the titles and abstracts of 713 studies. 5. Appraise: judgement quality evidence Proces 1.! Extract and interpred information from each studie relevant for the review question, •! E.g. sample size, population, research design, intervention, outcomes, measures and findings. 2.!Assessment and categorizing of the research design of each study (according to Campbell’s and Petticrew’s classification system. Levels of evidence used Level A randomized controlled studies with a pretest Level B non-randomized controlled studies with a pretest Level C controlled studies without a pretest or uncontrolled studies with a pretest Level D uncontrolled studies without pretest, qualitative studies Level X expert opinion, non-systematical review of the literature 0"1234561" 7. Limitations Due to time constraints we made concessions to the breadth and depth of the search process, such as the exclusion of unpublished research and a focus on meta-analyses and systematic reviews. As a consequence, some relevant studies may have been missed. 6. Results: A total of 25 studies were included. 12 studies qualified as Level A or B studies, the remaining 15 had a low level of evidence, in other words research with a moderate to weak internal validity. 8. Results and recommendations 1.! Leadership training programs (LTP) have small to moderate positive effects on leadership and managerial performance 2.! LTPs are modestly effective to support nurses and physicians in leadership positions 3.! There is limited evidence on the economic ROI of LTPs. In some studies the financial ROI was negative. As such we recommend to limit the expenses incurred in providing LTPs. 4.! LTPs designed on the basis of an analysis of tasks and skill requirements and skills gaps are more effective than generic untailored LTPs. 5.! Skills that seem to transfer best to leader behavior seem to be general management skills and interpersonal skills 6.! LTPs should be of reasonable length (at least 3 days or longer) and repeated periodically, to be effective 7.! LTPs should clearly include opportunities for practice, linked to real world situations in health care )" (" '" &" %" $" #" !" *" *+," ," -" ." /" 3. Acquire: search strategy (I) Databases used 1.! ABI/INFORM Global (ProQuest) 2.! Business Source Premier (EBSCO) 3.! PsycINFO (Ovid)
  6. 6. Learning and leadership: Uncovering the role of evidence-based management practice Academy of Management, Philadelphia, 1st August 2014 Denise M Jepsen, Macquarie University, Sydney, and Denise M Rousseau, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh (D2) Aim To examine employee attitudes towards their supervisors’ use of EBMgt. To develop an EBMgt measure and assess discrimination, predictive validity with relevant employee outcomes. To establish the role of EBMgt in workplace relationships. Literature review •! EB practice has been on the agenda a long time (Sachett et al., 1991). •! Aim is for practitioners to develop expertise and decision-making based on available scientific evidence (Erez & Grant, 2014) •! Yet, little progress has been made (Rousseau, 2006). What do we know about behaviour change? Feedback matters (Kahneman & Klein 2009). So, feedback on ee perception of mgr EBMgt may encourage mgrs to practice EBMgt. •! Ironically, EBMgt literature is replete with examples of ees as target of decisions (e.g., motivation, rewards, goal setting, recruitment & selection) •! Work long seen as a learning place (Nikolova, Van Ruysseveldt, De Witte, Syroit 2014) Hypotheses! that EBMgt will: H1: !"ee workplace learning H2: !"ee perception of mgr H3: #"anxiety H4: !"perf quality. Method Online survey generating 30% response rate and 274 useable responses from employees in 14 Australian residential aged care facilities. 63% female, 30% full time, 53% part time, 70% day/mixed shift, ave age 48, tenure 7 yrs. Measures •! Leader-member exchange (LMX): 7 items (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) •! Trust in supervisor (TrustSV): 5 (4) items (Podsakoff et al., 1990) •! Work-based learning (WBL): 12 items, 3 each on reflection, experimentation, colleagues, supervisor scales (Nikolova et al., 2014) •! Burnout: 10 (3) items, compassion burnout (Stamm, 2010) •! Psychological distress: 10 (5) items (K10, Kessler et al., 2002) •! Evidence-based management: 9 (8) original items see below. Descriptive stats, correlations, reliabilities Descriptive statistics, correlations and Cronbach alpha reliabilities in brackets on the diagonal. * p < .05, ** p < .001 (two tailed) Mean! S.D. N 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! 7! 8! 9! 10! 11! 12! 1. Age! 48.01 11.00 228 ! 2. Tenure org! 6.80 5.70 233 .40**! ! 3. Evidence-based Mgt! 3.66 0.87 274 -.08! .00! (.964)! ! 4. LMX! 3.64 0.99 274 -.05! .00! .77**! (.934)! ! 5. Trust in SV! 4.03 0.89 274 -.08! -.07! .70**! .81** (.906) ! 6. WBL Reflection! 3.77 0.95 274 -.09! -.05! .46**! .41**! .47**! (.885)! ! 7. WBL Experiment! 3.21 1.01 277 -.08! -.09! .39**! .35**! .41**! .72**! (.811)! ! 8. WBL Colleagues! 3.82 .90 272 .05! -.03! .09! -.01! -.04! -.02! -.01! (.737)! ! ! ! ! 9. WBL Supervisor! 3.75 1.08 274 -.02! -.09! .61**! .63**! .62**! .46**! .41**! .07! (.726)! ! 10. Burnout! 2.54 1.01 274 .05! -.04! -.40**! -.40**! -.41**! -.29**! -.25**! -.05! -.36**! (.876)! ! 11. K10 Psych distress! 1.37 0.60 274 .04! .10! -.27**! -.16**! -.18**! -.12*! -.09! -.04! -.20**! .15*! (.857)! ! 12. Fac recommend’n! 3.94 1.04 274 .03! -.00! .66**! .65**! .61**! .39**! .35**! .02! .52**! -.39**! -.21**! (.907)! ample Text Column 1 Conclusions •! EBMgt can be recognised, assessed & measured by employees •! Measureable effect of EBMgt on employees, not just institutional and organizational stakeholders and outcomes •! EBMmers now have tool for immediate feedback •! EBMgt effect on ee psychological variables is a potentially provocative result. •! What if managers did nothing after seeing these results!??? •! What if EBMgt really could improve workplace psychology? •! Multiple important outcomes suggest further research is needed. •! We recommend (and are undertaking) further research to differentiate the use, sharing and perhaps other dimensions of evidence based practice. Analyses and results 1: EBMgt scale factor loadings 2: EBMgt one or two factors One factor: Chi-square:189.785, Df: 20, CMIN/DF: 9.489, GFI: .834, AGFI: .,702 IFI: . 934, TLI: .907, CFI: .933, RMR: .031, RMSEA: .176, SRMR: .038 Two factor: Chi-square: 87.584, Df: 19, CMIN/DF: 4.610, GFI: .926, AGFI: .860, IFI: . 973, TLI: .960, CFI: .973, RMR: .020, RMSEA: .115, SRMR: .031 As the CFA fit statistics were not improved by breaking the scale into two factors, the more parsimonious one-factor model was retained. 3: Discriminant validity CFA fit statistics Chi-square: 1347.521, Df: 657, CMIN/DF: 2.051, GFI: .798, AGFI: .760, IFI: .927, TLI: . 917, CFI: .926, RMR: .047, RMSEA: .062 4: Path model fit statistics Chi-square: 25.803, Df: 20, CMIN/DF: 1.290, GFI: .980, AGFI: .954, IFI: .995, TLI: .992, CFI: .995, RMR: .035, RMSEA: .033, SRMR: .035 Findings H1: EBMgt is distinct from but enhances work-based learning, especially from supervisor (.76) H2: EBMgt increases LMX (.41) and trust in supervisor (.48). These are large and important findings to enhance workplace relationships H3: EBMgt has significant effects on ee perception of burnout (-.27 direct, -.20 indirect, total -.47) and psychological distress (-.19 direct) H4: EBMgt has significant direct (.41) and indirect (.36) effect (total .77) on ee perception of quality performance of the org. H1 to H4 supported, plus non-hypothesised direct effects. Limitations Cross sectional design, one time self-report measures, potential missing variables to otherwise explain relationships, single level analyses. Contact us please to use latest version of EBM scale in your research: denise.jepsen@mq.edu.au or denise@cmu.edu $%&'(")*"'+,+-&./0"+,1"023&.4506./0("" 76+15,-" 1. Make decisions about workplace issues based on evidence" 0.809" 2. Tend to use evidence when implementing a new way of doing things" 0.877" 3. Tell me about the evidence for implementing a new way of doing things" 0.907" 4. Ask me for feedback or my opinion after implementing a new way of doing things" 0.900" 5. Involve me in research on workplace issues" 0.834" 6. Give me/us the information on the success (or otherwise) of a trial or a new way of working" 0.909" 7. Like to evaluate the success of a new way of working" 0.915" 8. Share their experiences of workplace trials, changes, and new implementations with other supervisors and managers" 0.877" Path model results
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  8. 8. What Librarians Bring to the Evidence-Based Management Table Roye Werner, Business Librarian, Carnegie Mellon University, rwerner@andrew.cmu.edu !"#$%&'()$'"*+,"-%".''!"#$%#&'# "()"*'+,#-.$#'"-/0#&'#'%#%'0"*1# •! !"#"$"%&'#(")*)*+' •! ,&"(-.'%#("#&+)&%' •! /0"12"3*+'(&%21#%' •! 4)#&("#2(&'(&0)&5%' /$""'0&"'"*+,"-%".''!"#)*%2%'"# 3)".#4//"11#1%#"5"*,%."#/-.# *"-$#&'# 6'(&%&"(-.'#."#')%'7)+)#"18' 9*1)*&8':(&&'9:'-."(+&8'"*7' :(&&'9:';9%#'-9<=()+.#'"*7' 1)-&*%)*+'(&%#()-39*%' 123'0&"'"*+,"-%".'!"#1"+"/'## -.$#)6*/0-1"#$-'-7-1"18#9%6*.-+# 1671/*&):%.1#-.$#2-.-;"2".'# 7%%<1## •! >2)17'1)$("(='-911&-39*%' •! ?2$1)%.'(&0)&5%'9:'$99@%'"*7'7"#"$"%&%' •! ?"(3-)<"#&')*'$2=)*+'-9*%9(3"' 4$)*+,"'5#0&6#37'0)'0&"'"*+,"-%".' !"#!%*<#!&'0#=-/6+',#'%#/*"-'"#-.$# $"2%.1'*-'"#%.+&."#'%%+1#=%*# >?@;'#/+-11"1# 8+70$+920"'0&"'"*+,"-%".'')67+&/### +&7*-*&-.1#;6&$"#)*-/::%."*1#1""<&.;# 2-.-;"2".'#-$5&/"# •! ,<9*%9('<(9+(";%'A'1&-#2(&%' •! B&-9;;&*7'"*7'7)%<1"='$99@%' •! ?(90)7&':(&&'7"#"$"%&%' •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•! @%5"1#7",%.$#/&'-:%.#/%6.:.;# •! @"-16*"1#&2)-/'#'0*%6;0#1/0%+-*+,#-.$# )*%="11&%.-+#1%/&-+#."'!%*<1# •! 4+'"*1#'0"#'".6*"#+-.$1/-)"# #
  9. 9. What Other Professions Can Learn from EBLIP: How the Experiences in Evidence Based Library and Information Practice (EBLIP) Might Have Broad Applicability JONATHAN'ELDREDGE,'MLS,'PHD' THE'UNIVERSITY'OF'NEW'MEXICO,'ALBUQUERQUE,'NM OBJECTIVE To identify potential areas of common interest for collaboration between professions. DEFINITION EBLIP provides a sequential, structured process for integrating the best available evidence into making important decisions. A pragmatic perspective developed from working in the field, critical thinking, knowledge of user populations, and an awareness of different research designs informs this decision making process. BACKGROUND The EBLIP concept emerged during 1997 and by 2001 participants from several nations met in Europe for the first biannual international EBLIP conference. The peer-reviewed open access journal Evidence Based Library and Information Practice; EBLIP began publication in 2005. APPLICATIONS EBLIP facilitates decision making in: • Personnel • Budgeting • Change processes • Technological adaptations • Training methods • Resources inventories LEVELS OF EVIDENCE EBLIP has long-recognized three basic types of questions: Prediction, Intervention, and Exploration. The Levels of Evidence align these types of questions with the best available evidence. Notes on Exploration Category: • Comparison studies involve two or more qualitative studies. • Qualitative studies include but are not limited to focus groups, participant observer, naturalistic studies, and content analyses. • Richard J. Light and David B. Pillemers book Summing Up (1984) informs this level. RESOURCES Four peer reviewed journals tend to publish the evidence based on applied research for health sciences library and information practitioners: • Evidence Based Library and Information Practice • Health Information and Libraries Journal • Hypothesis • Journal of the Medical Library Association; JMLA FUTURE DIRECTIONS • The Medical Library Association has defined its research agenda using the Delphi method and has encouraged implementation of 15 systematic reviews to provide the needed evidence. • The upcoming 9th International Evidence Based Library and Information Practice (EBLIP9) Conference in Brisbane, Australia promises rich networking and reports of the latest applied research. KEY REFERENCES The accompanying handout lists key references. CONTACT INFORMATION Jonathan Eldredge: • jeldredge@salud.unm.edu. • 505-272-0654 Predic@on' Interven@on' Explora@on' Systema(c*Review* Systema(c*Review* Systema(c*Review* Meta0Analysis* Meta0Analysis* Summing*Up* Prospec(ve*Cohort* Randomized* Controlled*Trial* Compara(ve*Study* Retrospec(ve*Cohort* Prospec(ve*Cohort* * Qualita(ve*Studies* Descrip(ve*Survey* Retrospec(ve* Cohort* Descrip(ve*Survey* Case*Study* Descrip(ve*Survey* Case*Study* Expert*Opinion* Case*Study* Expert*Opinion* Expert*Opinion*
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  12. 12. MILESTONES 2005 Presidential address to the AOM 2005 (D.M. Rousseau) 2007 Read the presidential address (Post Graduate School) 2009 National standard - The Applied Science Standard 2010 National end qualifications for Business Administration 2010 published 2011 Redesign the Business Administration curriculum (in Amsterdam) accordingly 2012 National standard - Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) Standard published 2012 Preparing for the accreditation of Business Administration (Amsterdam) – internal politics 2012 Designed and implemented a ‘pilot curriculum’ based on (inter)national standards 2012 Intervened in the National qualification for Business Administration 2012 – more politics 2012 All lecturers trained by CEBMa in the ‘evidence-based practice’ 2013 Rewritten the National end qualifications for Business Administration 2013 2013 An audit report by CEBMa on the ‘pilot curriculum’ 2013 Passed the accreditation with the ‘pilot curriculum’ – external legitimacy 2014 Post fusion integration and becoming the largest undergraduate Business School CURRICULUM OVERHAUL Step 1: Scrutinize the (inter)national higher education policies (O.E.C.D., A.C.E., E.U., etc.) Step 2: Link the (inter)national accreditation frameworks (USA / EU) Step 3: Carefully integrate (inter)national standards in the Bologna framework (compatibility) Step 4: Zoom in on the descriptor related analytical/reflective thinking (academic skills) Step 5: Elaborate on ‘evidence-based practice’ for the specific school (Business Administration) Step 6: Incorporate the framework in a national curriculum / set of end qualifications, etc. Step 7: Consider defining end qualification for ‘evidence-based practice’ at levels 5, 6, 7 and 8 Step 8: Engage colleagues at all levels and try to help Professional skills Societal Corporate Organizational Evidence-based Management decision making Operational decisions Strategy Controlling Accounting Operations Strategic decisions Organizational decisions Professional practise Evidence-based Skills Craftmanship Business ethics Areas of expertise Outside in Dublin descriptors 1. Knowledge and understanding 2. Applying knowledge and understanding ------------------------------- 3. Making judgements 4. Communication 5. Learning Skills Vision on higher education (AUAS) + BUILDING AN EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE IN A BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION CURRICULUM

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