Denise Rousseau's Generic EBMgt Class 6


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Denise Rousseau's Generic EBMgt Class 6: Building an EBMgt Culture and Change Processes

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Denise Rousseau's Generic EBMgt Class 6

  1. 1. Evidence-Based ManagementLeading an EBMgt Culture ChangeDenise M. RousseauH.J. Heinz II University Professor of Organizational BehaviorCarnegie Mellon Universitydenise@cmu.edu1
  2. 2. CULTURE IS…What an organization or community is(not merely something it has)A bundle of complex, social learning(Including assumptions, values, beliefs,norms, practices, and meanings)Attached to any social unit(department or organization, community orsociety, etc.)2
  3. 3. Culture(s) of EBMgt Local--led by an influential person, staff ormanager Dominant--basis of common understandings andshared values Interventions-- EBMgt produces practices thatcan be a catalyst for a bundle of cultural changes Process changes such as after action reviews caninvolve aspects of culture, e.g.,norms, patterns ofbehaviors, artifacts3
  4. 4. CULTURAL PATTERNSDominant CultureCounterCultureSubcultureSubcultureCulture Map4
  5. 5. ArtifactsPatternsof BehaviorBehavioralNormsValuesFundamentalAssumptionsLayers of Culture 5
  6. 6. ArtifactsPatternsof BehaviorBehavioralNormsValuesFundamentalAssumptionsEBMgt CultureLearningArchivesEB MgtCommunity ofPracticePsychologicalSafetyPersonal GrowthFact-based MgtExcellenceOpenInformationSharing &CriticalThinkingEvidence-BasedProcessese.g.Checklists &Protocols“Facts are our friends”6
  7. 7. Connections Among Layers ofCulture Assumptions are difficult to revamp directly….subjectto revision when other layers (of EBMgt culture) are inplace Values and Norms are easier to revise--subject toincentives and attention…they shape the meaning ofusing evidence in decisions Patterns of behavior can be superficial, unless Valuesand Norms support them. Artifacts can reinforce PoBs, Norms & Values…EBMgttools can span levels7
  8. 8. Culture-Creating Signals… Focus of attention: What do managers pay attentionto, measure, and control? Improvements and problem solvingvs short-term deliverables Reactions to crisis and critical incidents: Whatmessages do we send? Is learning appreciated more thanavoiding mistakes? Modeling: Leaders show how to do it. How to diagnoseproblems in an evidence-based fashion, to search for evidence, etc. Reward systems: Who gets selected? Promoted?Who leaves? Are stated values rewarded in practice? Structural signaling: What values do budget decisionsand other formal actions reflect? Do processes promoteevidence-based practices?8
  9. 9. EBMgt to Improve Performance Locally through the actions ofindividuals and small groups – buildslocal excellence (How to overcomethe performance paradox?) Organizationally through thecoordinated efforts across units anddepartments9
  10. 10. Linking Subcultures/Subgroups Same motivation system: same metrics,incentives, socialization/dev’t Coordination: familiar w/each other, shareinformation, collaborate via informal ties,task forces, etc. Problem solving to manageinterdependencies Reactive: solve current problems Proactive: solve anticipated problems
  11. 11. Linking the Subculturesto Improve ProcessesDominantCultureCounterCultureSubcultureSubcultureCulture MapSame MotivationSystem & MetricsDifferentMotivation &MetricsInter-unitProblem SolvingMechanismsReactive forexisting problemsProactive foranticipated onesInter-unitCoordinationStaff familiarw/ eachotherShareinformationCooperate“The commons”“A linkage breakdown”
  12. 12. PATH OF CHANGEOld MindsetTransitionNew MindsetConstructivedissatisfactionBeliefthat changeIs possibleCrediblevisionPracticalfirst stepsManagelossesActivepracticeInstitutionalizeto make itlast
  13. 13. PATH OF CHANGEOld Mindset Transition New MindsetConstructivedissatisfactionBeliefthat changeIs possibleCrediblevisionPracticalfirst stepsManagelossesActivepracticeInstitutionalizeto make itlastStage I II III IVChaosLosses Gains
  14. 14. Initiation Evidence of Need for Change? Compelling towhom? Assessing Readiness: Trust? Currentconditions? Translate Evidence for Stakeholders:Constructive dissatisfaction Initial Design:Who is involved? Whose interests? Goals?How will new interdependencies be managed?Problem-solving Processes: Reactive and Proactive Sequencing Changes: First thingsfirst, second..Facilitators to ease initiation?
  15. 15. Managing The Transition Prepare transition to newTrainSupport people to move into broader rolesManaging new interdependencies and relationships (buildfamiliarity, shared interests) Manage losses (via resources/commitments)SkillsJob securityFuture opportunities Reinforce two-way communicationreduce inevitable uncertainty/ambiguityassess needs/progress—adjust change plan
  16. 16. Managing the Transition(continued) Adopt interim project-orientation (short termdeliverables, goals, quick feedback) Expand Practices Change Effects & People ItInvolves End the old Symbolic (e.g., new job titles, designations) Practical (e.g. tear down walls) Formal acknowledgement (Celebration) Feedback and redesign Periodic evaluation against metrics (lead vs lagged) User participation in interpreting data and redesign
  17. 17. Institutionalization Is “change” now routine? (check occurrence) Re-examine linkages: How changed? Newsupports needed? Assess “fit” of HR practices, org’lstructure, etc. Align as appropriate… Feedback and Redesign (greatest gainscome from subsequent improvements, notinitial change AND nothing’s perfect the firsttime) Learning: Can other parts of org benefit fromthis change experience? Propagate