EBMgt Course Module 6: Searching for Scientific Evidence
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EBMgt Course Module 6: Searching for Scientific Evidence

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EBMgt Course Module 6: Searching for Scientific Evidence

EBMgt Course Module 6: Searching for Scientific Evidence

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EBMgt Course Module 6: Searching for Scientific Evidence EBMgt Course Module 6: Searching for Scientific Evidence Presentation Transcript

  • Postgraduate Course Evidence-based management: Search for the best available scientific evidence
  • Postgraduate Course The 5 steps of EBP 1. Formulate a focused question (Ask) 2. Search for the best available evidence (Acquire) 3. Critically appraise the evidence (Appraise) 4. Integrate the evidence with your professional expertise and apply (Apply) 5. Monitor the outcome (Assess)
  • Postgraduate Course 4 sources of evidence View slide
  • Postgraduate Course 4 sources of evidence Where & how to get scientific evidence? ? View slide
  • Postgraduate Course Searching evidence Where do we search?
  • Postgraduate Course Articles in peer reviewed journals
  • Postgraduate Course The way of the past …
  • Postgraduate Course The way of the present …
  • Postgraduate Course Online research databases Postgraduate Course  ABI/INFORM  Business Source Elite  PsycINFO  Web of Knowledge  ERIC  Google Scholar
  • Postgraduate Course Comparing databases Postgraduate Course
  • Postgraduate Course Searching evidence How do we search? Search Strategy
  • Postgraduate Course Two types of search strategies Search strategy Building blocks methodSnowball method
  • Postgraduate Course 3. Building blocks2. Snowball1. Shotgun Three types of search strategies Search strategy
  • Postgraduate Course 1. Shotgun method  Do a generic search on the Internet with the most important keywords from your PICOC (Intervention or Outcome).  Try to find out which related terms / words / subjects are being used and look for references.  The output of your search will be input for the snowball and building blocks method.
  • Postgraduate Course 2. Snowball method Starting from one book or article, you search for other literature on the same topic.  Snowballing backward to older publications by finding out which publications were used by the author (see bibliography of book or article).  Snowballing forward to more recent publications by finding out how often that book or article has been cited by other authors (see Web of Knowledge or Google Scholar).
  • Postgraduate Course Relevant PICOC terms Input for forward snowballing
  • Postgraduate Course Synonyms or related terms • …. • …. • …. • …. Synonyms or related terms • …. • …. • …. • …. Synonyms or related terms • …. • …. • …. • …. PICOC term 1 PICOC term 2 PICOC term 3 AND AND OR OR 3. Building blocks method
  • Postgraduate Course P = back office employees I = merger, integration, back office C = status quo O = economy of scale C = healthcare, different organizational culture, unequal 1. Underline the keywords 2. Number the order of importance from 1-4 3. Building blocks: an example
  • Postgraduate Course P = back office employees I = 1. merger, 3. integration, back office C = status quo O = 4. economy of scale C = 5. healthcare, different 2. organizational culture, unequal 1. Underline the keywords 2. Number the order of importance 3. Building blocks: an example
  • Postgraduate Course Search terms Operationalise your Pico elements! O = long term profitability?
  • Postgraduate Course Search with these combinations 1. Thesaurus (su) OR Title (ti) When there is no thesaurus term available search with 2. Title (ti) OR Abstract (ab) 1. su(“pay for performance") OR ti("pay for performance”) 2. ti(”360 degree feedback”) OR ab(”360 degree feedback”)
  • Postgraduate Course The advantages of ‘subjects’ or ‘thesaurus terms’  One single term for variations in spelling or synonyms (organization, organization, company, corporation)  The term is relevant (therefore, so is the article)  Automatic “Explode” function (narrower terms are automatically included)  Extra search options (subheadings, major topics, etc.) 3. Building blocks: thesaurus
  • Postgraduate Course The disadvantages of ‘subjects’ or ‘thesaurus terms’  Recent articles not yet indexed  “Index errors”  Sometimes there are no suitable subjects or thesaurus terms (new concept, specific term) 3. Building blocks: thesaurus
  • Postgraduate Course corporate culture: organizational character, corporate identity self steering teams: autonomous teams, self managed teams 360 degree feedback: multisource feedback, upward feedback, Using the keywords from your PICOC may be sufficient, but always consider to do an additional search with:  synonyms  alternate spelling, translations  related terms / words / subjects  narrower or broader terms 3. Building blocks: additional search
  • Postgraduate Course 1. Search with #1 PICOC term (incl. alternative terms, synonyms, alternate spellings, truncations, etc.) in the thesaurus OR title or title OR abstract 2. Search with #2 PICOC term (incl. synonyms, etc.) 3. Combine the results of step 1 and 2 with AND using the search history 3. Building blocks: search query
  • Postgraduate Course 3. Building blocks: Boolean operators  AND = both terms (apples AND oranges)  OR = either one of these terms (apples OR oranges)  NOT = without this term (fruit NOT oranges)  NEAR = near this term (apples NEAR oranges)  * = replaces 0,1 or more characters (apple*= apple, apples, applejack, applejuice, applepie, etc.)  ?= replaces 1 character (organi?ation= organisation, organization)
  • Postgraduate Course orangesapples apples AND oranges apples OR oranges orangesapples 3. Building blocks: Boolean operators
  • Postgraduate Course 3. Building blocks: an example
  • Postgraduate Course • Merger • Fusion • Combination • Take over • Acquisition • Unification • … 1. Merger • Healthcare organization • Non profit • Not for profit 3. Health care Intervention Context •Corporate culture •Organizational behavior •Organizational character •Corporate identity •Core beliefs •Shared values 2. Culture Comparison AND OR Define keywords & related terms OR AND
  • Postgraduate Course Start up
  • Postgraduate Course Always search for thesaurus terms
  • Postgraduate Course Always search for thesaurus terms
  • Postgraduate Course Use the history function to combine results Combining results
  • Postgraduate Course Use the history function to combine results Combining results
  • Postgraduate Course Narrow your results
  • Postgraduate Course Narrow your results
  • Postgraduate Course Save your results
  • Postgraduate Course 3. Building blocks: summary 1. Formulate a focused question and break it down into keywords (PICOC), 2. Underline the 2 to 4 most relevant keywords, 3. Start with the most relevant keyword: is it listed in the thesaurus? If not: search with (title OR abstract). 4. Repeat your search with alternative terms, synonyms or alternate spellings. 5. Combine the outcome: (thesaurus OR title) + (title OR abstract) + (alternative terms) with OR (use the history function!) 6. Repeat above steps for keyword 2 7. Combine the outcome of your search with keyword 1 and 2 with AND (use the history function!) 8. Filter the articles with “studies” (subject > studies) 9. Read the titles and abstracts of your results, select the relevant articles and safe them. TIP: No full text available in ABI/Inform or BS Premier? Try Google Advanced.
  • Postgraduate Course Learning through play !  Try all buttons  Make lots of mistakes  Have fun !