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Adrian 091012-3004-12-13



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  • 1. 3. Culture ShockDr. Holger Siemons
  • 2. 3.X Reading/preparation for chapter three Text provided in Text(s)/resource(s) handout to be sourced by you  ‘What is Culture Shock?’ ✔  Bochner (2003), “Culture Shock Due to Contact with Unfamiliar Cultures”, Online ✔ Readings in Psychology and Culture, Unit 8., retrieved from  Alternative text/sources about  The implications of culture shock ✔  What are suitable interventions? ✔ Further suggested reading • Thomas (2008), “Cross-Cultural Management”, 2nd Edition; Chapter ten: The challenge of international assignments, Sage Publishing, pp. 221 – 223 • Schneider and Barsoux (2003), “Managing across Cultures”, Chapter seven – The international manager, Prentice Hall, pp. 188 - 190 Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 3. 3.Y This chapter’s objectives Make sense of the Understand the adjustment concept of culture hierarchy shock Understand the Learn about the associated affects and behaviors and contributors to feelings culture shock Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 4. 3.1 What does culture shock mean? Culture Shock refers to a stressful transitional period when individuals move from a familiar environment into an unfamiliar one. Oberg’s identity disorientation state involves the following: • A sense of identity loss and deprivation • Identity strain due to making the psychological adaptation • Identity rejections by members of the new culture • Identity confusion, especially regarding one’s role. • Identity powerlessness as a result of not coping with new environment Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 5. Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 6. 3.2 Different levels of culture shock affects people 1. Affectively Perceived feelings such as anxiety, confusion, disorientation, and/or intense desire to be elsewhere 3. Behaviorally 2. Cognitively Refers to the norms and rules that guide The lack of competence for interpreting or communication, appropriateness and explaining “unknown” behaviors effectiveness Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 7. 3.3 Elements contributing to culture shock Language Immigration policies Mental attitude Interpersonal Education system Food communication Weather, temperatur Hygiene Infrastructure e Accessibility to Non-availibility of members of the new support culture mechanism(s) Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 8. 3.4 Desired and undesired results of culture shock Undesired results Desired results Psychosomatic problems Sense of well-being Heightened positive self-esteem Affective upheavals Behavioral competence in social interactions Interaction awkwardness Cognitive flexibility Cognitive exhaustion Enhanced optimism and self, others and everyday surroundings Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 9. 3.5 Factors affecting the course of culture shock Personality Underlying attributes factors… Psychological Motivational adjustment orientation Sociocultural Personal adjustment expectations Cultural Distance Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 10. 3.6 The three stages of the U (or V) curveEmotional state Initial adjustment Regained adjustment crisis Pre-departure In-host-country Post-departure t A. Initial adjustment B. Crisis C. Regained adjustment is the optimistic or elation is the stressful phase, when is settling-in phase, when phase of the adjustment reality sets in and the you learn to cope effectively process sojourner is overwhelmed with the new environment by his/her own incompetence Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 11. 3.7 The seven stages of the W-curve A Long Short Emotional state Intervention Intervention G period (in- period (in- D country) country) C E F B Pre-departure In-host-country Post-departure t A. Honeymoon C. Humorous D. In-sync B. Hostility individuals are excited individuals learn to laugh at sojourners begin to “feel at experience major about their new cultural their cultural mishaps, and home” and experience emotional upheavals— environment—wearing realize there are goods and identity security and reality sets in “rose colored glasses” bads to every culture inclusion E. Ambivalence F. Reentry culture shock experience grief, nostalgia unexpected jolt, typically G. Re-socialization and pride, with a mixed causes more stress & assimilation into old roles sense of relief and sorrow depression than entry and culture that they are going home culture shock Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 12. 3.8 Adjustment hierarchy (Re)attaining personal and professional effectiveness Mastering the basic tasks Connecting with others Re-establishing personal identity and competence Dealing with survival issues Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 13. Lecture notes __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 14. Lecture notes __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 15. Thank you for your attention. Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 16. 4. Cultural driversDr. Holger Siemons
  • 17. 4.X Reading/preparation for chapter four Text provided in Text(s)/resource(s) handout to be sourced by you  The ‘Iceberg Model’ ✔  Second version of the ‘Iceberg Model’, plus ✔ short explanation  What is language ✔  Alternative text/sources about  ‘Culture and religion’ ✔  Culture and different concepts of time ✔ Further suggested reading • Thomas (2008), “Cross-Cultural Management”, 2nd Edition; Chapter two: Describing culture: What it is and where it comes from, Sage Publishing, pp. 27 - 45 Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 18. 4.Y This chapter’s objectives Comprehend the Understand the vast concepts of diversity of stereotypes, Globali contributors to the zation/Westernizati formation of on and convergence cultural identity Deconstruct the effects of time, language and Be introduced to religion as examples different layers of of contributors to culture cultural identity formation Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 19. 4.1 Elements that contribute to culture formation Artifacts Economy Clothing Education Religion Power Customs Culture Norms/val Behavior ues Attitudes Family Govern- Food ment Values Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 20. 4.2 The iceberg model of culture Behaviors and Surface/visible culture practices Attitudes and interpretations Non-visible culture Core values and deep belief systems Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 21. 4.3 The specific cultural elements of … Religion … Time Culture Infra- Language structure Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 22. Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 23. 4.4 Time and culture WESTERN Non-Western incl. Southern European linear cyclicTime never repeats itself, it is lost forever Time repeats itself, there is no end to timeStrong obsession with time, focus on time commitment Less orientation toward timeThe concept of loosing time The concept of making timeTime is a commoditiy Time, because of a different concept, is considered a givenTime can be saved, wasted, used, lost, killed Time flows with life, time can be made Segmented time: •Time as fixed in a calendar (years, months, days, hours, minutes, seconds) Event time: •„When our ancestors arrived at these shores…“ •„When the rice is planted…“ Culture affects the way we express time: •Urban population: segmented time •Rural population: event time Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 24. Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 25. 4.5 Language Language effects meaning Enables precision, creates confusion, misunderstanding and conflict Organizes information and allocates preference and priority Involves other, restricts or excludes others Language is the basis of information sharing and structuring Language can take on verbal, non-verbal, or the written form Meaning is also conveyed by the medium Language capability affects the selection of the medium, the style by which information is shared Affects how an individual is perceived and considered in-/out-group Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 26. InfrastructureA Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 27. 4.6 Infrastructure Infrastructure is part of the context that affects people [when working across cultures]. The stress we are exposed to The speed at which we can deliver products and services The accuracy and predictability with which we can run processes The ability to control our environment The support that we need by others The level of forgiveness and a relaxed attitude that is needed Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 28. 4.7 Religion affects how culture is shaped Provides order and structure Relates values and behaviors Focuses beliefs Affects dress-code Ethics Gender roles Child raising How we organize our day Guides the relationship of one religious group with others Shapes institutions (i.e. school) Forms the discipline of caring and welfare Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 29. 4.8 Stereotypes and culture Non-universal/specific universal universal reduction Positive/negative or true/false ideas that groups of people hold about others who are different from them (i.e. Germans always come on time; Spanish always have siesta) They are expressed by means of a single word(s)/phrase(s)/image(s) They ignore the uniqueness of individuals by attributing often unjustified similarity to the (individual) members of a group Stereotypes vary, multiplied by media by means of bias of authors, journalists etc. Stereotypes are frequently applied to classify another human being or group by means of suferficial and often snon- supported arguments Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 30. Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 31. 4.9 Westernization - Globalization Westernization:  Also, occasionally, called: Occidentalization  Process of adopting (voluntary) or come under (forced) Western culture values, norms, practices values, norms, practices  Active/voluntary Westernization Standardization of Standardization of  Passive/forced Westernization  Lifestyle driven approach (active) from the side of the adopter  Standardization driven approach (passive) from the side of the adopter  Effects on industry, technology, laws, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, language, alphabet, religion, phil osophy, values  Two-sided process by which Western interests in other regions are supported by societies‘, which want to become members of the Western society  Americanization: same concept, with focus on multiplication of American cultural values Globalization: Homogenization of of level-playing-fields  Process by which regional economies, societies, cultures become integrated through a global Homogenization level-playing-fields network of communication, transportation and trade  Most frequently used in connection with economic Globalization: the integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, spread of technology  Less frequently used as the transnational circulation of ideas, languages or pop culture through acculturation  It ultimately is the reduction/removal of (protective) barriers between (national) societies to facilitate the flow of goods, services, labor, capital Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 32. 4.10 Globalization - Evolvement and interconnection Complexity/interconnectedness of economies and cultures ICT Trade pacts/economic blocs World War Steam II engine/rail /ship Sea navigation Silk route time Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 33. 4.11 Globalization of culture What is the role of technology? What are the reasons that are frequently raised for globalization undermining cultural diversity? Are they right? What about the opposite extreme – diversity? What are cultural conflicts infused by globalization? How does globalization shape culture, and how does culture shape globalization? Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 34. 4.12 ConvergenceDoes the popularity of Chinese food in Europe signal a convergence of culture? Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 35. 4.13 Different levels of convergence/divergence Global Work Culture is the shared understanding of the visible rules, regulations and behaviors, and the deeper values and ethics of the global work context. (Shokef and Erez, 2006) Treating all employees as having Treating employees differently across homogeneous taste and locations and standards of acceptance of likings, overlooking national differences divergence in regulations and processes and imposing universal Global integration Local responsiveness Global Work Culture Global Transnational Multi-national organization organization organization Leadership, communication, knowledge sharing, delegation, accountability, … Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 36. Lecture notes __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 37. Lecture notes __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 38. Thank you for your attention. Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 39. 5.Thought patterns across cultureDr. Holger Siemons
  • 40. 5.X Reading/preparation for chapter five Text provided in Text(s)/resource(s) handout to be sourced by you  Nisbett and Matsuda (2003), “Culture and Point of View”, National Academy of ✔ Sciences, Vol. 100, No. 19, pp. 11163 – 11170  Alternative text/sources about thought ✔ structures/processes in cultures Further suggested reading • Qingxue (2003), “Understanding Different Cultural Patterns or Orientations Between East and West ”, p. 22 – 28, Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 41. 5.Y This chapter’s objectives Understand that differences in Deconstruct the practices and different layers of behaviors across differences in cultures are often thought patterns based on thought concepts Address cultural Understanding differences along Nisbett’s and visual Matsuda’s (2003) senses, medicine, ar study t and music, and education Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 42. 5.1 Some differences between West and East 1. Visual senses 5. Others 2. … Medicine 4. 3. Art and Education music Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 43. 5.2 Visual senses Based on a study by Nisbett in 2000 (University of Michigan) 25 American and 27 Chinese students 36 photos was shown to each student for three seconds Photos depicted single subject against realistic, complex background Study revealed: Chinese Americans: Shorter time to Chinese: Took longer time students could remember focus attention on the looking at background background images foreground, but longer time images, and less on foreground clearer, while American looking at the foreground images as compared to [white] students could better photo than the Chinese Americans remember the foreground images Holistic vs. detailed thought processes? Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 44. 5.3 Medicine Common knowledge: Chinese medicine was wide advanced Four methods of patient diagnosis in Chinese medicine: Looking, smelling, asking questions, checking pulse Western medicine: Laboratory results and increasingly a combination of both Underlying Chinese understanding: “Heaven and humans become one”; all organs are interconnected and form one body; one part of the body not functioning well will affect other parts of the body with effects on facial expressions, voice, behavior Observing the world, and interpreting the various interconnected signs reveals the true underlying reason ( application in business?) Change of practices Chinese medicine due to Westernization, Globalization; reciprocal influences Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 45. 5.4 Art and music and its effect on culture Gender relations Degree of personal freedom an expression Understanding of self Collectively held values of beauty, skills, position Value of creativity in society Appreciation for the non-/less mundane aspects of civic life Adheres to history and contemporary culture Expresses lifestyle Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 46. 5.5 Which two go together? Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 47. 5.6 Visual senses To which group does the above flower belong? Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 48. 5.4.4 Art and music Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 49. 5.7 Attention to detail Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 50. 5.4.4 Art and music Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 51. 5.8 Differences in desired contextual information Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 52. 5.9 Detailed vs. holistic Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 53. Lecture notes __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 54. Lecture notes __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 55. Thank you for your attention. Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 56. 6. Values, beliefs, attitudesDr. Holger Siemons
  • 57. 6.X Reading/preparation for chapter six Text provided in Text(s)/resource(s) hardcopy handout to be sourced by you  Author unknown, “Values, beliefs, attitudes”, ✔ Extract  Author unknown “Socialization stages and acculturation/assimilation” ✔  Further reading about  Socialization ✔  Acculturation ✔ Further suggested reading • McMillan and Burnthorne-Lopez (2005), “Socialization and Acculturation: Organizational and Individual Strategies Toward Achieving P-O Fit”, Mid-Atlantic Journal of Business Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 58. 6.Y This chapter’s objectives Be able to develop a Define vocabulary around values, attitudes, be those concepts haviors and beliefs Comprehend the relevance of socialization and Understand what a acculturation for value system is adopting relevant cross-cultural skills Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 59. 6.1 Value categories Personal Values Social Values • representative of an individuals moral • Folkways- values people accept out of character habit • Morals- morality which governs values • Institutional- ways or practices set up under law • Taboos- the emphatic do’s and don’ts of a particular society Political Economic • “American Way”, public • Such mediums as equal service, voting, civic responsibility employment, stable economy, money, private property, pride of ownership, and taxes Religious Socialization • Characterized by reverence for • Major source of individual values life, human dignity and freedom of worship Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 60. 6.2 Values are … … dimensions that reflect a set of deeply held beliefs that characterize a culture’s worldview with respect to humanity and its relationship to nature and time (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961, Hofstede 1984, Schwartz 1999) … orientations whose imposed parameters are designed to establish larger patterns of cultural-specific behavior based on worldviews that can then be compared across cultures, as a way of understanding culture-group behavior ( -Denton) … the beliefs that generate and guide decisions and are rooted in fundamental personal beliefs preferred and reinforced in a community (McCauley, 2012) … an enduring set of beliefs that serve to guide or direct our behavior” (Klopf and Park, 1982) the governing ideas and guiding principles for thought and action” in a particular culture (Srikandath, 1991, p. 166) Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 61. 6.3 Examples for cultural values Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 62. 6.4 Attitudes are … … relatively stable evaluations of a person, object, situation or issue (Wood et al., 1996) … a state of mind of the individual toward a value (Allport, 1966, p. 24) … an enduring predisposition towards a particular aspect of one’s environment (McDuggal and Munro 1987, p. 98) … the cognitive and behavioral processes that involve judgment and favorable/unfavorable reactions to different aspects of a given reality (Nolen-Hoeksema and Fredrickson et al., 2009) … introspectively unidentified (or inaccurately identified/unconscious) traces of past experience that mediate favorable or unfavorable feeling, thought, or action toward social objects (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995, p.8) Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 63. 6.5 Beliefs … … are cognitions, shared by society members, on issues that are of special concern for the particular society (Bar-Tal, 2000) …can be rational or irrational, supported or not supported, practical or illogical (David 2003) an individuals position based on information that person has about other people, objects or issues (Andrews, 1989) must be combined with an evaluative factor in order to represent an attitude (Muehling, 1987) Beliefs are assumptions or convictions one holds as true about some thing, concept or person Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 64. 6.6 Values, beliefs, attitudes and norms Values are central, core ideals about how people conduct their lives. Values are much Beliefs are what people personally know to more stable (and difficult to influence) than be true. They’re our convictions, even if beliefs and attitudes. As such, values reflect others disagree. A belief is something one a person’s sense of right and wrong or what holds to be true or false. Beliefs can be ought to be. A value is a "valenced belief" changed partially and fully. -a belief with a moral charge to it. Norms are the rules or laws normally based on agreed-upon beliefs and values that Attitudes evaluate. They express an opinion members of a group follow to live in on an issue. They comprise our like or harmony. dislike of people, places, food, etc. An • Formal- official standards or laws that attitude is not the way one behaves, it is govern behavior the way one is motivated to behave. • Informal- unwritten rules or standards that govern the behavior Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 65. 6.7 Attitudes are also … Formed largely from the continuous process of Positive or negative socialization Once formed not easily Difficult to measure changed • Indicated by behavior, reactions to • Often resistant to new individual situations, social values conditions, new experience, and new information • Attitudes may be affected by age, position, and education May create inflexibility and stereotypes • Based on inconsistencies, incorrect assumptions or other false data Demonstrated by behavior Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 66. 6.8 Socialization, acculturation and assimilation Socialization Acculturation Primary Secondary Tertiary Assimilation Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 67. 6.9 Motivation for socialization Natural socialization Negative Planned Socialization socialization socialization Positive socialization Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 68. 6.10 Types of socialization Racial PrimaryFamily socialization socialization Legal systems Natural sociali- zation Gender Secondary PenalReligion socialization socialization systems Negative Planned sociali- Socialization sociali- zation zationPeer Languagegroup Group Anticipatory socialization socialization Positive sociali- zationEconomic Masssystems media Organi- Re- zational socialization socialization Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 69. 6.11 Acculturation 5. 1. Enthusiastic 3. Resentment Accommodation Acceptance and Criticism and Evaluation 2. Doubt and 4. Adjustment Reservation Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 70. Lecture notes __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 71. Lecture notes __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Dr. Holger Siemons
  • 72. Thank you for your attention. Dr. Holger Siemons