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Unit xvii

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  • 1. Compare and contrast the two types of immune response. By: Barby Ann P. Pedregosa MLS II-A
  • 2.  Recognizing foreign or dangerous macromolecules  Responding to eliminate them  Immunity  Ability to resist damage from foreign substances – such as microorganisms, harmful chemicals, such as toxins released by microorganisms; and internal threats, such as cancer cells.
  • 3. Innate Immunity - Nonspecific defenses/resistance  Immune system parts that attack any antigen Adaptive Immunity -Specific defenses/resistance  Other immune cells will only respond to one particular antigen  Leads to an immunity = a long lasting protection from that particular antigen
  • 4.  All animals have innate immunity, a defense active immediately upon infection  Innate immunity is present before any exposure to pathogens and is effective from the time of birth  Innate immunity consists of external barriers plus internal cellular and chemical defenses
  • 5.  Vertebrates also have adaptive immunity  Adaptive immunity, or acquired immunity, develops after exposure to agents such as microbes, toxins, or other foreign substances  It involves a very specific response to pathogens  There are four types: Active/Passive, Natural/Artificial Immunity
  • 6.  A. Active immunity is protection that is produced by the person’s own immune system. This type of immunity is usually permanent. Active immunity is stimulation of the immune system to produce antigen-specific humoral (antibody) and cellular immunity. Unlike passive immunity, which is temporary, active immunity usually lasts for many years, often for a lifetime.
  • 7.  B. Passive immunity is protection by products produced by an animal or human, and transferred to another human, usually by injection. Passive immunity often provides effective protection, but this protection wanes (disappears) with time, usually a few weeks or months. Passive Immunity
  • 8.  Natural immunity occurs through contact with a disease.There are two types of natural immunity. Actively acquired and passively acquired. A. Actively acquired -When the body has already experience an infection by that pathogen B. Passively acquired - Antibodies pass across placenta providing a newborn baby with immunity against disease.Antibodies are also present in breatsmilk.
  • 9.  Artificial immunity develops through deliberate action such as vaccine.There are two types: Actively acquired and passively acquired A. Actively acquired -This is by vaccination at a suitable time in the person's life, not when they are infected. Ex.TB vaccine B. Passively acquired -The vaccine contains ready- made antibodies which provide immediate relief by destroying the antigens.This is given when the person has been infected with the antigen and has no preivous immunity. Ex. tetanus
  • 10. Primary Cells Origin of cells Site of maturation Location of mature cell Primary secretory product Primary actions Allergic Reactions Innate Immunity Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mastcells, monocytesa nd macrophages Red bone marrow Red bone marrow(Neutroph ils, eosinophils, baso phils and monocytes) and tissues (mast cell and macrophages Blood, connective tissue and lymphatic tissue Histamin, complement, prostaglandin, leukotrienes, kinins and interferons Inflamatory response and phagocytosis None Adaptive Immunity Red bone marrow Red bone marrow andThymus Blood and lymphatic tissue Antibodies & Cytokines Graft rejection and protection against intracellular antigens and tumors Immediate and Delayed Hypersensitivit y
  • 11. Components Activity Response and Potency Specificity Course Memory Categories Innate Immunity Acquired Immunity