Today we will become familiar with the principles of Universal Design for Learning, a systemic way of thinking about designing your lessons so that they are accessible to all students.
In this next section, we ’ll talk about learners with special needs, and possible accommodations to facilitate students’ needs.
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Before we begin, let ’s start with looking where we are. We are going to make an organizer for notes to day. Take a sheet of paper (Pass out notebook paper to those who need it). Fold it in half, then in half again. Label your four squares: K, W, L, ? As we go through write down any questions you have. As your questions get answered, write them down. It is very important as we talk about Student with Disabilities we use People First Language…Student with…. Don ’t say LD student
communication disorders (speech and language impairments) specific learning disabilities (including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) mild/moderate mental retardation emotional or behavioral disorders Hearing Impairments Visual Impairments Traumatic Brain Injury Orthopedic Impairments (Cerebral Palsy, Burns, Spina Bifida, etc.) Other Health Impairments
As teachers, how can you adopt this mindset and save yourself valuable time and energy?
Learning disability is a general term that describes specific kinds of learning problems. A learning disability can cause a person to have trouble learning and using certain skills. The skills most often affected are: reading, writing, listening, speaking, reasoning, and doing math. Very common! As many as 1 out of every 5 people in the United States has a learning disability. Almost 1 million children (ages 6 through 21) have some form of a learning disability and receive special education in school. In fact, one-third of all children who receive special education have a learning disability ( Twenty-Ninth Annual Report to Congress , U.S. Department of Education, 2010). . It is estimated that communication disorders (including speech, language, and hearing disorders) affect one of every 10 people in the United States. Speech and language disorders refer to problems in communication and related areas such as oral-motor function--sucking, swallowing, drinking, eating. These delays and disorders range from simple sound substitutions to the inability to understand or use language or use the oral-motor mechanism for functional speech and feeding “ ...a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: According to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), approximately 8.3 million children (14.5%) aged 4–17 years have parents who’ve talked with a health care provider or school staff about the child’s emotional or behavioral difficulties. ( 6 ) Nearly 2.9 million children have been prescribed medication for these difficulties. ( 7 ) Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills. According to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), approximately 8.3 million children (14.5%) aged 4–17 years have parents who ’ve talked with a health care provider or school staff about the child’s emotional or behavioral difficulties. ( 6 ) Nearly 2.9 million children have been prescribed medication for these difficulties. ( 7 )
As the special education teacher in the video said, “one size fits all doesn’t work anymore.” We must be able to meet the needs of diverse learners in our classroom, especially since we are being held to higher standards by legislation. In section two, we ’ll cover the legislation that reaches your classroom and affects you as a teacher.
In 2001, No Child Left Behind federal legislation increased accountability for teachers by requiring students to be tested on statewide standardized tests of achievement. In Florida we use the FCAT, and other states use similar tests to measure student performance. The other major piece of legislation affecting your classroom is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Currently reauthorized in 2004 as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEiA), it is a federal law that governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to children with disabilities. IDEA dictates that all children should be provided a free and public education in the least-restrictive environment. For this reason, more and more students with disabilities are moving from the segregated special education classrooms of the past into inclusive, general education settings. For teachers, this means more accountability for making sure all students perform well.
Students with disabilities are also increasing their participation in the general education setting. The US Department of Education reports that in 1995, only 45% of students with disabilities spent more than 80% of their time in the general education classroom. 12 years later in 2007, that number had increased to 57% of students. Students with disabilities are increasingly being included in the classroom setting, and as educators we need to be aware of how to meet their educational needs.
By law, the IEP must include certain information about the child and the educational program designed to meet his or her unique needs. This information covers topics such as current performance, annual goals, special education and related services, accommodations, participation in state and district-wide tests, needed transition services, and measured progress. Each public school child who receives special education and related services must have an Individualized Education Program (IEP). Each IEP must be designed for one student and must be a truly individualized document. The IEP creates an opportunity for teachers, parents, school administrators, related services personnel, and students (when appropriate) to work together to improve educational results for children with disabilities. The IEP is the cornerstone of a quality education for each child with a disability.
Briefly, let ’s discuss the important components of an IEP. First of all it gives you a good picture of where the student is academically and behaviorally. It will tell you the program that the student is receiving ESE services under, for example “Speech/Language”. It will tell you the goals they are working on, the services that they are provided, and testing accomodations.
Measurable and observable,
Are one of the key components to planning effective educational programs for students with disabilities Expectations for student achievement do not change Students with disabilities can be taught the same concepts and skills and can be challenged to meet the same standards. Accommodations level the playing field. 5 different areas: Presentation: large print, responding: dictation, scheduling extra time, setting resource room, assistive technology recorder to transcribe
As a teacher, you may be asking yourself how you will juggle all of these competing demands.
Here ’s an example of what a testing accommodation may look like on an IEP
A school-wide, multi-level instructional and behavioral system for preventing school failure; • Screening; • Progress Monitoring; and • Data-based decision making for instruction, movement within the multi-level system, and disability identification (in accordance with state law). We are ensuring quality, research based instruction across the entire school. If a student is having difficulties, a schoolwide teams meets to look at individual student and their needs, as well as the classroom components. The responsibility falls on the teacher to ensure quality teaching is occuring for all students. If a student is not responding to tier I instruction, a team is formed and the child moves to tier II. Tier II is usually extra services of quality instruciton in small groups for a period of time. If a student responds, he remains there. If a students is not responding, he moves to Tier III. Tier III is typically when a student is referred for ESE. This means that teachers need to ensure quality instruction.
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Close your eyes and think for a moment of yourself in a wheelchair and you need to get up on the sidewalk. You probably thought of a curb cut-out but have you ever wondered the why and how of its ’ existance.
Universal Design for Learning roots began from the implementation of Universal Design for building structures. Ramps, curb cut-outs, etc. made access to buildings and the surrounding environment accessible. In the past—UD was retrofitted to a building or structure—now it is a forethought. UDL as a forethought will make content accessible and understandable. It makes learning curriculum accessible to all learners from a student who is blind, deaf, has a learning disability, a physical disability or is gifted.
UDL is centered upon brain research. This image is my reminder of the brains that I have in my hands –the brains that I want to guide in learning and understanding. These are the brains of your future students---every single one of them.
. For example, those with sensory disabilities (e.g., blindness or deafness); learning disabilities (e.g., dyslexia); language or cultural differences, and so forth may all require different ways of approaching content. Others may simply grasp information quicker or more efficiently through visual or auditory means rather than printed text. In short, there is not one means of representation that will be optimal for all learners; providing options for representation is essential.
For example, individuals with significant movement impairments (e.g., cerebral palsy), those who struggle with strategic and organizational abilities (executive function disorders), those who have language barriers, and so forth approach learning tasks very differently. Some may be able to express themselves well in written text but not speech, and vice versa. It should also be recognized that action and expression require a great deal of strategy, practice, and organization, and this is another are in which learners can differ. In reality, there is not one means of action and expression that will be optimal for all learners; providing options for action and expression is essential.
There are a variety of sources that can influence individual variation in affect including neurology, culture, personal relevance, subjectivity, and background knowledge, along with a variety of other factors presented in these guidelines. Some learners are highly engaged by spontaneity and novelty while other are disengaged, even frightened, by those aspects, preferring strict routine. Some learners might like to work alone, while others prefer to work with their peers. In reality, there is not one means of engagement that will be optimal for all learners in all contexts; providing multiple options for engagement is essential.
Would you take your driver license test without practicing?
Take a chance and open the door to your classroom. Encourage and welcome the ESE teacher to collaboratively teach with you.
Ese 101 3 24-2011
staggering 62 percent of all new teachers—almost two-thirds—report they felt unprepared for the realities of their
Universal Access for All StudentsSTUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDSLisa Finnegan, Dennis Garland, & Katie MartinPh.D Students in Exceptional EducationUniversity of Central Florida
Today, you’ll learn about… Diverse Learners Instructional Strategies/Universal Design for Learning Classroom and Behavior Management Strategies And most importantly… Ideas for your classroom“Diversity is the norm, not the exception”
SECTION One Types of Learners with Special Needs“The new normal…doing more with less.”
What do you know about learners with special needs and the classroom?
Currently, there are 13 categories ofdisabilities.•Autism•Deaf-Blindness•Deafness•Emotional Disturbance•Hearing Impairment•Multiple Disabilities•Orthopedic Impairment•Other Health Impairment•Specific Learning Disabilities•Speech or Language Impairment•Traumatic Brain Injury•Visual Impairment including Blindness•Developmental Delay•Intellectual Disabilities (MR)
Think-Pair-ShareShare one thing that you learned withsomeone near you.What disabilities do you think you willencounter in your classroom?
What are you seeing in yourclassroom?High Incidence Disabilities•Learning Disabilities•Emotional Disabilities•Communication Disorders•Intellectual Disabilities
Legislation affecting you“Diversity is the norm, not the exception”
MoreAccountability! Legislation: 2001 - No Child Left Behind (NCLB) 2004 - Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEiA )
INCLUSION!Students with disabilitiesspending 80% or more oftheir time in generaleducation setting: 1995: 45% 2007 : 57%, (US Department of Education [USDOE], 2009).
Have you ever heard of these acronyms… IEP? RTI? PMP?
By law, each studentwith an identifieddisability will have anIEP—IndividualizedEducation Plan
What’s an IEP?The IEP has twogeneral purposes:•To set reasonablelearning goals for achild• To state theservices that theschool district willprovide for the child
Important Components•Provides information aboutstudent•Annual Goals•Special Education Services•Testing Accommodations
Annual Goals Statement(s) of what a student with a disability can reasonably be expected to accomplish in a years time or the duration of the IEP.
Example of an annual goal:Gi ve n an e x p o s i t o r y o rn ar r at i ve wr i t i n g p r o mp t ,Jo an wi l l i n c r e as e wr i t i n gs k i l l s t o a p as s i n gp r o f i c i e n c y r at e asme as u r e d b y a s c h o o l c h o s e nrubri c i n 3 out of 4wr i t i n g s amp l e s .
Services•What servicesstudents need to besuccessful ineducation•Example:Speech/Language,Physical Therapy,Academic Support
AccommodationsAccommodations are changes or adjustments tostandards instruction or assessment procedures ormaterials
So what do you need to know?Goals: What are your students working on? Howdoes your supervising teacher assist in theserecords?Accommodations: Look at the testingaccommodation pageBe organized!Meetings: General Ed teachers contribute tomeetings. Keep work samples!
Representation-various ways of acquiring information• the “what” of learning• Learners differ in the ways that they perceive and comprehend information that is presented to them• Learning, and transfer of learning, occurs when multiple representations are used, because it allows students to make connections within, as well as between, concepts.
• http://www.windows2universe. RepresentationActivate Prior Knowledgehttp://www.teachervision.fen.com/skill-builder/reading-comprehension/48540.htmlOrganize Contenthttp://www.exploratree.org.uk/Bring Words to Lifehttp://www.newbedford.k12.ma.us/edtech_toolkit/students/cast/index.htm
Action and Expression: alternatives to show what they know• the “how” of learning• Learners differ in the ways that they can navigate a learning environment and express what they know
Engagement: offer interest, challenge, and motivation• the “why” of learning• Affect represents a crucial element to learning, and learners differ markedly in the ways in which they can be engaged or motivated to learn.
EngagementEmpower your learners to findsomething of interest that tiesinto contenthttp://www.nbclearn.com/olympics
Websites of Interest• http://www.udlcenter.org/implementation/examples • http://www.microsoft.com/education/a [Autosummary tool for Word 2007—Word 2010 does not have• http://www.primary-education-oasis.com/tools-for-struggling-students.html this feature]• http://cast.org/udl/index.html • http://www.edutopia.org
JIGSAWGroup experts—eachgroup gets a different topicto discuss and learn aboutand then a person fromeach returns to their tablegroup to share theinformation
WIKISWikispaces.com for groupproject coordinationhttp://www.wikispaces.com/
• My Very Eager Mother Just Sewed Us Mnemonic for New Pajamas Content (Bob again: the planets of the solarKeyword- familiar word system, plus poor little Pluto. Mercury,that sounds similar to the Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,word or idea being taught Uranus, Neptune, Pluto) • Kings Play Chess On Fine GrainedPegword- set of rhymingwords that are used to Sandrepresent numbers (Guess who: its Bob! With the Linnean hierarchy - Kingdom, Phylum, Class,Letter- letter strategies Order, Family, Genus, Species)include acronyms and • King Henry Drank Both Diet Cokes Moacrostics nday (Kilo Hecto Deka Base Deci Centi Milli)
StudyReviews/DrillsWeekly review of allconceptsDaily review of previousday’s conceptsGames-Jeopardy, Baseball,Round the World,Hangman
Guided NotesPalm size (Read-Stop-Question-Understand)Teach: Who, What, Where,Why, and How QuestionsSupply Graphic Organizers(Fill in partially)Record Lectures,Discussions, Powerpoints,etc.
GraphicOrganizersActivate BackgroundKnowledgeWho, What, When, Where,and How questions toassist with understandingtextMake connectionsbetween new knowledgeand backgroundknowledge
Collaborative Teaching/Co-TeachingConnect to the ESE teacher and consider co-teaching alesson together once a month—equal teaching partners
ABC Analysis– Behavior can be looked at in terms of two other variables-- those that happen immediately before the behavior is emitted, and those that happen immediately after. This is called a contingency analysis. A B C– cue response result– antecedent behavior consequence
Arranging contingencies (the other C) When desired outcomes or events follow a behavior, that behavior becomes stronger SO, one way of changing behavior is to arrange or alter the natural circumstances by providing specific CONSEQUENCES, selected to increase, decrease, or maintain a behavior of interest.
The 4 Cs of Behavior Management Look at your CONSEQUENCES: Are you actually reinforcing/ discouraging the behavior you are addressing? Make the consequences immediate and CONTINGENT upon the occurrence of the behavior you are addressing Be CONSISTENT (across episodes, people and settings) with consequences CATCH the child being good
Remember… Communication problems often lead to behavior problems Lack of predictability often leads to behavior problems A history of using behavior problems effectively to control their environments leads to behavior problems
Strategies for Teaching Tolerance “Step over the body” Make things FUN! Teach alternatives Escape for completion Premack principle “No pain, no gain” Systematic desensitization Redirection Marketing materials and activities
What is Functional Assessment? A way of looking at problems from a functional standpoint Does not focus on underlying feelings or emotions or disorders Requires gathering data and coming up with ideas about the function of the problem behavior Can be done by many different people
What are the functions ofbehavior? All behavior serves a function for the individual. Simple Functions – Escape/Avoid – Seek Attention – Make Demand – Stimulation
Functions of Behavior Simplified:ESCAPE: Getting out of a demand, activity, situation.MAKE DEMAND: Trying to get something desired.GET ATTENTION: Trying to secure attention from adults or peers.SELF STIMULATION: Just for the fun of it (would go on if everyone left the room).Think about the problem behaviors you encounter. Can you identify the function of these behaviors?
What do I do after I think I knowthe function? There is no cookbook answer, but these are some general guidelines – Manipulate the environment to prevent that function from being achieved or needed – Change your own behavior to make that function unnecessary – Teach alternative forms for the function
When the behavior serves a function of gettingattention: Ignore bad behavior (that is notdangerous) and give lots of praise for goodbehavior Quietly and unemotionally redirectdangerous behavior and arrange for preventionwhile attending to other good behavior.
When the behavior serves the function of making a demand – Teach alternative way of communicating that demand – “Step over the body” – Play Dumb
When the behavior serves a function of self stimulation: Keep the child engaged in appropriate play. Demonstrate HOW desired behavior looks. Identify other powerful reinforcers.
When the behavior serves the function of escape – Follow through with demand, praise completion or attempt – Examine demand and adapt in the future to prevent the problem behavior
Logical Consequences Removal of materials used inappropriately Loss of privileges (response cost) Restricted access Loss of parent or teacher praise/attention
Positive Reinforcement Definition of positive reinforcement – Refers to relationship between behavior and a consequence – A positive reinforcer is the consequent event itself – Contingent on presentation of behavior Follows behavior – Increases probability of behavior occurring again
Effective Reinforcers Contingencies Immediately following behavior Have value Consistency Age appropriate Deprivation Satiation
Types of Reinforcers Primary – Tangible – Edible – Concrete Secondary (Conditioned) – Social stimuli – Symbolic such as tokens – Learned value
Types of Reinforcers Primary – Tangible – Edible – Concrete Secondary (Conditioned) – Social stimuli – Symbolic such as tokens – Learned value
Pairing When you combine a primary reinforcer with a secondary reinforcer you are pairing. Important to pair so you can condition the student to move from a primary level of reinforcement to a primary level of reinforcement – you gradually withdraw the primary reinforcer to maintain the behavior through secondary reinforcment
Stop and Think Get into groups of three. – Make a list of primary reinforcers you believe would work with elementary age students and give a rationale why. – Make a list of reinforcers you think will work with secondary aged students and provide a rationale why.
Premack Principle Grandma’s rule – Eat your vegetables and I will give you desert Engage in low preference behaviors before you engage in high preference behaviors Example: If student likes Math but does not feel good about reading, engage in reading first
Limitations (Kazdin, 2001) High preference activities can not always follow low-preference activities Activity may be all or nothing – either you earn the right to participate in field trip or you do not Activities may be freely available to students and therefore loose their value
Generalized Reinforcers A reinforcer associated with a variety of primary of secondary reinforcers Valued by association – e.g., praise from teacher has been paired with use of computer; praise from parent on a “good job” paired with a high-five Reinforcers that can be exchanged for something of value
Token Reinforcers Tokens have no value themselves but can be exchanged for something of value Must tie to behaviors you wish to observe Need to consider record keeping Need to consider trade in value Need to have backup reinforcers on hand for trade Store hours
Stop and Think You are teaching 23 students in a fourth grade classroom. You are concerned about the following behaviors: being late to class, not turning in homework, name calling and not having pencil and paper with them. Create a token economy to help you manage your classroom and change the behaviors you have observed need changing.
Contracts Written agreement between you and a student Includes behavior to be completed Has beginning and ending dates Is reasonable negotition between student and teacher Names exact reinforcer to be delivered upon completion of contract
Contracts Start small and for short periods of time Include interim review dates Reinforce movement towards contract completion Must be fair, clear, positive and honest Must be consistent and systematic
Schedules of Reinforcment Continuous Fixed Variable Time vs Behavior
Schedules of Reinforcement -Continuous Following every instance you observe the desired behavior you reinforce it
Schedules of Reinforcement- Ratioand Interval • Ratio Fixed ratio – specific number of responses receive reinforcer • Interval Fixed interval – student reinforced the first time behavior is observed and then again after a lapsed amount of time Variable interval – vary the time of reinforcemnt delivery Limited hold – short window of time to exhibit behavior to receive reinforcer
Negative reinforcement Removal of aversive stimuli immediately following the contingent behavior Cycle of negative reinforcement – Student is confronted with aversive stimuli – Student engages in inappropriate behavior – Teacher remove aversive stimuli – Student is negatively reinforced for inappropriate behavior – Next time behavior exhibits, cycle repeats
Natural Consequences Reinforcement that occurs naturally – all behavior has consequence unless you structure the environment to deliver consequences student prefers, natural consequences will happen
What about punishment? Negative side effects Limited effectiveness Models aggression as a way of dealing with problems Results in a repeated cycle Results in learning and emotional problems in adolescence and adulthood