However, academic attitudes towards eMarking show a sharp contrast to those for eSubmission and eFeedback. Only 13% have a positive attitude whereas 34% have a negative one.
Blended learning eFeedback
Dr Barbara Newland CLT November 2011
What is eFeedback? Rationale Methods Examples Discussion
The term eSubmission is used very widely to cover a range of activities so the following definitions were used: eSubmission online submission of an assignment eMarking marking a paper online eFeedback producing online feedback which could be text, audio etc but not paper eReturn online return of marks Plagiarism deterrence and detection
Pedagogical ◦ Enhance student learning Efficiency ◦ Saves time with marking and handling paper copies ◦ Saves energy – ―green‖ ◦ Tracking and auditing Quality ◦ Improves consistency, legibility Marketing ◦ NSS – Assessment and Feedback scores
Sadler – 3 conditions necessary for students to benefit from feedback in academic tasks. The student must know:1. what good performance is (i.e. must possess a concept of the goal or standard being aimed for);2. how current performance relates to good performance (for this, students must be able to compare current and good performance);3. how to act to close the gap between current and good performance.‖ (Sadler, 1989)
1. helps clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria, expected standards);2. facilitates the development of self-assessment (reflection) in learning;3. delivers high quality information to students about their learning;4. encourages teacher and peer dialogue around learning;5. encourages positive motivational beliefs and self- esteem;6. provides opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance;7. provides information to teachers that can be used to help shape the teaching. (Nicol, 2006)
Text eg ◦ Comments/track changes in student assignment using Word ◦ Comments using GradeMark in Turnitin Audio ◦ Podcasts Video Mobile ◦ iAnnotate
Rubrics – University marking/grading desciptors Banks of comments Generic to whole group Individualised
Anonymous marking Double marking Archiving and QA procedures Data protection Variety of file formats
Technical – reliable, robust and secure systems Portability requires a laptop, wifi Health and safety Academic staff attitudes
Staff have spent their academic careers marking piles of papers. They have found ways of making this as effective and efficient as possible. Mark anywhere they can carry the papers from their office, to the garden or while travelling such on the train. In some institutions it is thought that academic anxieties about marking online are changing and ―falling away slowly.‖
―There is also a question about student expectations and preparedness for new and different forms of feedback. Students are not always sure how to interpret and use new forms like audio feedback.‖ There are also concerns about who will support students in this process.
JISC project http://sites.google.com/site/soundsgooduk/ 1. (Without reducing the amount of feedback) in what circumstances can using digital audio save assessors‘ time? ◦ The most favourable circumstances would appear to be: The assessor is comfortable with the technology. The assessor writes or types slowly but records their speech quickly. A substantial amount of feedback is given. A quick and easy method of delivering the audio file to the student is available.
2. Does digital audio feedback improve students‘learning experience? Students were overwhelmingly positive about receiving audio feedback on their coursework Frequently remarked approvingly about its personal nature and the detail provided; evidence that the lecturer had carefully considered their work A small minority of students said they preferred written feedback; a few asked for both audio and written comments on their work.
3. What do assessors think of digital audio as amedium for providing feedback to students? Strongly in favour of audio feedback Most have clearly said that they intend to continue using it Even if they didn‘t manage to save time, several members of the team commented that they were able to give more, and higher-quality, feedback using audio, which they felt was worthwhile.
Salmon, G (2008) Podcasting for Learning in Universities Podcasts have the potential to increase the detail and accessibility of assessment feedback, provide commentaries which students view as more personalized and understandable, and encourage a deeper engagement with the feedback information Tutors need to be wary of providing commentaries that are too lengthy and the possible drawbacks of the reduction in written feedback Podcasts may work particularly well when providing feedback for oral presentations, role plays, drama ‗performances‘ or electronic based submissions. Generic overview feedback podcast can help all students to situate their own performance in relation to others in the group. Generic podcasts may also be an appropriate strategy for large groups (perhaps above 40 students) when individual podcasts are not a viable option. Podcasting is more likely to be readily accepted in modules where there is already a technology enhanced learning component.
4. What recommendations are there for improved practice? How much time you eventually save will depend on various factors, including how much feedback you give and how quickly you write, type and speak. Consider accepting a longer pay-back period. Experiment with spending more time in the short term, using audio to give your students more extensive advice and richer feedback. It may save you and your colleagues work in the long term. Make your audio files as small as possible, so they can be sent quickly and stored economically. Aim for the minimum acceptable sound quality for the particular purpose. Keep the files short – don‘t ‗overdo it‘. Only go beyond five minutes if there is a good reason. Make sure key administrative and quality-assurance staff accept that you are giving audio rather than written feedback.
ALT-Epigeum Award for most effective use of video in an educational or training context 2011 Winner James McDowell, University of Huddersfield. VELOCITy: Video Enhanced Learning Opportunities in Computing and Information Technology. http://www.jamesmcdowell.com/Epigeum/
Using TurnitinUK PeerMark for a Formative Group Peer Assessment in a Professional Practice unit for Fashion and Textiles and 3D Design students.
Plan the timing and structure of the different peer assessment components. E.g. Start dates, due date deadlines and posting feedback Clear and concise guidance and instructions to be provided ahead of time Provide a demonstration of the online screens the students will encounter Clearly communicate the benefits and/or skills you expect the students to gain Provide the questions students will be answering before they take the peer assessment The timing needs to fit in with the assignment timetable to make it relevant and leave sufficient time for students to make use of any feedback received Participating in the peer assessment needs to be made a compulsory part of the assignment
The requirement to submit a written draft electronically focused the students thinking. Tutors noticed that at this stage of the project groups were in general further ahead in their planning Students appreciated being able to see what other groups were doing and assess their peers‘ work. Students‘ feedback showed that they had picked up on aspects that were missing from another group‘s proposal, were able to make a judgment on their own group‘s proposal and realise how it could be improved. The delivery of the peer assessment using an online tool facilitated the organisational and administrative elements of the process and gave students the flexibility to meet when they were available.
Pedagogical ◦ Enhance student learning Efficiency ◦ Saves time with marking and handling paper copies ◦ Saves energy – ―green‖ ◦ Tracking and auditing Quality ◦ Improves consistency, legibility
HeLF, www.helf.ac.uk (2011) McDowell, James. University of Huddersfield. VELOCITy: Video Enhanced Learning Opportunities in Computing and Information Technology. http://www.jamesmcdowell.com/Epigeum/ Nicol, David. and Macfarlane-Dick, Debra (2006) Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: a model and seven principles of good feedback practice, Studies in Higher Education, 31: 2, 199 — 218. Rotheram, B http://sites.google.com/site/soundsgooduk/ Sadler, D.R. (1989) Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems, Instructional Science, 18, 119- 144. Salmon, G (2008) Podcasting for Learning in Universities