Systematizing Metaphors Barbara Konat Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w  Poznaniu, Poland Seminar: Metaphors in Language...
Creative Commons:  NonCommercial-ShareAlike  <ul><li>You are free: </li></ul><ul><li>to Share  — to copy, distribute and t...
Why metaphors? <ul><li>Heart attack, fight against illness… </li></ul><ul><li>2 possible ways of interpretation: </li></ul...
Group work <ul><li>In examples of metaphors, try to find any similirarities, and according to them create groups of metaph...
Introducing… <ul><li>2003 (1980) with  Mark Johnson .  Metaphors We Live By.   </li></ul><ul><li>1987.  Women, Fire, and D...
..and: <ul><li>Mark L. Johnson </li></ul><ul><li>  (born 24 May 1949 in Kansas City, Missouri) is Knight Professor of Libe...
„ Metaphors we live by” <ul><li>We wil discuss: </li></ul><ul><li>1. What is conceptual metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sour...
Group work <ul><li>Work with groups of metaphors </li></ul>
1.  Conceptual metaphors, metaphorical conceptualization <ul><li>1. They’re related to concepts not to ind iv idual lexica...
1. Conceptual Metaphor- example <ul><li>ARGUMENT IS WAR </li></ul><ul><li>Your claims are indefensible </li></ul><ul><li>H...
2. Source and target domain E. g. in  ARGUMENT IS WAR Source domain: war Target domain: argument
-transformation is based on correspondences between elements within source and target domains -they’re not simply similari...
Group work <ul><li>Group work in analyzing metaphors using expressions:  source and target domain, mapping or corresponden...
4. Types of conceptual metaphors <ul><li>1. Structural: </li></ul><ul><li>One concept is metaphorically structured in term...
4. Types of conceptual metaphors <ul><li>2. Orientational: </li></ul><ul><li>Organize whole system of concepts with respec...
4. Types of conceptual metaphors <ul><li>3. Ontological </li></ul><ul><li>Allow us to talk about abstract things as if the...
5. Systematicity? <ul><li>Sometimes single source domain provides conceptualization for multiple target domains </li></ul>
5. Systematicity? <ul><li>Single target domain can be conceptualized by multiple target domain </li></ul>
5. Systematicity? <ul><li>There are also more complicated situations </li></ul><ul><li>Many-to-many mappings </li></ul><ul...
5. Systematicity! <ul><li>Althought it’s so complicated, methaphorical system is  consistent and coherent </li></ul><ul><l...
Systematicity- group work
6. Highlighting and hiding <ul><li>AN ARGUMENT IS A JOURNEY </li></ul><ul><li>AN ARGUMENT IS A CONTAINER </li></ul><ul><li...
6. Highlighting and hiding <ul><li>Highlighting-  selective mappings of source domain  </li></ul><ul><li>Hiding –  the sup...
6. Experiental basis   <ul><li>Many conceptual metaphors can be related to very basic human experiences: </li></ul><ul><li...
Experiental basis- group work <ul><li>Try to find examples of experiental motivated metaphors in the given examples </li><...
Almost The End    - Summary <ul><li>1. What is conceptual metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>2. Source and target domain </li></u...
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Systematizing metaphors

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Student presentation on conceptual metaphors.

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Systematizing metaphors

  1. 1. Systematizing Metaphors Barbara Konat Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, Poland Seminar: Metaphors in Language and Cognition WS 2007 Hildesheim Universitaet
  2. 2. Creative Commons: NonCommercial-ShareAlike <ul><li>You are free: </li></ul><ul><li>to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work </li></ul><ul><li>to Remix — to adapt the work </li></ul><ul><li>Under the following conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution — You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute this work: Credit the author: Barbara Konat, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Noncommercial — You may not use this work for commercial purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Share Alike — If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one. </li></ul><ul><li>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why metaphors? <ul><li>Heart attack, fight against illness… </li></ul><ul><li>2 possible ways of interpretation: </li></ul><ul><li>1. polysemous </li></ul><ul><li>2. methapors: in order to talk about illnesses we use warfare vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>-our understanding of illnesses is at least partly shaped by our understanding of war </li></ul>
  4. 4. Group work <ul><li>In examples of metaphors, try to find any similirarities, and according to them create groups of metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>One person from each group will present results </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: there’s no bad way of making categories – if something seems to be reasonable it’s very possible that it is :] </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion about the results </li></ul><ul><li>Time: 10 min </li></ul>Tip: some words are italianized
  5. 5. Introducing… <ul><li>2003 (1980) with Mark Johnson . Metaphors We Live By. </li></ul><ul><li>1987. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind </li></ul><ul><li>1989 with Mark Turner . More Than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor . </li></ul><ul><li>1996. Moral Politics . </li></ul><ul><li>1999 (with Mark Johnson ). Philosophy In The Flesh: the Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought .. </li></ul><ul><li>2000 (with Rafael Núñez ). Where Mathematics Comes From: How the Embodied Mind Brings Mathematics into Being . </li></ul><ul><li>2004. Don't Think of an Elephant: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate. </li></ul><ul><li>2005, &quot;A Cognitive Scientist Looks at Daubert, &quot; American Journal of Public Health . </li></ul><ul><li>2006. Whose Freedom? : the battle over America's most important idea . Farrar, Straus and Giroux. </li></ul>George P. Lakoff ( born May 24, 1941) is a professor of cognitive linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley , where he has taught since 1972. Source: Wikipedia
  6. 6. ..and: <ul><li>Mark L. Johnson </li></ul><ul><li> (born 24 May 1949 in Kansas City, Missouri) is Knight Professor of Liberal Arts and Sciences in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Oregon. He is well-known for contributions to embodied philosophy, cognitive science and cognitive linguistics, some of which he has coauthored with George Lakoff such as Metaphors We Live By. However, he has also written extensively on philosophical topics such as John Dewey, Kant and ethics. </li></ul>* Metaphors We Live By (co-authored with George Lakoff), University of Chicago, 1980. * Philosophical Perspectives on Metaphor, University of Minnesota, 1981. * The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason, University of Chicago, 1987. * Moral Imagination: Implications of Cognitive Science for Ethics, University of Chicago, 1993. * Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought, (co-authored with George Lakoff), Basic Books, 1999. * &quot;We Are Live Creatures: Embodiment, American Pragmatism, and the Cognitive Organism.&quot; In Body, Language, and Mind, vol. 1. Zlatev, Jordan; Ziemke, Tom; Frank, Roz; Dirven, René (eds.). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, forthcoming 2005 (coauthored with Tim Rohrer). http://www.uoregon.edu/~uophil/faculty/mjohnson/mjohnson.html Source: Wikipedia
  7. 7. „ Metaphors we live by” <ul><li>We wil discuss: </li></ul><ul><li>1. What is conceptual metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>2. Source and target domain </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mapping or correspondences- analyzing metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>4. Types of conceptual metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>5. Systematicity? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Properties of metaphors </li></ul>
  8. 8. Group work <ul><li>Work with groups of metaphors </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1. Conceptual metaphors, metaphorical conceptualization <ul><li>1. They’re related to concepts not to ind iv idual lexical items. </li></ul><ul><li>2. They decribe almost all aspects of human life: „Our ordinary conceptual system[…] is fundamentally metaphorical in nature.” </li></ul><ul><li>3. They may be culture-specific </li></ul>Tip: Conceptual metaphors are traditionally written with CAPITAL letters
  10. 10. 1. Conceptual Metaphor- example <ul><li>ARGUMENT IS WAR </li></ul><ul><li>Your claims are indefensible </li></ul><ul><li>He attacked every weak point in my argument. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve never won an argument with him. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2. Source and target domain E. g. in ARGUMENT IS WAR Source domain: war Target domain: argument
  12. 12. -transformation is based on correspondences between elements within source and target domains -they’re not simply similarities 3. Mappings
  13. 13. Group work <ul><li>Group work in analyzing metaphors using expressions: source and target domain, mapping or correspondences, between elements </li></ul>
  14. 14. 4. Types of conceptual metaphors <ul><li>1. Structural: </li></ul><ul><li>One concept is metaphorically structured in terms of another </li></ul><ul><li>Source domain supply frameworks for target domains </li></ul>E. g. ARGUMENT IS WAR
  15. 15. 4. Types of conceptual metaphors <ul><li>2. Orientational: </li></ul><ul><li>Organize whole system of concepts with respect to one another </li></ul><ul><li>Typically connected to orientational or spatial (connected to space) concepts </li></ul>E. g. HAPPY IS UP / SAD IS DOWN MORE IS UP/LESS IS DOWN
  16. 16. 4. Types of conceptual metaphors <ul><li>3. Ontological </li></ul><ul><li>Allow us to talk about abstract things as if they have physical properties </li></ul>E. g. FEELINGS ARE CONTAINERS TIME IS COMMODITY TIME IS SPACE
  17. 17. 5. Systematicity? <ul><li>Sometimes single source domain provides conceptualization for multiple target domains </li></ul>
  18. 18. 5. Systematicity? <ul><li>Single target domain can be conceptualized by multiple target domain </li></ul>
  19. 19. 5. Systematicity? <ul><li>There are also more complicated situations </li></ul><ul><li>Many-to-many mappings </li></ul><ul><li>Domains being both sources and targets </li></ul>
  20. 20. 5. Systematicity! <ul><li>Althought it’s so complicated, methaphorical system is consistent and coherent </li></ul><ul><li>Particular metaphors belong to wider categories </li></ul>
  21. 21. Systematicity- group work
  22. 22. 6. Highlighting and hiding <ul><li>AN ARGUMENT IS A JOURNEY </li></ul><ul><li>AN ARGUMENT IS A CONTAINER </li></ul><ul><li>AN ARGUMENT IS A BUILDING </li></ul><ul><li>AN ARGUMENT </li></ul>
  23. 23. 6. Highlighting and hiding <ul><li>Highlighting- selective mappings of source domain </li></ul><ul><li>Hiding – the suppression of other elements </li></ul>
  24. 24. 6. Experiental basis <ul><li>Many conceptual metaphors can be related to very basic human experiences: </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. ANGER IS HEAT </li></ul>
  25. 25. Experiental basis- group work <ul><li>Try to find examples of experiental motivated metaphors in the given examples </li></ul>
  26. 26. Almost The End  - Summary <ul><li>1. What is conceptual metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>2. Source and target domain </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mapping or correspondences- analyzing metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>4. Types of conceptual metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>5. Systematicity </li></ul><ul><li>6. Properties </li></ul>
  27. 27. Thank you

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